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GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS 

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APR 2 6 1967 



WILBUR CROSS LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 



LEGISLATURE OF CONNECTICUT, 

MAY SESSION, 18GG. 



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HARTFORD: 
1866. 



CONTENTS 



1. Message of Governor Buckingham. 

2. Message of Governor Hawley. 

3. Roll of the General Assembly. 

4. Report of the State Treasurer. 

5. " of the Comptroller of Public Accounts. 

6. " of the Commissioners of the School Fund. 

7. " of the Trustees of the State Normal School. 

8. " of the Board of Education. 

9. " of the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

10. " of the Directors of the State Prison. 

11. Abstract of Returns concerning Jails. 

12. Report of the Adjutant General. 

13. " of the Quarter Master General. 
11. " of the Major General. 

15. " of the Statfi Librarian on Registration of 

Births,- Marriages and Deaths. 
1G. " of the Bank Commissioners. 

17. " of the Railroad Commissioners. 

18. " of the Insurance Commissioner. 

19. " of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 

20. " of the Retreat for the Insane. 

21. " of the Hartford Hospital. 



SPECIAL MESSAGE 



OF HIS EXCELLENCY 



WILLIAM A. BUCKINGHAM, 

GOVERNOR OF CONNECTICUT, 

TO THE 

LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE. 

MAY SESSION, 1866. 



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NEW HAYEN: 

J. STAFFORD, PRINTER, 235 STATE STREET. 



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SPECIAL MESSAGE. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives, in General 

Assembly convened : 

I herewith, transmit resolutions adopted by the Legislatures 
of the States of Vermont and Michigan relating to an appro- 
priation of public lands to endow female colleges ; resolutions 
of the Legislatures of the States of New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont relating to sea fish ; the resignation of Rufus S. Mathew- 
son, a Bank Commissioner ; a report of Colonel William 
A. Benedict, recently the Connecticut State agent at Wash- 
ington, and the report of the Major-General. 

It is known to your honorable* body that the Thirty- 
seventh Congress passed " an Act to indemnify the States for 
expenses incurred by them in defense of the United States," 
by which the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to pay 
the Governor of any State, expenses properly incurred by 
such State, for enrolling, enlisting, clothing, arming, equip- 
ping, paying and transporting its troops employed in aiding 
to suppress the then existing insurrection against the United 
States, to be settled upon proper vouchers, and passed upon 
by the proper accounting officers of the Treasury. 

In accordance with the provisions of this law, in March, 
1862, the Executive presented to the Treasury Department 
an account which was designed to include all expenses pre- 
viously incurred by the State of Connecticut in organizing 
troops to aid the General Government, which account, without 
interest, amounted to $1,475,201.91. 

In March, 1863, a supplemental account, like the first in 
character, amounting to $356,317.10, and in January, 1865, 
another amounting to $75,805.95, were made and presented 
to the same officers for adjustment. The total sum charged 
the Government, without interest, is $1,907,324.96. 



Much time has been spent in pressing these claims to a final 
settlement. The result has been the supension and disallow- 
ance of $175,217.73, and the receipt of $1,656,301.28, on the 
first and second accounts. 

The State and Government officers have together examined 
the charges and vouchers of the third account, and a settle- 
ment may be expected at an early day. 

The State has also expended $22,216.91 in buildings, and 
$5,777.71 in supplies for sick and wounded soldiers at the 
Knight Hospital. Many of the buildings erected by the State 
have been enlarged and ceiled by the Government, and are 
owned jointly by the State and by the United States. If sold in 
the usual manner the loss might be a large percentage on the 
cost. A portion of the supplies would not come within that 
class of expenditures which the Government feel obligated to 
pay, and claims for them would be disallowed under the pre- 
sent rules of the Treasury Department. 

Under the circumstances, the Executive proposed to relin- 
quish all claims for supplies, upon condition that the Govern- 
ment shall take the buildings and pay all bills incurred in 
their erection. The account of such expenditure has just been 
presented, and the proposition is regarded with such favor by 
the War Department as gives reasonable hope of an early 
settlement upon that basis. 

The Government officers have disallowed all charges of 
interest, all claims made for arresting deserters, for damages to 
property rented, for the transportation and subsistence of men 
who rendezvoused, but were not mustered into the service of 
the United States, all charges for purposes not authorized by 
the army regulations, and a part of those made for advertising 
and telegraphing. Claims made for the payment of chaplains 
and second assistant surgeons prior to orders from the War 
Department authorizing the appointment of such officers, and 
all charges for the payment of officers from the time they 
were commissioned to the time they had a minimum com- 
mand, have been suspended. 

The accounting officers of the Treasury Department claim 
that the act of Congress to which reference has been made, is 



designed to reimburse the states only for those expenditures 
which were made before the government was in a condition to 
organize such a volunteer force as its necessities required ; and 
assume that on the 1st day of January, 1863, the government 
was in such a condition. They therefore disallow all claims 
for expenditures made after that date. Under this rule a part 
of the charges presented in the first, and nearly all those made 
in the second supplemental accounts, have been disallowed. 

The several accounts have been made out by Horace J. 
Morse, the Adjutant General of Connecticut, and every item 
has been examined by him, and every class of claims by the 
Executive, in connection with the accounting officers of the 
government. It is therefore doubtful whether the state can 
anticipate further receipts on the first two accounts rendered, 
unless government officers shall adopt other rules for payment, 
which shall embrace the disallowed or suspended claims. 

The General Assembly of 1S61 appropriated three thousand 
dollars for the payment of personal expenses incurred by the 
Executive in the discharge of his official duties. This act is 
one of many which have made me profoundly sensible of the 
kind consideration of the people, for which 1 desire to express 
my obligations ; but during the past five years public burdens 
have rested so heavily upon them that I have not felt willing 
to draw from the Treasury the money thus appropriated for my 
personal use, and now cheerfully relinquish all claim to the 
appropriation, that the amount may be used for public pur- 
poses. 

I also herewith transmit the Eeport of the Paymaster- 
General, which exhibits the expenses incurred in recruiting in 
rebel states during the early part of 1865, and the account of 
bounties paid to volunteers during the past year, and the ex- 
pense of sustaining the state militia. 

Also the report of the Adjutaut General, which not only 
presents the number and condition of the militia, but com- 
pletes a valuable history of the regiments, batteries and bat- 
talions of Connecticut volunteers during the recent rebellion. 
The record testifies to their bravery in every conflict, to their 
fidelity and endurance under every privation, and to their un- 



dying purpose to preserve liberty and good government at 
whatever cost. 

In retiring from the responsible position, which, through 
the partiality of constituents, I have held during a period of 
intense anxiety and of unexampled peril to our government, I 
take the liberty of referring very briefly to the struggle through 
which the nation has passed, and to our present condition. 

Our foes have been those of our own household ; citizens, 
enjoying the protection of our government, and sworn to sup- 
port its authority, repudiated their obligations, contemptuously 
spurned the privilege of longer participating in its administra- 
tion, and claimed, as a remedy for alleged grievances, the 
right of seceding from and destroying the national Union. 
Upon this issue they staked their all, to be determined not in 
the halls of legislation — not by our courts of justice — but by 
force upon the field of blood. 

Connecticut took sides with a loyal administration, and mus- 
tered into the service of the United States fifty-four thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-two noble, able-bodied men — of 
whom five thousand two hundred and eleven were killed in 
battle, or died of wounds and of disease, while five thousand 
nine hundred and sixteen others were transferred to the vet- 
eran reserve corps, or discharged on account of physical disa- 
bility. 

To this cost, we may add more than twenty-two millions of 
dollars expended by the towns and the State ; and the heavy 
burdens of taxations which must continue for a generation. 

But the loyal armies triumphed and secured an overwhelm- 
ing victory. 

Our enemies recognize the fact, and acknowledge that their 
power is broken ; yet their views respecting the right of the 
States to secede, and their right to destroy the national union, 
whenever they shall have the power, remain unchanged. They 
mourn their impotency, but justify their treason. The spirit 
of rebellion still lives among them. 

It is true they have reorganized their state governments, but 
they do not protect the rights of the citizen. They are not 
governments of the people, nor do they secure republican lib- 



erty. The loyal are contemned or ostracised, while rebels are 
justified and honored with positions of responsibility and 
power. 

Taking advantage of the forbearance and leniency of the 
national government, those who have given all their energies 
to sustain the rebellion, boldly demand a representation in 
Congress, where they can have increased facilities and power 
to inaugurate another revolution, which may be successful in 
destroying all hopes of preserving liberty through a represen- 
tative democracy. Their attitude is altogether inconsistent 
with a consciousness of wrong-doing. 

In the burden of state and national debts, in impoverished es- 
tates, in desolate homes, in sorrowing households, in the death 
of more than half a million of strongmen, there is proof of 
guilt. The guilt, the crime, is theirs — or it is ours. If ours, 
it is our duty to acknowledge the wrong, to reimburse them for 
losses — to assume debts incurred for our destruction, and to 
give sufficient guarantees that, in the future, we will not in- 
terpose obstacles to a dissolution of the American Union. 

But if the guilt is theirs, if their rebellion is a crime, then 
amnesty is a boon to be conferred, and not a right to be de- 
manded ; and the loyal only have a right to determine when 
public safety will justify a restoration of forfeited rights, and 
what guarantees are essential for the preservation of national 
authority. 

Entertaining these views, the condition of national affairs 
appears as critical as at any period during the rebellion, and 
imposes upon us weighty responsibilities from which we cannot 
escape. 

Duty to ourselves and fidelity to generations which are to 
occupy our places, require us to meet these responsibilities in 
a spirit of kindness towards those whose power we have over- 
come, but without compromising human rights or giving in- 
creased influence and power to the enemies of our Govern- 
ment. 

It is clearly our duty to incorporate into the fundamental 
law, provisions which will effectually guard against another 
attempt to dismember the Union. 



In addition to other requirements we may justly demand 
such action as will secure the people from taxation to pay ex- 
penses incurred by an unsuccessful attempt to destroy their 
liberties, and a proper guaranty against the repudiation of 
pecuniary obligations, made necessary in preserving the na- 
tional Government. 

We should insist that influential leaders in the rebellion shall 
be forever prohibited from having a voice in the reconstruc- 
tion or administration of a government rescued from their 
power by loyal men. 

It is moreover our duty to admit all who have been in re- 
bellion (excepting the leaders) into an active copartnership 
with the National Government as soon as it can be done with 
public safety. 

But it is difficult to conceive of such safety, until the spirit 
of enmity shall yield to a spirit of friendship and loyalty. As 
this change may not be clearly seen at the time it shall occur, 
we can make a practical application of a principle which can 
do no injustice. 

We should demand no less than this, that the reorganized 
State governments shall secure to every citizen equal rights 
and equal protection before the law ; and that they shall be 
administered to give liberty, and to secure it in accordance 
with the advancing spirit of Christian civilization. Such pro- 
tection and such administration shall be received as evidence 
of friendship and loyalty, and constitute the basis upon which 
they shall be admitted into a full and active participation in 
national affairs. 

WM. A. BUCKINGHAM. 

New Haven, May 2, 1866. 



MESSAGE 



OF HIS EXCELLENCY 



JOSEPH R. HAWLEY, 

GOVEENOE OF CONNECTICUT, 

TO THE 

LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE, 

MAY SESSION, 1866. 



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NEW HAVEN: 

T. J. STAFFORD, PRINTER, 235 STATE STREET. 

1866. 



MESSAGE. 



Mk. President, and Gentlemen of the General Assembly : 

After four years of great sorrows, labors and triumphs, 
God has given us a year of happy peace, accompanied by a 
degree of prosperity scarcely to have been expected, and you 
have convened to engage deliberately in legislation no longer 
controlled by the stormy demands of war. 

Before the adjournment of the last General Assembly, the 
volunteer troops of this State began to return from the field, 
and by the 7th of November they had all been mustered out, 
brought home, paid and discharged, in a manner that was in 
general exceedingly satisfactory. The only exception is the 
veteran battalion of the 13th, which was mustered out at 
Savannah, Ga., on the 25th nit It has arrived at New 
York and its discharge is daily expected. 

The State furnished for the armv and navy fifty-four thou- 
sand eight hundred and eighty-two men (54,882) for various 
terms of service ; equivalent to forty-eight thousand one hun- 
dred and eighty-one (48,181) three years men. Deducting 
from this the total quota, likewise reduced to the three years 
standard and amounting to forty-one thousand one hundred 
and eighty-three (41,183) men, we have as the result a sur- 
plus furnished by Connecticut of six thousand six hundred 
and ninety-eight (6,698) three years men. And this is with- 
out reference to the call of December, 1864, under which 
there was no quota assigned to the State, because there was no 
deficiency. 

The valuable and elaborate report of the Adjutant General 
contains a large mass of statistics and records, including a con- 
densed sketch of the part taken by each regiment, the list of 
its battles, number of its casualties, etc. 

The agency in the Adjutant General's office for the prose- 
cution of soldiers' claims has proved itself exceeding useful, 



and it could not be discontinued without injury to the inter- 
ests of the soldiers and their widows and orphans. Over 
eighty thousand dollars has been collected upon five hundred 
and thirty-nine successful applications, among which were 
one hundred and forty-four pensions granted, and eight hun- 
dred claims are pending. 

The large accumulation of important documents in the 
office is without adequate protection. Their loss by fire would 
be an irretrivable calamity. And the tattered and battle- 
stained flags returned to our custody, silent, yet eloquent, 
should be cared for in some fit place easily accessible to the 
public, where they may perpetually teach lessons of valor, de-, 
votion and patriotism. 

It is beyond my power, and fortunately unnecessary that I 
should attempt, to express the sentiments of gratitude and 
honorable pride with which our citizen soldiery is justly re- 
garded. The very large majority were resolute, intelligent 
men, who went to the struggle followed by the prayers and 
blessings of wives and mothers, and willing to serve sim- 
ply in the ranks, because they believed it the call of God and 
their country. 

The leading statesman of Great Britain, none too friendly 
when we most needed friendship, has lately remarked that the 
United States have " developed an amount of heroism, a power 
of self-sacrifice, an energy, a perseverance, a forgetfulness of 
every personal interest, an amount of actual force arrayed and 
marshaled by the subjects in support of their chosen rulers, such 
as we know not where else to seek for in the history of the 
world." 

The volume is closed. Thanks to Divine Providence, Con- 
necticut's chapter therein maintains her ancient honor. 

And in that chapter a name so frequently occurs that I can- 
not withhold from it a brief tribute. The lapse of time will 
only bring into stronger relief the character of Governor 
Buckingham, whose fidelity, sagacity, energy, glowing patri- 
otism and eminent moral worth combine to make us instinct- 
ively couple his fame with that of his great predecessor of the 
Revolutionary era. 



Naturally, in consequence of the prolonged contest, the 
debts and resources of the State claim our early attention. 

An examination of the reports of the Comptroller and 
Treasurer will show that the finances are in a much more sat- 
isfactory and prosperous condition than many have supposed. 
The floating or temporary debt, which amounted one year ago 
to nearly three millions of dollars, has been wholly paid, except 
a balance of less than three thousand dollars due to the Sink- 
ing Fund. The last General Assembly authorized the issue of 
bonds to the amount of three millions of dollars. Two mil- 
lions were sold to various purchasers at par, with a trifling 
exception at a slight advance. An additional issue of four 
hundred thousand was made in order to pay a debt of 
that amount due to the Sinking Fund, with the intention to 
withdraw it as soon as bonds of some earlier issue could be 
purchased to replace it. 

The whole debt is comprised in five issues of state bonds, 
all bearing six per cent, interest, payable semi-annually at the 
Treasurer's office, and otherwise briefly described as follows : 
First series ; issued June 1st, 1861, for two millions, payable 
in twenty years, or, at the option of the State, at any time 
after ten years. 

Second series ; issued January 1st, 1862, for two millions, 
upon the same terms. 

Third series ; issued January 1st, 1864, for two millions, pay- 
able in twenty years. 

Fourth series ; issued April 1st, 1864, for two millions, paya- 
ble in thirty years, or, at the option of the State, at any time 
after ten years, 

Fifth series ; issued October 1st, 1865, for two millions, four 
hundred thousand, payable in twenty years, and exempt from 
taxation by state or municipal authority. 

The entire debt is therefore ten millions, four hundred thou- 
sand dollars. 

Against it are the Sinking Fund, one million, two hundred 
and eleven thousand, seven hundred and sixty -seven dollars 
and thirty-five cents ($1,211,767.35 ;) the bank stocks owned by 
the State, whose market value is three hundred and seventy- 



one thousand, three hundred dollars ($371,300,) and cash in 
hand, three hundred and fifty-three thousand, six hundred and 
forty-four dollars and thirty-nine cents ($353,644.39.) A de- 
duction of these three items shows that the existing liabilities, 
over and above assets, amount to eight millions, four hundred 
and sixty-three thousand, two hundred and eighty-eight dollars 
and twenty-six cents ($8,463,288.26.) And since the reports 
were prepared, the Treasurer has received from the General 
Government two hundred and fifty-seven thousand dollars, in 
part payment of claims for war expenses, which cum is also 
to be deducted. 

But if, merely in order to weigh our real burden, we take 
into account the School Fund, which relieves our citizens from 
taxation to an amount equivalent to its income, the actual in- 
debtedness of the State, above its productive assets, amounts 
to about six millions, two hundred thousand dollars, or less than 
one-half the increase of the grand list last year. 

The taxable property of the State increases steadily every 
year. The grand list for 1865 amounted, in round numbers, 
to two hundred and ninety millions ; in 1860 it was two hun- 
dred and thirty-one millions. The rate of increase between 
1864 and 1865 was five per cent., and the real growth was 
much greater, for much surplus wealth, invested in national 
securities, does not appear upon the list. 

In estimating the expenditures of the current year, we may 
pass by the item of bounties to soldiers and soldiers' families, 
which last year amounted to four hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, and the payments to the Quartermaster-General for the 
militia, as well as many other items, will be much less. After 
a careful review, it is believed that the entire expenditure, 
including the interest on the debt, need not exceed one mil- 
lion of dollars. At the present rate of taxation, the receipts 
may be fairly estimated at one million six hundred and twenty- 
five thousand dollars ($1,625,000.) This would leave about six 
hundred thousand dollars to be applied to the extinguishment 
of the principal of the debt, in addition to the accumulations 
of the Sinking Fund already provided for, which will amount 
to seventy-two thousand dollars the current year. 



It will undoubtedly be in accordance with the uniformly 
sound, prudent, and patriotic policy of the State to meet the 
debt resolutely, and immediately begin to reduce it materially. 
I most certainly favor and strongly recommend that course. 
Nevertheless, while the people have most honorably met the 
great demands of a just and holy war, and while they cheer- 
fully acquiesce in all necessary taxation, yet, if the course re- 
ferred to can be adopted and the taxes even slightly reduced, 
such a reduction will be gladly welcomed. 

A wisely liberal and generous course in all that regards our 
disabled soldiers, and the widows and orphans of those who 
died for freedom, and in all that pertains to our educational 
and benevolent interests and institutions, is not only consistent 
with true economy, but is essential thereto. It is not, therefore, 
without due concern for them that 1 remark that it is now our 
duty to levy taxes and order expenditures with deliberate and 
exact justice and prudence, and to require of all disbursing 
agents a rigid adherence to law. 

The detailed statements and recommendations of the Comp- 
troller and Treasurer will naturally attract your consideration. 

The Sinking Fund will grow in importance. I recommend 
that it be placed in charge of a board of three commissioners, 
one to be appointed every year, and that it be invested in re- 
gistered bonds of the State, authority being given to the 
Treasurer to cancel and convert any coupon bonds of the State 
that may be purchased for the Fund. 

My predecessor carefully presented and urged with great 
diligence and success claims against the United States for war 
expenditures, amounting to one million nine hundred and 
forty-eight thousand six hundred and eighty-eight dollars and 
seventy-nine cents ($1,948,688.79.) 

Of this, one million, six hundred and fifty-six thousand, three 
hundred and one dollars and twenty-eight cents ($1,656,301.28) 
has been paid, two hundred and sixteen thousand, five hundred 
and eighty-one dollars and fifty-six cents ($216,581.56) re- 
jected, and seventy-five thousand, eight hundred and five 
• dollars and ninety-five cents ($75,805.95) is still pending, not 
fully examined. A report in detail will be presented to you. 



The rejections are not made because of defective evidence, 
but under fixed rules, which are doubtless being applied to all 
other states, in which case Connecticut will scarcely be a 
loser; for, if all claims of the rejected classes should be paid, 
this State's share of the addition to the national debt would be 
greater than any sum it might receive thereby. 

Of the moneys in question, the sum of four hundred and 
twenty-seven thousand dollars ($427,000) is now in the 
Treasurer's hands. It is thought desirable that authority be 
given to use it for the benefit of the Sinking Fund, in order to 
withdraw and cancel the State bonds of the last issue placed 
in that Fund. 

The capital of the School Fund, at the last regular examin- 
ation thereof, September 2d, 1864, was two millions, forty-six 
thousand, five hundred and twenty-two dollars and twenty- 
three cents ($2,046,522.23,) and the Commissioner reports that 
none of it has been lost since that time. During last year 
about two hundred and fifty-three thousand dollars of the 
capital was paid in, of which one hundred and nineteen thou- 
sand dollars ($119,000) was invested in bonds of this State by 
authority of the last General Assembly. 

The income last year was one hundred and thirty-six thou- 
sand, four hundred and seventy-one dollars and ninety-four 
cents ($136,171.91;) the number of children between the ages 
of four and sixteen was one hundred and eighteen thousand, 
seven hundred and eighty (118,780,) and the dividend was one 
dollar and ten cents per head. The increase over the previous 
year in the number of children is three thousand nine hundred 
and fifty-five. 

A verj' considerable portion of the fund is still invested or 
loaned in other states, and so scattered and subdivided, that 
there never has been a thorough investigation of the character of 
the securities. The usual examination of the files and vouchers 
in the School Fund office has always been satisfactory, but no 
auditors and no committee have ever undertaken to examine 
the mortgaged lands, or even to require in each case the 
judgment of a trustworthy, qualified person. 

It has been, for some years, the self-imposed policy of the 



office to reinvest in this State such portions of the capital as 
were voluntarily paid in. But I suggest that it may be well 
to require a more vigorous course, and without distressing re- 
sponsible debtors, steadily collect and reinvest until the entire 
capital shall be loaned upon real estate within our own bound- 
aries, or invested in the stocks of our own State, and of the 
General Government. 

All the loans are made upon the judgment of the Commis- 
sioner alone. He is the sole auditor of his own charges for ex- 
penses, he gives no bonds, and his entire legal compensation 
is but twelve hundred and fifty dollars annually. Moreover, 
in contradiction to the policy of the State with regard to all 
other civil officers, there is in this case no limitation to the 
term of office. 

It is safe to say that no private firm or corporation would 
consent to the management of over two millions of dollars in 
this manner, and the history of the Fund is the highest pos- 
sible compliment to the Commissioners. I suggest a consider- 
ation of the subject, in order that, if it be deemed wise, 
additional safeguards may be thrown around this sacred trust. 

Public education received a marked impulse by the im- 
portant modification of th^ school laws enacted last year, vest- 
ing the supervision of the Normal School, and of the entire 
system of Common Schools, in a State Board of Education, 
and imposing upon the Secretary of the Board the ordinary 
duties of the Superintendent of Common Schools. The change 
has given general satisfaction, and since the close of the war 
the public interest in education has revived. The Board 
entered upon its duties with spirit and energy, but the eight 
months that have elapsed since it began to act are too short a 
term to exhibit great results. That indispensable institution, 
the Normal School, has received much attention, and plans 
are maturing for its material improvement. 

Statistics show that but seventy, or at most seventy-five per 
cent, of the children reported to the Comptroller attend the 
public schools. Possibly, if the revenue of the School Fund 
were distributed according to the actual attendance, as has 
been frequently proposed, the percentage might be increased. 



10 

The report of the Secretary of the Board contains valuable 
facts and suggestions, and I solicit for the whole subject your 
thoughtful study and action, for I esteem it by far the most 
important presented for state legislation. Upon universal and 
thorough education rest not only the pecuniary interests of 
society, but the honor and power and the very life of our 
Government. 

The full report of the State Librarian presents a careful 
array of statistics concerning the births, marriages and deaths 
of the past year, and affords much matter for consideration. 
The natural increase of our population, the excess of births 
over deaths, which is comparatively slight, is probably 
counterbalanced by the emigration of native citizens, and the 
gain in population must be due to accessions from sister states 
and foreign countries, which fact furnishes additional power- 
ful reasons for vigilantly attending to our educational and 
moral interests, if we would maintain the historic character of 
the State. 

Institutions for the relief of the unfortunate and suffering 
are among the brightest glories of our Christian civilization, 
and in no other State are they more highly valued or more 
ably managed. The American Asjdum for the Deaf and 
Dumb, established in 1817, the pioneer of its class in the Uni- 
ted States, and originally intended to serve for the whole coun- 
try, still suffices for the States of New England, liberal pro- 
vision being made by them for the support of pupils. Of the 
whole number, 1661, who have enjoyed the benefits of the 
school, 221 entered from Connecticut, and of these 185 were 
supported by the State. The number of state beneficiaries 
now in the Asylum is 35. 

The Retreat for the Insane contains 200 inmates, of whom 
167 are supported by the State. The Committee appointed to 
investigate the condition of the insane poor, will report to you 
in due season. There are in the almshouses of our towns and 
cities over 200 insane paupers. The bare statement is suffi- 
ciently suggestive, and it dispenses with all comment. 

The Connecticut School for Imbeciles, chartered five years 
ago, is no longer an experiment; its usefulness is proven, and 



11 

it has grown greatly in public esteem. There have been 42 
pupils during the past year, and 18 of its present inmates are 
beneficiaries of the State. 

The Connecticut State Hospital and the Hartford Hospital 
continue to merit fully the assistance they receive. They are 
alike intending to greatly enlarge their accommodations, and 
each has received needy patients, soldiers and others, from a 
majority of our towns, for which the State gives partial com- 
pensation. 

The benevolence of our citizens has found a new field for its 
exercise within a few years, in caring for disabled and desti- 
tute soldiers and the children of those who died in the military 
or naval service. No cause more quickly awakens our warm- 
est sympathy, and were it easy to point out a certain, practi- 
cal remedy, the whole work of relief would be speedily done. 

Three institutions have been incorporated within two years 
for these honorable purposes: "The Connecticut Soldiers' Or- 
phans' Home," " Fitch's Home for the Soldiers," and the Con- 
necticut Soldiers' Home." Two of them have collected statis- 
tics, raised some moneys, and relieved a few cases, but only 
Fitch's Home has gone into full operation. It is taking good 
care of forty children, but cannot accommodate half the cases 
in the senatorial district to which it has thus far confined its 
operations. From the careful inquiries made in that district 
and the partial investigations elsewhere, it is estimated that 
about one thousand children of soldiers in this State are in 
need of more or less aid, and that not fewer than four hundred 
are wholly dependent upon the towns. 

The number of destitute disabled soldiers is not large, but it 
is increasing as their savings become exhausted. The experi- 
ence of foreign nations, and even the brief experiments of our 
sister states, show that invalid hospitals are not successful. 
The invalids prefer to receive aid at home. Still there are 
some cases that cannot thus be provided for, and the state hos- 
pitals already alluded to have gladly received many, and are 
now caring for a limited number. And doubtless through 
these well established institutions the whole work can be satis- 
factorily and honorably done. 



12 

But probably not all the children could be taken into exist- 
ing asylums. It is sufficient to simply refer to the subject. In 
the late war considerably more than five thousand of our 
young men gave their lives to the cause of their country, while 
in the service, and we have yet to hear of a dying soldier who 
called it an unjust or wasted sacrifice. The trusts they left 
us our people will accept with generous enthusiasm. 

The law adopted last year for the reorganization of the mili- 
tia has had the desired effect in reviving the military spirit. 
Nine old organizations were disbanded, and a large number of 
new companies formed. There are thirty-eight infantry com- 
panies, one light battery, two sections of batteries, and two 
batteries drilling as infantry. The aggregate force is 146 offi- 
cers, and 3,315 men, with every prospect of a rapid increase. 
The expenditures for the outfit were considerable, as the law 
contemplated, but there is a good supply of surplus material 
on hand, and the troops were probably never equaled by the 
militia of the State, in the uniformity and excellence of their 
equipments, drill, discipline and efficiency. Time, and proba- 
bly a brief time only, is required to make them the effective 
efficient force that every state should keep ready for imme- 
diate service. 

The amount raised last year by the commutation tax of two 
dollars per head was about fifty-four thousand dollars. The 
Quartermaster-General's report will give the accounts required 
by law. 

There are increasing complaints that the unfinished business 
of our courts is unduly accumulating. One of the remedies 
proposed is to add to the number of judges, but perhaps the 
end can be reached by other means. It is said that the Court 
of Errors can save time and expense, and try its cases to better 
advantage, by holding one session each, at Hartford and New 
Haven, annually, instead of holding, as at present, two sessions 
a year in each county, (with a single exception,) which occu- 
pies at least fifteen weeks, with an average of not more than 
two days to each session. The change would add greatly to the 
working force for circuit duty. It is also believed that a very 
large number of cases would be summarily disposed of if every 



13 

defendant or respondent were positively required to file at the 
first term a plain sworn statement of his matters of defense, 
under penalty of submitting to judgment. A vexatious delay 
is frequently all that a defendant intends. And generally now, 
the issue is not closed until shortly before the trial, and often 
the parties are surprised, the real case appears for the first time, 
and delay ensues. 

I merely mention these as propositions coming from experi- 
enced practitioners and judges, without professing to measure 
their proper weight, but that it requires in several counties 
about two years to reach a trial, even of a petty appeal from a 
justice of the peace, is obviously a great wrong and a practical 
denial of justice for which some efficient remedy can certainly 
be found. 

It is strongly affirmed by many that the constitutional re- 
quirement that every person shall be able to read before being 
admitted to the privileges of an elector is frequently evaded. 
It is also said that frauds are committed in various ways in the 
use of certificates of electorship, which ought to be destroyed 
or canceled as soon as they have been used. I submit the 
matter to your consideration. 

The State Reform School continues to be well managed. 
The institution is out of debt, is on a good financial basis, and 
is economically administered. Its friends ask for an appro- 
priation of five thousand dollars for repairs, and they desire 
the General Assembly to consider the propriety of making 
certain enlargements. The whole number of boys admitted 
6ince the school opened in 1854 is nine hundred and seventy- 
nine ; the number discharged the past year one hundred and 
forty-five; the number of inmates at present two hundred and 
forty-eight. Without doubt this very useful institution will be 
dealt with liberally. 

The State Prison is successfully conducted. The last Gen- 
eral Assembly appropriated nearly six thousand dollars to 
meet the current expenses of the prison, but several favorable 
changes have enabled the Warden not only to forego that aid, 
but to exhibit seven hundred dollars as the surplus of receipts 
over expenses. The number of prisoners has increased from 



14 

one hundred and thirty-one to one hundred and ninety-five, 
but this is mostly due to the large number sent by the Secre- 
tary of the Navy in execution of the sentences of naval courts 
martial. The law which deducts a percentage from the 
terms of imprisonment as a reward for good behavior, contin- 
ues to exert a most excellent influence. 

During the year forty-one banks, with an aggregate capital 
of $12,087,930, in addition to those which bad previously taken 
this course, organized under the National Banking Act, leav- 
ing but eight state banks, with an aggregate capital, on the 
1st of April, of $1,985,920, and a circulation amounting to 
$1,275,732. The capital of all the ninety banks, state and 
national, amounts to $26,182,243. 

The questions concerning the taxation of the stocks of na- 
tional banks, and of other corporations holding national bonds, 
have been to some extent answered by the courts. 

On the first of January, there were fifty-one savings banks, 
fifty of which reported assets amounting to $28,891,454.71, 
and deposits amounting to $27,319,013.59. The higher rate 
of interest paid by adjoining states, and especially by the 
General Government, has reduced the deposits $1,823,274.99 
during the past year, and gradually led the trustees to invest 
more than a quarter of the whole in national bonds. 

Though the change in our banks of circulation and exchange 
is removing the necessity for a bank commission, so far as 
they are concerned, it continues to be eminently proper that 
the institutions for savings should be supervised by the State. 
A single capable commissioner may answer the purpose. 

The insurance commission established last year required 
much preparatory labor on the part of the commissioner, but 
the result is that one hundred and nine agents of insurance 
companies chartered elsewhere pay taxes who neglected it 
before. Ninety-four fire insurance companies of other States 
are represented in Connecticut by three hundred and seventy- 
two agents, who are insuring property to the amount of twen- 
ty-seven millions, and paying taxes to the amount of seven 
thousand dollars annually. The hostile and exclusive legisla- 
tion of many states upon this, as well as other interests, is a 



15 

matter of great regret. The statute of this State merely im- 
poses upon foreign agents the restrictions placed by their states 
upon agents of our companies. 

The railroads of the State have prospered and improved. 
The percentage of accidents has slightly decreased. It is 
probable that much of your attention will be occupied by this 
important interest, and it is well to remember that while these 
powerful and growing corporations should be guided and con- 
trolled in a friendly spirit, because of their direct connection 
with our prosperity ; it nevertheless should also be done with 
an inflexible, firm and impartial hand. 

During the past year a majority of our voters rejected the 
constitutional amendment designed to restore the right of suf- 
frage to a small class of our citizens who have been denied it, 
because of their color, since the year 1818. Though you have 
the exclusive right to take action upon such amendments, per- 
mit me to express a hope that within a reasonable time the 
question may be again submitted. If the denial be an injus- 
tice, a right decision is more important to us than to the col- 
ored men. They are few among us, but our example has an 
influence elsewhere, and sound moral and political philosophy 
teach that no considerable class or race can be excluded from 
a share in government without working evil to all. The quali- 
fications of intelligence and morality prescribed by our funda- 
mental law are universally approved among us, and I sincerely 
hope that we may soon yield cheerfully to the irresistible drift 
of liberal principles, and, requiring those qualifications alone, 
frankly recognize the rights of all men. 

Our country turns willingly from the subsiding clamors of 
war, rejoices over the great good already secured, and hails 
gladly the indications of reviving prosperity and fraternal feel- 
ing. Wherever our late enemies accept the result with frank 
good faith, they should be met at the first step with a cordial 
welcome. Our people were not actuated by malicious or re- 
vengeful motives in the struggle. We exult that we destroyed 
great wrongs, not that we conquered our brethren. It is not 
expected that all who willingly engaged in the rebellion will 
speedily lose their prejudices, or even their hatreds, however 



16 

earnestly that is to be desired. As to the great mass of the 
people involved in treason, it is the promise of the future and 
not the record of the past that statesmanship will consult. 
And the heart of the nation yearningly longs for the day of 
full restoration, when every state in all its parts shall be per- 
forming its natural functions in the great system, without ex- 
ternal interference or restraint, and when all extraordinary 
powers, assumed and wielded to save the national life, may be 
laid away with the idle weapons of war. 

But the nation loves liberty and justice above all else. The 
rebellion was a terrible, an infamous crime, rotten and leprous 
all over with toul conspiracy, perjury and murder, and so his- 
tory and legislation will record and brand it. Though defec- 
tive laws or false mercy may fail to demand the forfeited life 
of a single traitor, the country will never consent that any but 
loyal men shall receive its favor or sit among its rulers. 

"When states declare themselves out of the Union and bring 
their citizens with great unanimity to make desperate war 
during four years upon the Republic, and then, failing only 
through lack of physical force, declare themselves in the Union, 
truly devoted to its principles and entitled immediately to the 
exercise and enjoyment of all their previous powers and rights, 
we may and do give honorable heed to their words, but it is 
the nation's right and duty to examine fully the new organi- 
zations of those states, learn the purposes of the new rulers 
thereof and test the whole by the legislative action they take, 
and by the security and happiness enjoyed by the steadfastly 
and unquestionably loyal among them. 

It may be that all those states are not in the hands of ma- 
jorities determined to be faithful to the Union ; it may surely 
be that, when we consider the cost of our vindication of na- 
tional sovereignty, something may be needed to fortifj 7 the 
future of the Republic. Upon all this let the legislative power 
of the Federal Government decide, speedily by all means if it 
can, but thoughtfully and soundly in any event. 

There will be immediate and great inequalities and a cer- 
tain promise of future agitations and convulsions, if the entire 
population of the lately insurgent states be included in the 



17 

basis of federal representation, while four millions remain ex- 
cluded from even the hope of becoming voters. 

And, the war having been a success, we must affirm that it 
effected the destruction of slavery in fact as well as in name, 
the abandonment, as a ride of action, of the perpetually dis- 
organizing doctrine of secession, security against any taxation 
to pay debts contracted in aid of treason, and full protection, 
safety and honor everywhere for the rights of all loyal citizens, 
without distinction of race or color. These things were fairly 
won ; they look to security for the future, and are not a part 
of any idle claim to indemnity for the past ; they are not 
selfishly sought for a class or a party, but demanded for all 
mankind ; and they are essential to the success and glory of a 
Christian Democratic Government. 

Of the details of national legislation I care not to speak. 
All branches of the Federal Government are duly in operation, 
and the constitution does not fail to define the limits of the 
jurisdiction and power of each ; the nation has passed the 
deadly exigencies which have excused their trespassing upon 
the functions of each other, and the people will hold them all 
to a just accountability for the discharge of their great trusts. 

We may well be hopeful of the future when we recall the 
labors and glories of the past. Having successfully tried the 
last and severest of tests, our unbroken and exultant Eepublic 
springs forward in the grand contests of civilization, sure to 
be the foremost among nations in intelligence, wealth, liberty, 
justice and power. 

I have endeavored to present some of my views upon na- 
tional affairs and the subjects of domestic legislation. We 
may differ among ourselves upon many topics, but we all love 
and honor Connecticut, and are justly proud of her record. 
Let us fraternally and zealously address ourselves to the work 
assigned us, in the hope that we may win the approbation of 
the people, and obtain for the State a continuance of the Di- 
vine favor that has so signally blessed us heretofore. 

JOSEPH E. HAWLEY. 
New Haven, May 2, 1866. 



ROLL 

OF THE 

STATE OFFICERS 

AND 

MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 

OF THE 

STATE OF CONNECTICUT; 

RULES OF THE SENATE, 
RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 

AND 

JOINT RULES OF THE TWO HOUSES ; 
JOINT STANDING AND SELECT COMMITTEES, 

MAY SESSION, 1866. 



frinteb hg axtex at % ftplatott. 



NEW HAVEN: 

T. J. STAFFORD, PRINTER, 235 STATE STREET. 
1866. 



STATE OFFICERS. 



GOVERNOR, 

JOSEPH R. HAWLEY, New Haven Hotel. 

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR, 

OLIVER F. WINCHESTER, 57 Court street. 

SECRETARY OF STATE. 

LEVERETT E. PEASE, New Haven Hotel. 

TREASURER, 

HENRY G. TAINTOR, New Haven Hotel. 

COMPTROLLER, 

ROBB1NS BATTEL!, . . 193 Church St., St. John Block. 

COMMISSIONER OF. SCHOOL FUND, 

ALBERT SEDGWICK, 129 Crown street. 



— 4**- 



EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, 

CHARLES E. FELLOWES, .... New Haven Hotel. 

GOVERNOR'S MESSENGER, 

F.P. COLTON, Eagle Hotel. 



ROLL OF THE SENATE, 

MAY SESSION, 1866. 



Hon. OLIVER F. WINCHESTER, President, 57 Court street. 
Hon. JOHN T. WAIT, President pro tern., 42 New Haven Hotel. 
JOHN R. BUCK, Clerk, 41 New Haven Hotel. 

senators. 

Districts. 

1st, Hon. GEORGE BEACH, Tontine Hotel. 

2d, Hon. LEMUEL STOUGHTON, 34 New Haven Hotel. 

3d, Hon. H. SIDNEY HAYDEN, Tontine Hotel. 

4th, Hon. THOMAS H. BOND, Tontine Hotel. 

5th, Hon. ISAAC T. ROGERS, State street. 

6th, Hon. H. LYNDE HARRISON, 132, 3 New Haven Hotel. 

7th, Hon. HIRAM APPELMAN, Tremont House. 

8th, Hon. JOHN T. WAIT, 42 New Haven Hotel. 

9th, Hon. ELISHA H. PALMER, Tremont House. 
10th, Hon. WM. D. BISHOP, Tremont House. 
11th, Hon. ZERAH FAIRMAN, 23 Church street. 
12th, Hon CHARLES W. BALLARD, 132, 3 New Haven Hotel. 
13th, Hon. DAVID GREENSLIT, New Haven Hotel. 
14th, Hon. JOHN McGREGOR, New Haven Hotel. 
15th, Hon. NELSON ROBERTS, Tremont House. 
16th, Hon. DANIEL CURTIS. 
17th, Hon. MILES T. GRANGER, Madison House. 
18th, Hon. HENRY G. HUBBARD, Tontine Hotel. 
19th, Hon. WILLIAM E. CONE, Tremont House. 
20th, Hon. JASPER H. BOLTON, Park House. 
21st, Hon. GEORGE KELLOGG, 10 New Haven Hotel. 



MESSENGERS, 

SAMUEL D. HILLS, CHARLES H. SIMMONS. 

DOOR-KEEPERS. 

JAMES LAY, O. E. PAGE. 



ROLL OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 

MAY SESSION, 1866. 



DAVID GALLUP, Plainfield, Speaker, Tremont House. 
John M. Morris, New Haven, Clerk, New Haven House. 
Jambs U. Taintor, Colchester, Assistant Clerk, New Haven House. 



HARTFORD COUNTY. 



Hartford, Alfred E. Burr, 

Nathaniel B. Stevens, 
Avon, Leverett F. Webster, 
Berlin, John Moore, 
Bloom field, Samuel P. Newberry, 
Bristol, George W. Bartholomew, 
Burlington, John Crandall, 
Canton, Howard S. Collins, 
East Ghanby, Harvey E. Seymour, 
East Hartford, John R. Beaumont, 
Charles T. Marston, 
East Windsor, Jehial H. Simonds, 

Edward Dexter, 
Enfield, David Doig, 

J. Warren Johnson, 
Farmington, Thomas K. Fessenden, 
William C. Bolles, 



Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
441 State street. 
Berlin. 
Eagle Hotel. 
Tremont House. 
35 William street. 
New Haven House. 
Eagle Hotel. 
Tremont House. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
61 Martin street. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
420 Chapel street. 
420 Chapel street. 



Glastenbury , George Merrick, 

Cornelius L. Cheney, 
Granby, Anson Cooley, 

Oliver Beach, 
Hartland, Erastus Beman, 

Howell Bates, 
Manchester, Ralph Cone, 
Marlborouyh, Isaac Allen, 
New Britain, Chester G. Birge, 

Dwight A. Parsons, 
Rocky Hill, Benjamen G. Webb, 
Simsbury, Lucius G. Goodrich, 

William C. Mather, 
Southington, Amon Bradley, 

Simeon H. Norton, 
South Windsor, Jos. M. Newberry, 
Suffield, Artemas King, 

John M. Hathaway, 
West Hartford, Charles Boswell, 
Wethersfield, Sherman W. Adams, 

Jared Starr, 
Windsor, Lonzo M. Smith, 

Eli Phelps, 
Windsor Locks, James Coogan, 



129 College street. 
129 College street. 
Merchants Hotel. 
Merchants Hotel. 
137 State street. 
137 State street. 
Tremont House. 
Tontine Hotel. 
6 Vernon street. 
New Britain. 
391 State street. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Park House. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
129 College street. 
New Haven House. 
97 Dwight street. 
Eagle Hotel. 
City Hotel. 



NEW HAVEN COUNTY. 



New Haven, Charles R. Ingersoll. 

Tilton E. Doolittle, 
Bethany, William P. Dickerman, 
Branford, William Russell, 
Cheshire, Benjamin A. Jarvis, 

Burritt Bradley, 
Derby, Egbert Bartlett, 
East Haven, William E. Goodyear, 
Guilford, Henry Fowler, 2d, 

Edward M. Lee, 
Hamden, Henry Tuttle, 
Madison, Elias S. Ely, 
Meriden, Isaac C. Lewis, 



38 Temple street. 
219 Orange street. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Merchants Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Madison House. 
Tremont House. 
Guilford. 

119 College street, 
Tontine Hotel. 
Merchants Hotel. 
New Haven House. 



Middlebury, Benjamin Stone, 
Milford, William S. Pond, 
David H. Durand, 
Naugatuck, Calvin A- Hotchkiss, 
North Branford, Seth Russell, 
North Haven, Willis B. Heminway, 
Orange, Alonzo F. Wood, 
Oxford, Burr J. Davis, 
Prospect, Richard Tyler, 
Seymour, Harris B. Munson, 
Southbury, Samuel J. Stoddard, 
Wallingford, B. Trumbull Jones, 

Hiram Cook, 
Waterbury, Green Kendrick, 
Isaac E. Newton, 
Wolcott, Henry Minor, 
Woodbridge, William A. Clark, 



139 College street. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Milford. 

109 Howe Street. 
Merchants Hotel. 
Madison House. 
2 Church street. 
Park House. 
Eagle Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Eagle Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Eagle Hotel. 
Tremont House. 



NEW LONDON COUNTY. 



New London, David S. Ruddock, 

Richard H. Chapel 1, 
Norwich, Daniel W. Perkins, 

Isaac H. Bromley, 
Bozrah, Joshua B. Leffingwell, 
Colchester, John C. Wightman, 

Joseph L. Gillett, 
East Lyme, Ezra Moore, 
Franklin, William M, Converse, 
Griswold, Nehemiah T. Adams, 
Groton, William E. Maxson, 

Jared R. Avery, 
Lebanon, O. D. Hine, 

George R. Bill, 
Ledyard, Jacob L. Gallup, 
Lisbon, Henry A. Bennett, 
Lyme, Ebenezer D. Brockway, 

David C. Warner, 
Montville, Raymond N. Parish, 



New Haven House. 
Tontine Hotel. 
29 High street. 
New Haven House. 
23 Church street. 
City Hotel. 
City Hotel. 
139 High street. 
New Haven House. 
Madison House. 
12 Elm street. 
35 Howe street. 
212 Elm street. 
6 Silver street. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
138 College street. 
138 College street. 
Tremont House. 



North Stonington, Thomas Clark, 

Richard Wheeler, 
Old Lyme, John A. De Wolf, 
Preston, William Roath, 

William D. Hoxie, 
Salem, Sidney Morgan, 
Sprague, Charles W. Scott, 
Stonington, Thomas S. Greenman, 

Gurdon S. Crandall, 
Waterford, James Beckwith, 



New Haven House. 
87 Park street. 
Old Lyme. 
Tremont House. 
Tontine Hotel. 
128 High street. 
New Haven House. 
212 Elm street. 
87 Park street. 
15 Columbus street. 



FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 



Bridgeport, Nathaniel Wheeler, 
Danbury, Samuel Mai lory, 

James S. Taylor, 
Bethel, George A. Hickok, 
Brookfield, Sherman B. Ruggles, 
Darien, Henry Morehouse, 
Eatton, Charles W. Blakeman, 
Fairfield, Phineas T. Barnum, 

Franklin Smith, 
Greenwich, Jotham Merritt, 

Jabez Mead, Jr., 
Huntington, William L. Bennett, 
Monroe, Curtis L. Bostwick, 
New Canaan, Caleb S. Benedict, 
New Fairfield, Covil Treadwell, 
Newtown, Bradley D. Briscoe, 

William A. Bradley, 
Norwalk, Fred. St. John Lockwood, 

Ebenezer Hill, 
Redding, Charles Osborn, 

Edward P. Shaw, 
Ridgefield, Albert Scott, 

Charles W. Slauson, 
Sherman, Henry Sherwood, 
Stamford, John Day Ferguson, 

Seth S. Cook, 
Stratford, Curtis Thompson, 



Tontine Hotel. 
551 Chapel street. 

New Haven House. 
498 Chapel street. 
Darien. 
Park House. 
New Haven House. 
Fairfield. 
212 York street. 
212 York street. 
Tontine. 
Monroe. 
Park House. 
Court street. 
81 Hamilton street. 
81 Hamilton street. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
City Hotel. 
201 Crown street. 
138 College street. 
138 College street. 
Tontine Hotel. 
125 High street. 
Court street. 
29 College street. 



Trumbull, Carlos W. Blackmail, 
Weston, Charles Rowland, 
Westport, Talcott B. Wakeman, 
Wilton, William Nichols, 



Park House. 
Upson's Hotel. 
114 Chapel street. 
Eagle Hotel. 



WINDHAM COUNTY. 



Brooklyn, James P. Whitcomb, 
Ashford, Edwin Knowlton, 
Holstein Brown, 
Canterbury, Marshall Smith, 

Joseph Palmer, 
Chaplin, Appleton M. Griggs, 
Eastford, Joseph B. Latham, Jr., 
Hampton, Chauncey F. Cleveland, 
Killingly, Albeit H. Himes, 
George W. Pike, 
Plainfield, David Gallup, 

Albert Austin, 
Pom/ret, George B. Matthewson, 

William Osgood, 
Putnam, James W. Manning, 
Scotland, William F. Palmer, 
Sterling, Henry D. Dixon, 
Thompson, Thomas Tallman, 

Oscar Tourtelotte, 
Voluntown, Ira G. Briggs, 
Windham, Samuel G. Willard, 

William P. Gates, 
Woodstock, William Chandler, 

Joseph Kenyon, 



Tremont House. 

41 High street. 

41 High street. 

162 Grand street. 

Tremont House, 

16 Pine street. 

139 Elm street. 

New Haven House. 

162 Grand street, 

162 Grand street. 

Tremont House. 

229 West Water street. 

Tremont House. 

229 West Water street. 

New Haven House. 

139 Elm street. 

Tontine Hotel. 

Hillhouse avenue. 

229 West Water street. 

229 West Water street. 

170 George street 

35 College Street. 

229 West Water street. 

139 Elm street. 



LITCHFIELD COUNTY. 



Litchfield, George C. Woodruff, Tontine Hotel. 

Thomas L. Saltonstall, 115 Wall street, 

Barkhamsted, Lauren Smith, Madison House. 

Ruel S. Rice. 28 Elm street. 

Bethlehem, Henry Davis, Eagle Hotel. 



10 



Bridgewater , Glover Sanford, 
Canaan, Nelson M. Brown, 
Colebrook, William S. Bunnell, 

Hiram Baldwin, 
Cornwall, Solon B. Johnson, 

Gad N Smith, 
Goshen, Joseph Palmer, 

Charles J. Porter, 
Harwinton, Willis Catlin, 

Isaiah B. Loom is, 
Kent, Peter Skiff, 
Morris, Alvah Clark, 
New Hartford, Edward, Kellogg, 
Jared B. Foster, 
New Milford, Alban G. Ferriss, 

Harry Buckingham, 
Norfolk, Egbert T. Butler, 

John Dewell, 
North Canaan, Joel K. Crofut, 
Plymouth, N. Taylor Baldwin, 
Eoxbury, Henry Randall, 
Salisbury, Donald J. Warner, 

John Wardvvell, 
Sharon, Zacheus W. Bissell, 

David F. Smith, 
Torrington, Orsamus R. Fyler, 

Willard H. Barber, 
Warren, Elijah Hays, 
Washington, Henry J. Church, 

Levi Morehouse, 

Watertown, John H. Woodruff, 

Winchester, Elias E. Gilman, 

Isaac A. Bronson, 

Woodbury, David C. Porter, 

Henry S. Curtiss, 



Tontine Hotel. 
Madison House. 
Madison House. 
Madison House. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
115 Wall street. 
Madison House. 
16 Pine street. 
16 Pine street. 
170 Chapel street. 
115 Wall street. 
22 Orange street. 
22 Orange street. 
201 Crown street. 
129 College street 
Madison House. 
97 Chapel street. 
Madison House. 
Tremont House. 
175 Temple street. 
Madison House. 
Merchants Hotel. 
25 Court street. 
164 York street. 
12 Orange street. 
Tremont House. 
115 Wall street. 
Tremont House. 
Tremont House. 
Tremont House. 
Madison House. 
Madison House. 
106 Wall street, 
100 Wall street. 



MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 



Middletown, John H. Watkinson, 
Moses W. Terrill, 



Tontine Hotel. 
New Haven House. 



11 



Haddam, Noah Burr, 

William J. Smith, 
Chatham, Chauncey Bevin, 

Charles A. Buell, 
Chester, George W. Smith, 
Clinton, Rutherford Russell, 
Cromwell, David Edwards, 
Durham, William Wadsworth, 

Oscar Leach, 
Hast Haddam, Jacob H. Greenfield, 
John B. Hungerford, 
Essex, Henry S. Pratt, 
Killingworth, Andrew W. Burr, 

Washington E. Griswold, 
Old Saybrook, Edward M. Lynde, 
Portland, Richard S Cornwall, 
Saybrook, Oliver C. Carter, 
Ezra S. Williams, 
Westbrook, F. W. Spencer, 



Madison House. 
Madison House. 
Tontine Hotel. 
Tontine Hotel. 
19 Bishop street. 
Park House. 
Eagle Hotel. 
New Haven House. 
New Haven House. 
Tremont House. 
Tremont House. 
New Haven House. 
Madison House. 
Madison House. 
Old bayhrook. 
24 College >ueet. 
58 Hubbard street. 
Park House. 
Tremont House. 



TOLLAND COUNTY. 



Tolland, William Holman, 

Ratcliff Hicks, 
Andover, James H. Marsh, 
Bolton, Timothy E Steele, 
Columbia, Joseph E H. Gates, 
Coventry, Erastus Kingsbury, 

Walter A. Loomis, 
El/inyton, Asaph D. McKinney. 
Hebron, Warren II. Bi.-sell, 
Samuel A. Talcoit, 
Mansfield, Alvin M. Crane, 

Frederick Freeman. 
Somers, Oren Pomeroy, 

Charles J. Standish, 
Stafford, Julius Conver-e 

John R. Washburn, 
Union, Merrick A. M nw, 
John S. Leland, 



Eagle Hotel. 
128 Olive street. 
M-rchants Hotel. 
M idis >n H>u-e. 
Merchants Hotel. 
212 Kim mi, i. 
212 Elm street. 
Trvinunt House. 
I 12 Elm sti -t. 
212 Elm street. 
1 13 Geoi | 
212 Elm street. 
29 High street. 
I mine Hold. 
Tontine Hotel. 

!■ iir Haven. 
F ii Haven. 



12 

Vernon, George G. Hammond, New Haven House. 

Willington, Elias Severey, 229 West Water street. 

James McFarlan, 229 West Water street. 



Edmund Thompson, Norfolk. | Edward F. Whiton, Stafford. 

DOORKEEPERS. 
Nathan E. Merwin, Milford. | Joseph K. Warren, East Haven. 



RULES TO REGULATE THE PROCEEDINGS 



SENATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



Resolved, That the Rules and Orders following be and they 
are hereby adopted as the standing Rules and Orders of the 
Senate, and they shall be read at the commencement of each 
session of the General Assembly by the Clerk. 

" 1st. The President shall take the chair every day, at the 
hour to which the Senate shall have adjourned, and after 
prayer shall immediately call the Senate to order, and if a 
quorum be present, proceed to business. 

"2d. The President shall preserve order, and shall decide 
questions of order without debate, subject to an appeal to the 
Senate. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sit- 
ting. The question first moved and seconded shall be the first 
put, and in all cases the sense of the Senate shall be taken upon 
the largest number or sum, and the longest time proposed. 

" 3d. No member shall in any way interrupt the business of 
the Senate while the journal or public papers are in reading, 
nor when any member is speaking in debate, nor while the 
President is putting a question. 

"4th. When any member is about to speak in debate, or 
deliver any matter to the Senate, he shall rise and respectfully 
address ' Mr. President;' if two or more rise at once, the 
President shall name the member who is first to speak. 

" 5th. No member shall speak more than twice upon the 
6ame question, without leave of the Senate, unless to explain. 

" 6th. When a question is before the Senate, no motion shall 
be received but to adjourn, to lay upon the table, to postpone 
indefinitely, to postpone to a certain day, to commit, or to 
amend ; which several motions shall have precedence in the 



14 

order in which they stand arranged, and a motion for adjourn- 
ment shall always be in order, and be decided without debate. 

" 7th. If the question in debate contains several points, any 
member may have the same divided. 

" 8th. When the yeas and nays shall be called for by one- 
fifth of the members present, each member called upon shall 
(unless for special reason he be excused by the Senate) declare 
openly his assent or dissent to the question. 

" 9th. When a motion is made and seconded, it shall be 
stated to the Senate by the President, before any debate be had 
thereon ; but every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the 
President so direct, or any member desire it. 

" 10th. Every bill shall be introduced by a motion for leave, 
or by order of the Senate, or the report of a committee; and 
every bill for a public act shall receive three several readings 
in the Senate, previously to its being passed into an act. And 
no bill shall be read twice on the same day, without the order 
of the Senate. Nor may the President state the same to the 
Senate for debate, until after the second reading. 

"11th. A committee of three shall, within the first two days 
of each session, be appointed by ballot to take into considera- 
tion all contested elections of members of the Senate, and to 
report the facts in issue, together with their opinions thereon. 

" 12th. Committees of Conference shall be appointed by the 
Senate. 

" 13th. All other committees shall be appointed by the 
President, unless the Senate shall order otherwise. 

" 14th. When a motion has been stated by the President, or 
read by the Clerk, it shall be considered to be in possession of 
the Senate, but may be withdrawn at any time before decision 
or amendment; but not after amendment, unless the Senate 
give leave. 

" 15th. No member who is interested in the decision of any 
question in such manner that he cannot vote, may stay in the 
Senate when such question is discussed or decided. Provided, 
however, that this rule shall not extend to the sitting mem- 
bers in contested elections. 



15 

" 16th. When any member shall request a Committee of 
Conference on different votes of the two Houses of Assembly, 
a committee, consisting of one member, who was in the vote 
of the Senate, shall be appointed ; and if any member who 
was not in such vote shall be nominated, he shall notify the 
Senate. 

17th. " When the Senate has voted to appoint a commitee 
to prepare a bill or resolve, upon any subject, no person shall 
be on such committee who was opposed to the vote of the 
Senate. 

" 18th. If any member, in speaking or otherwise, shall trans- 
gress the rules of the Senate, the Fresident shall, and any 
member may, call to order, and if speaking he shall sit down, 
unless permitted to explain : the Senate, if appealed to, shall 
decide the question without debate. 

"19th. When a question shall have been once decided, it 
shall be in order for any member of the majority to move for a 
reconsideration thereof; but no such motion may be made 
unless within three days of actual session of the Senate, after 
the day on which the decision to be reconsidered was made. 

" 20th. Before any petition or memorial addressed to tne 
Senate shall be received and read at the table, whether the 
same shall be introduced by the President or a member, a 
brief statement of the contents or object of the petition or me- 
morial shall be verbally made by the introducer. 

" 21st. All questions shall be put by the President of the 
Senate, and the Senators shall signify their assent or dissent by 
answering viva voce — aye or no. And whenever the vote shall 
be doubted or questioned, it shall be determined by the mem- 
bers rising, and in all cases the ayes shall be called. 

"22d. Every resolution or bill granting money from the 
Treasury of the State shall, before its final passage, receive 
three several readings, only one of which will be on the same 
day. 

" 23d. In the case of the absence of the Lieutenant Governor 
and the President pro tempore, the Clerk shall call the Senate 
to order at the hour to which the Senate stands adjourned, 
and the first business in order shall be the election of a Pre- 



16 

sident pro tempore, which it shall immediately proceed to do 
without debate, by nomination or ballot as the Senate may 
determine ; these questions also shall be decided without 
debate, and the President pro tempore thus elected shall pre- 
side in the Senate and discharge all the duties of the President 
pro tempore until the return of either of the presiding officers." 



UTILE S 

OF THE 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

IN THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF CONNECTICUT. 



Resolved, That the Rules and Orders following be, and they 
are hereby adopted, as the standing Rules and Orders of 
this House; and it is ordered that they shall be read by the 
Clerk at the commencement of each session of the General 
Assembly : 

1st. The Speaker shall take the chair every day, at the hour 
to which the House shall have adjourned ; and after prayers 
and roll-call, shall immediately call the House to order, and if 
a quorum be present, proceed to business. 

2d. In the absence of a quorum, the Speaker may adjourn 
the House to the afternoon, or the next sitting day. At all 
other times during the session an adjournment shall be pro- 
nounced by the Speaker on motion, no objection being made. 

3d. The Speaker shall preserve decorum and order ; and 
shall decide questions of order without debate, subject to an 
appeal to the House. He shall rise to put a question, but 
may state it sitting. The question first moved and seconded 
shall be first put; and in all cases the sense of the House shall 
D e first taken upon the largest number or sum, and the 
longest time proposed in any question. 

4th. In all cases when a vote is taken without a division, 
the Speaker shall determine whether it is or is not a vote ; 
and in all doubtful cases he shall ask, "Is it doubted?" If the 
vote be disputed, it shall be tried again ; but after the Speaker 
has declared the vote, it shall not be recalled, unless by a regu- 
lar motion for reconsideration, made by a member in the vote 
of the House. 

2 



18 

5th. If the Speaker doubt a vote, or a division be called by 
a member, the question shall be again put, and those voting 
in the affirmative shall first rise from their seats ; if the 
Speaker still doubt, or a count be required, the Speaker shall 
direct the Tellers to count them while standing, and if required 
by a member, those of contrary mind shall, in the like man 
ner, rise and be counted. 

6th. The yeas and nays shall be taken on any question, and 
entered upon the Journal, at the desire of one-fifth of the 
members present. 

7th. In all cases of balloting, the Speaker shall vote ; in 
other cases he shall not vote, unless the House be equally 
divided, or unless his vote, if given to the minority, will make 
the division equal ; and in cases of such equal division, the 
question shall be lost. 

8th. Members coming in when the House is attending 
prayers, and during the call of the roll, shall walk to their 
seats with as little noise as convenience will admit. 

9th. When any member is about to speak in debate, or de- 
liver any matter to the House, he shall rise and respectfully 
address "Mr. Speaker;" if two or more rise at once, the 
Speaker shall name the member who is first to speak. 

10th. No member shall speak more than twice to the same 
question, without leave of the House, unless to explain. 

11th. No debate shall be allowed after a question is put and 
remains undecided. While the Speaker is putting any ques- 
tion, or is addressing the House, no member shall walk out of 
or across the House ; nor, either in such cases, or when the 
roll is calling, or when anything is in public reading before 
the House, nor while any member is speaking, shall entertain 
any private discourse; nor when any member is speaking, 
shall pass between him and the chair. 

12th. When the motion is made and seconded, it shall be 
stated to the House by the Speaker, before any debate be had 
thereon ; but every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the 
Speaker 60 direct, or any member desire it. 

13th. When a question is under debate, no motion shall be 
received but to adjourn, to lie on the table, for the previous 



19 

question, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day certain, 
to commit, or to amend, which several motions shall have 
precedence in the order in which they stand arranged. 

And no motion to lie on the table, to postpone indefinite- 
ly, or to commit, having been once decided, shall be again 
allowed at the same sitting, and at the same stage of the bill, 
or subject matter. 

14th. A motion to adjourn shall always be in order, and 
said motion shall be decided without debate, as shall also a 
motion to lie on the table. 

15th. When a question shall have once been decided, it 
shall be in order for any member in the prevailing vote to 
move for a reconsideration thereof, if at the time the subject 
matter shall be in possession of the House ; but no such mo- 
tion shall be made unless within two days of the actual ses- 
sion of the House, after the day on which decision was had 
thereon. 

16th. The Clerk shall not transmit any bill, resolutions, or 
other paper from the House to the Senate, on the same day 
upon which the action was had thereon, except the House 
otherwise order. 

17th. When a motion is stated by the Speaker, or read by 
the Clerk, it shall be deemed to be in possession of the House ; 
but may be withdrawn at any time before decision or amend- 
ment, but not after amendment, unless the House give leave. 

18th Every bill shall be introduced by motion for leave, or 
by an order of the House, or the report of a committee ; and 
every public bill shall receive three several readings in the 
House previously to its being passed into an act, and no such 
bill may be read twice on the same day, without the order of 
the House ; nor may the Speaker state the same to the House 
for debate, until after the second reading, but every bill may 
be referred on its first reading. 

19th. No member who is interested in the decision of any 
question in such a. manner that he cannot vote, may stay in 
the House when such question is discussed or decided. 

20th. All committees, excepting Committees of Conference, 



20 

shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless otherwise specially- 
directed by the House. 

21st. When any member requests a Committee of Conference 
on different votes of the two Houses of Assembly, a commit- 
tee, consisting of two members, shall be appointed on the part 
of the House; and in such case the committee shall consist 
only of such members as were in the vote of the House; and 
if any member be nominated on said committee who was not 
in the vote, he shall notify the House and be excused. 

22d. When the House has voted to appoint a committee to 
prepare a bill or resolve upon any subject, no person shall be 
on such committee who was opposed to the sense of the House. 

23d. At the opening of each session a Committee of Elec- 
tions, consisting of three members, shall be appointed by the 
Speaker, to take into consideration all contested elections of 
members of this House, and report facts, with their opinions 
thereon. 

21th. If any member, in speaking or otherwise, transgress 
the Kules and Orders of this House, the Speaker shall, or auy 
member may, call to order ; and if speaking, he shall sit 
down, unless permitted to explain. The House, if appealed 
to, shall decide on the case, but without debate. If no such 
appeal be made, the Speaker shall decide on the same. 

25th. During the first eight days of the session, after roll- 
call, the Speaker shall call for petitions, which shall be first 
disposed of; and no petition shall be offered after the House 
shall proceed to other business. 

26th. After the first eight days, the first business shall be 
the hearing of the reports of committees ; next, the first lead- 
ing of bills for public acts, and then bills which have been 
postponed to a second reading. 

27th. Every member present, when a question is put by the 
Speaker, shall vote, unless excused by the House before the 
voting commences. 

28th. Every resolution or bill in form, upon any petition 
granting money from the Treasury of the State, shall, before 
its final passage, receive three several readings, only one of 
which shall be on the same day. 



21 

29th. The Journal of the House for the day preceding shall 
be read every day before entering on other business. 

30th. In case the Speaker wishes occasionally to leave the 
chair for the prupose of taking part in the debate, or from in- 
disposition, or other temporary cause, he may designate some 
member to preside. 

31st. For the purpose of more conveniently counting upon 
a division of the House, the floor thereof shall be divided by 
aisles into four divisions, to be numbered first, second, third 
and fourth sections, commencing on the right of the chair ; 
for each of which divisions the Speaker shall appoint a mem- 
ber whose seat is in said division, to be a teller to count and 
report to the chair. 

32d. ISTo rule shall be suspended except by a vote of two- 
thirds of the members present. 

33d. That in the case of the absence of the Speaker, the 
Clerk shall call the House to order, at the hour to which the 
House stands adjourned, and the first business in order shall 
be the election of a Speaker pro tempore, which it shall im- 
mediately proceed to do without debate, by nomination or 
ballot, as the House shall determine ; these questions shall also 
be decided without debate ; and the Speaker pro tempore thus 
elected shall preside in the House and discharge all the duties 
of the Speaker until his return. 

In case of the death or resignation of a Speaker, the Clerk 
shall call the House to order, as provided in the first clause of 
this Rule, and the first business in order shall be the election 
of a Speaker by ballot, which the House shall immediately 
proceed to do, without debate, and the Speaker thus elected 
shall preside over the House and discharge all the duties of the 
Speaker during the continuance of the General Assembly. 



JOINT RULES OF PROCEEDINGS 

FOR THE 

SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

OF CONNECTICUT, 

As adopted May Session, 1865. 



I. Immediately after the organization of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, at the commencement of every 
stated session of the General Assembly, a Joint Committee, 
consisting of one Senator and eight Representatives, shall be 
appointed to examine the returns and canvass of votes given 
by the electors for Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Treasurer, 
Secretary, and Comptroller of Public Accounts, and to report 
the names of the persons whom they shall find elected to those 
offices respectively. After this report shall have been ac- 
cepted, a Joint Committee, consisting of one Senator and two 
Representatives, shall be appointed, to inform the Governor 
personally of his election and of the organization of the two 
Houses, and their readiness to receive his communications. 

II. On or before the third day of every stated session of the 
General Assembly, there shall be appointed fifteen Joint Stand- 
ing Committees, each of which shall consist of one Senator and 
eight Representatives, viz : 

1st. A Committee on the Judiciary, who shall take into 
consideration all such matters touching public or private acts 
and judicial proceedings, as shall be referred to them, and to 
report their opinion thereon, together with such propositions 
relative thereto, as to them shall seem expedient. 

2d. A Committee on the School Fund, who shall inquire 
into and report the actual state of the School Fund, the 
amount, value and condition of its securities, and recommend 



23 

such measures as they shall deem best adapted to insure its im- 
provement and permanent safety. 

3d. A Committee on Banks, who shall take into considera- 
tion all such matters relative to Banks, Savings Banks, and 
Savings and Building Associations, as may be referred to them, 
and report the facts, with their opinion thereon. 

4th. A Committee on the State Prison, who shall examine 
the annual reports of the directors and officers in charge of the 
State Prison, the account of receipts and expenditures of the 
Institution, together with such other matters as shall be refer- 
red to them by the two Houses of the General Assembly. 
And they may recommend such measures for the regulation 
and management of the Prison as they shall deem expedient. 

5th. A Committee on New Towns and Probate Districts, 
who shall take into consideration all matters relating to the 
incorporation of new towns, the alteration of town lines, and 
the formation of probate districts, which shall be referred to 
them, and report their opinion thereon, together with the facts 
upon which such opinion is founded. 

6th. A Committee on Roads and Bridges, who shall take 
into consideration all such matters relative to Roads and 
Bridges as shall be referred to them, and report the facts, with 
their opinion thereon. 

7th. A Committee on Incorporations, who shall take into 
consideration all matters relative to private corporations, for 
which there may be no other appropriate committee, and 
report their opinion thereon, with the facts on which the same 
is founded. 

8th. A Committee on Claims, who shall take into considera- 
tion all claims and demands upon the State, which may be 
referred to them, and report their opinion thereon, with the 
facts on which the same is founded. 

9th. A Committee on Education, who shall take into con- 
sideration all such matters relating to the subject of common 
school education as shall be referred to them, and recommend 
such measures touching the same as they shall deem expe- 
dient. 
10th. A Committee on the Sale of Lands, who shall take 



24 

into consideration all applications for the sale of lands, which 
shall be referred to them, and report the facts, with their 
opinions thereon. 

11th. A Committee on Finance, who shall take into consid- 
eration the financial concerns of the State, and inquire into 
the receipts and expenditures of the government, the invest- 
ment of the public funds, (the School Fund excepted,) the 
system of assessments and taxation provided by existing laws, 
and all other matters affecting the revenue of the State ; and 
report such measures touching the same, as they may deem 
expedient. 

12th. A Committee on Railroads, who shall take into con- 
sideration all such matters relating to Railroads and Railroad 
Companies as may be referred to them, and report the facts 
with their opinion thereon. 

13th. A Committee on Military Affairs, who shall examine 
all military returns, and take into consideration all matters re- 
lating to the militia of this State, which may be referred to 
them, and report thereon, with their opinion touching the 
same. 

14th. A Committee on Agriculture, who shall take into con- 
sideration all such matters relating to Agriculture as may be 
referred to them, and report thereon, with their opinion touch- 
ing the same. 

15th. A Committee on Humane Insitutions, who shall take 
into consideration all such matters relating to the Benevolent 
Institutions under the care or supervision of the State, as may 
be referred to them, and report thereon, with their opinion 
touching the same. 

III. In all meetings of Joint Committees, the Senators shall 
preside. All questions of order in their proceedings, and ques- 
tions relative to the admission of evidence, shall be determined 
by a majority of votes; and in case the votes be equally divi- 
ded, the Senators shall have a casting vote. 

IV. All Committees of Conference, on disagreeing votes of 
the two Houses of Assembly, shall consist of one Senator and 
two Representatives, who were in the major vote of their re- 
spective Houses. The Committee of the Hou9e making the 



25 

grant or appointment, or passing the bill, resolution or amend- 
ment disagreed to, shall state their reasons, to be reported to 
the other House. And neither House shall request the other 
twice to confer on the same point of disagreement. 

Y. Whenever each House shall have adhered to its vote of 
disagreement, the bill or resolution shall be considered as lost. 

VI. Every message sent from one House to the other shall 
be announced at the door, and shall be respectfully communi- 
cated to the Chair, by the person by whom it may be sent. 

VH. Whenever a bill shall have passed both Houses of the 
Assembly, and shall have been transmitted to the Governor for 
his approbation, if either House desire its return for further 
consideration, such desire shall be communicated by message 
to the other House, and a Joint Committee of one Senator and 
two Representatives shall then be sent to the Governor to re- 
quest him to return the bill. If the Governor consent, the bill 
shall be returned first to that House in which the motion for 
its return originated, and the bill may then be altered or to- 
tally rejected by a concurrent vote of the two Houses ; but if 
not altered or rejected by such concurrent vote, it shall be 
again transmitted to the Governor in the same form in which 
it was first presented to him. 

VIII. Whenever the public business may require the Sen- 
ate and House of Representatives to meet in Cenvention, 
either House may send its message to the other, requesting 
such Convention, and specifying the object. At the time des- 
ignated, the Senate, with their President and Clerk, may pro- 
ceed to the Hall of the House of Representatives, where suita- 
ble accommodations shall be provided. The President of the 
Senate shall ex officio preside in said Convention, and the pro- 
ceedings thereof shall be entered upon the Journals of the two 
Houses. 

"When the Convention shall have been dissolved, the Presi- 
dent of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives shall make report to their respective Houses of the 
proceedings of the Convention. 

IX. All bills for public acts which shall have beeu passed 
by both Houses of the General Assembly, engrossed, and 



26 

signed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives and 
President of the Senate, and all bills for private acts and joint 
resolutions which shall have been passed by the two Houses, 
shall, with the papers on which the same may be founded, be 
transmitted by the Committee on Engrossed Bills to the Sec- 
retary of State, for the purpose of being by him laid before the 
Governor. The presiding officers of the two Houses shall affix 
their signatures to bills for public acts in the presence of their 
respective Houses. 

X. Every bill for a public act, and every resolution which 
shall be offered for the consideration of either House, shall be 
fairly written on not less than one-half sheet of paper ; and 
every member offering such bill, resolution, or a petition, shall 
indorse thereon his name, in some proper and conspicuous 
place, and in no case shall any printed copy of a bill or resolu- 
tion receive the indorsement of the Clerk of either House, or 
be transmitted to the Governor for approval. 

XI. The Clerk of the House to which any bill shall be first 
presented, shall endorse thereon a statement of the contents or 
objects of such bill or resolution, before transmitting the same 
to the other House. 

XII. All acts of incorporation by bill or resolution, and all 
acts in amendment or alteration thereof, and all private acts of 
whatever nature, shall, before the same shall be considered, be 
printed for the use of the General Assembly, at the expense of 
the party applying therefor. 

XII. All bills for public acts reported favorably upon by 
the Committee to which they have been or may be referred, 
with or without amendments, before being put upon their third 
reading shall be laid upon the table and three hundred copies 
of such bills, with their amendments, be printed for the use of 
the General Assembly, and no bill so reported shall be put on its 
third reading until the day succeeding the distribution of said 
copies. 



JOINT STANDING COMMITTEES. 



On the Judiciary. — Hon. Mr. Wait. 

Messrs. Cleveland of Hampton, 
Thompson of Stratford, 
Merrick of Glastenbnry, 
Ingersoll of New Haven, 
Bromley of Norwich, 
Warner of Salisbury, 
Pratt of Essex, 
Holman of Tolland. 

Meets in the Senate Chamber. 

On the School Fund. — Hon. Mr. Ballard. 
Messrs. Kendrick ot Waterbury, 
Collins of Canton, 
Avery of Groton, 
Wakeman of Westport, 
Terrill of" Middletown, 
Pomeroy of Somers, 
Himes of Killingly, 
Bunnell of Colebrook. 

Meets in the School Commissioner's Office, No. 

On Banks. — Hon. Mr. Bishop. 

Messrs. Adams of Griswold, 
Stevens of Hartford, 
Jarvis of Cheshire, 
Briggs of Volnntown, 
Saltonstall of Litchfield, 
Hungerford of East Haddam, 
Hickok of Bethel, 
Kingsbury of Coventry. 

Meets in the Senate Chamber. 



28 

On the State Prison.— Hon. Mr. Roberts. 
Messrs. Tontelotte of Thompson, 

Beaumont of East Hartford, 

Goodyear of East Haven, 

Gallup of Ledyard, 

Merritt of Greenwich, 

Sanford of Bridgewater, 

Bevin of Chatham, 

Loomis of Coventry. 
Meets in Windham County Committee Room, No. 20. 

On JVew Towns and Probate Districts.— Hon. Mr. Cone. 
Messrs. Ruddock of New London, 

Clark of Woodbridge, 

Bradley of Southington, 

Briscoe of Newtown, 

Mathewson of Pomfret, 

Kellogg of New Hartford, 

Carter of Saybrook, 

Washburn of Stafford. 
Meets in New London County Committee Room, No. 12. 

On Roads and Bridges.— Ron. Mr. Bond. 
Messrs. Munson of Seymour, 

Doig of Enfield, 

Morgan of Salem, 

Wheeler of Bridgeport, 

Griggs of Chaplin, 

Baldwin of Plymouth, 

Cornwall of Portland, 

Gates of Columbia. 
Meets in New Haven County Committee Room, No. 6. 

On Incorporations.— Rom. Mr. Bolton. 
Messrs. Hammond of Vernon, 
Goodrich of Simsbury, 
Doolittle of New Haven, 
Scott of Sprague, 



2\) 



Bennett of Huntington, 
Dixon of Sterling, 
Barber of Torrington, 
Leach of Durham. 
Meets in Litchfield County Committee Eoom, No. 

On Claims. — Hon. Mr. Rogers. 

Messrs. Woodruff of Litchfield, 

Cheney of Glastenbury, 

Bartlett of Derby, 

Bennett of Lisbon, 

Mai lory of Danbury, 

Palmer of Scotland, 

Buell of Chatham, 

Converse of Stafford. 
Meets in Representatives' Hall. 

On Education. — Hon. Mr. McGregor. 
Messrs. Burr of Hartford, 
Fowler of Guilford, 
Hine of Lebanon, 
Willard of Windham, 
Ferguson of Stamford, 
Morehouse of Washington, 
Russel! of Clinton, 
Marcey of Union. 

Meets in Windham County Committee Room, No. 

On the Sale of Lands. — Him. Mr. Granger. 
Messrs. Johnson of Cornwall, 

Parsons of New Britain, 

Ely of Madison, 

Perkins of Norwich, 

Taylor of Danbury, 

PikeofKillingly, 

Smith of Chester, 

Standish of Somers. 
Meets in Representatives' Hall. 



30 

On Finance. — Hon. Mr. Eoberts. 
Messrs. Hill of Norwalk, 

Boswell of West Hartford, 
Pond of Milford, 
Brockway of Lyme, 
Tallman of Thompson, 
Ferris of New Milford, 
"Watkinson of Middletown, 
Crane of Mansfield. 

Meets in Treasurer's Office, No. 2. 

On Railroads. — Hon. Mr. Harrison. 
Messrs. Butler of Norwalk, 
Johnson of Enfield, 
Chapell of New London, 
Russell of North Branford, 
Morehouse of Darien, 
Palmer of Canterbury, 
Griswold of Killingworth, 
Steele of Bolton. 

Meets in the old room of the Superior Court. 

On Military Affairs. — Hon. Mr. Appelman. 
Messrs. Lockwood of Norwich, 
Lee of Guilford, 
Hathaway of Suffield, 
Roath of Preston, 
Austin of Plainfield, 
Foster of New Hartford, 
Bissell of Hebron, 
Lynde of Old Saybrook. 

Meets in Reception Room, No. 17. 

On Agriculture. — Hon. Mr. Stoughton. 
Messrs. Barnum of Fairfield, 

Bradley of Southington, 
Jones of Wallingford, 
Bill of Lebanon, 
Smith of Canterbury, 



31 

Messrs. Bissell of Sharon, 

Greenfield of East Haddara, 
Severey of "Wellington. 
Meets in Reception Room, No. 18. 

On Humane Institutions. — Hon. Mr. Kellogg. 
Messrs. Whitcomb of Brooklyn, 

Fessenden of Farmington, 
Wood of Orange, 
Wightman of Colchester, 
Sherwood of Sherman, 
Dewell of Norfolk, 
Smith of Haddam, 
McKinney of Ellington. 

Meets in New Haven County Room, No. 6. 



JOINT SELECT COMMITTEES. 



On the Canvass of Votes for Judges of Probate and Justices 
of the Peace. — Hon. Mr. Palmer. 

Messrs. Converse of Stafford, 

Adams of Wethersfield, 
Hotchkiss of Naugatnek, 
Gillett of Colchester, 
Latham of Eastford, 
Osborn of Redding, 
Edwards of Cromwell, 
Porter of Woodbury. 

On Unfinished Business. — Hon. Mr. Beach 
Messrs. Bromley of Norwich, 
Starr of Wethersfield, 
Bissell of Sharon, 
Stevens of Hartford. 

On Engrossed Bills.— Hon. Mr. Hubbard. 
Messrs. Wadsworth of Durham, 
Manning of Putnam, 
Hicks of Tolland. 

Cn Fisheries. — Hon. Mr. Fairman. 
3. Avery of Groton, 
Bartlett of Derby, 
Smith of Windsor, 
Nichols of Wilton, 
Knowlton of Ashford, 
Catlin of Ilarwinton, 
Burr of Killingworth, 
Freeman of Mansfield. 



33 

On Constitutional Amendments. — Hon. Mr. Harrison. 
Messrs. Clark of North Stonington, 
Birge of New Britain, 
Hemingway of North Haven, 
Shaw of Bedding, 
Chandler of Woodstock, 
Buckingham of New Millford, 
Spencer of "Westbrook, 
Marsh of Andover. 

On Federal Relations. — Hon. Mr. Appelman. 
Messrs. Bromley of Norwich, 
Thompson of Stratford, 
Johnson of Enfield, 
Ingersoll of New Haven, 
Woodruff of Litchfield, 
Balmer of Canterbury, 
Buell of Chatham, 
Converse of Stafford. 

On Place of Holding Courts in Middlesex County. — Hon. 
Mr. Bolton. 

Messrs. Scott of Ridgefield, 
Lewis of Meriden, 
Adams of Wethersfield, 
Maxson of Groton, 
Smith of Fairfield, 
Gates of Windham, 
Wardwell of Salisbury, 
Leland of Union. 

On Revision of Joint Rules. — Hon. Mr. Harrison. 
Messrs. Cleveland of Hampton, 
Kendrick of Waterbury, 
Ruddock of New London. 



34 

On Education and Support of Orphans of Connecticut 
Soldiers.— -Hon. Mr. Hay den. 

Messrs. Russell of Clinton, 

Mather of Simsbury, 
Minor of Wolcott, 
Converse of Franklin, 
Benedict of New Canaan, 
Osgood of Pomfret, 
Gilman of Winchester, 
Talcott of Hebron. 

On Cities and Boroughs.— Hon. Mr. Ballard. 
Messrs. Ferguson of Stamford, 

Goodyear of East Haven, 
Church of Washington, 
Warner of Lyme. 

On the Eight Hour Law.— Hon. Mr. Palmer. 
Messrs. Perkins of Norwich, 
Manning of Putnam, 
Bartholomew of Bristol, 
Russell of Branford, 
Blakeman of Easton, 
Woodruff of Watertown, 
Williams of Saybrook, 
Hicks of Tolland. 



HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEES. 



On Contested Elections. 

Messrs. Thompson of Stratford, 
Sanford of Bridgewater, 
Tourtelotte of Thompson. 

On Contingent Expenses. — Hon. Mr. Wait. 
Messrs. Lee of Guilford, 

Converse of Franklin, 
Cone of Manchester. 

On Qualifications of Members. 

Messrs. Bennett of Huntington, 
Crandall of Stoningtou, 
Curtiss of "Woodbury. 



TELLERS OF THE HOUSE. 

First Division. — Tuttle of Hamden. 
Second Division. — Goodrich of Simsbury. 
Third Division. — Lee of Guilford. 
Fourth Division. — Scott of Sprague. 



REPORT 



STATE TREASURER 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 



MAY SESSION, 1866. 



grtntotf h\j (Order of tlte g^istotor*. 



HARTFORD: 

CASE, LOCKWOOD AND COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1866. 



Treasurer's Office, } 
Hartford, May Session, 1866. \ 

To the Hon. Speaker of the House of Representatives : 

Sir, — I herewith transmit my report for the fiscal year 
ending March 1st, 1866, that it may be submitted to the Gen 
eral Assembly. 

Very Respectfully, 

GABRIEL W. COITE, 

State Treasurer. 



REPORT 



State of Connecticut, ) 

Treasurer's Office, Hartford, April, 1866. ] 

To the Honorable, TJie General Assembly : 

In compliance with the provisions of a law of the State, 
I hereby present a report of the business of this department 
during the past fiscal year, ending March 31st, 1866 ; and 
an exhibit of the state of the several accounts at that date. 

civil list account. 

Balance of cash on hand, April 1st, 1865, was $3,428 16 

Receipts of public revenue, - - - 4,358,212.28 



$4,361,640.44 
Deduct payment bills payable, $2,523,113.79 
Deduct payments on orders, 1,066,762.60 
Deduct payment of interest on 

State Bonds, - - 477,363.00 4,067,239.39 



Balance to the credit of Civil List, - - $294,401.05 



GENERAL AND SPECIAL ACCOUNTS. 

Balance to the credit of all accounts, April 1, 

1865, $126,438.60 

Total receipts from all sources, during the 

year, - - - - - 9,707,691.15 



$9,834,129.75 
Deduct payments for all purposes, - 9,480,485.36 



$353,644.39 

Leaving a total balance in the Treasury, April 1, 1866, to the 
credit of the Civil List, School Fund, Sinking Fund, and 
State Institutions, of three hundred and fifty three thousand, 
six hundred and forty-four dollars and thirty-nine cents. 

STATE DEBT. 

The floating or temporary debt of the State, which, at an 
early period of the session of the General Assembly, amounted 
to nearly three millions of dollars, is now wholly paid, except 
a balance of less than $3,000 due by the State to the Sinking 
Funds. 

The funded debt consists of five series or issues of State 
Bonds, amounting in the aggregate to ten millions four 
hundred thousand dollars. 

Proposals for the sale of two millions were advertised in 
the month of August, 1865, of which, only $24,000 were 
awarded at a premium, netting the small sum of thirty-one 
dollars, and $480,000 at par. Subsequently, the balance of 
the two millions was sold at par, through the medium of 
agents appointed for that purpose. An additional $400,000 
of bonds were issued to the Sinking Funds in payment of 
that amount due to them by the State, making the total issue 
under the act of July 14, 1865, two millions four hundred 
thousand dollars. The total expense arising from the issue of 
the above bonds, for advertising, bond-plates, printing, and 
agents' commissions, amounted to $5,238.60. 

The acts establishing the Sinking Funds of 1862 and 1864, 
authorized the investment of the moneys pertaining thereto, 



in United States Securities, or Bonds of the State of Connec- 
ticut, In view of this fact, the Finance Committee of the 
last Legislature advised the sale of the U. S. Bonds in which 
the above funds were at the time invested, that the proceeds 
might be applied to the payment of the temporary loans then 
becoming due. 

The Government Bonds were sold at a loss of $8,255.02, 
and subsequently, $073,600 of former issues of State Bonds 
were purchased at a discount of $37,798.47, leaving a nett 
gain of $29,542.08 to the Treasury, and thereby retiring a 
large amount of the State Bonds from private possession. 

The position of the entire debt of the State therefore, 
stands at this date, as follows : 

Funded debt, .... $10,400,000.00 

Less amount Sinking Fund of 

1864, - - - 8407,165.51 

Less amount Sinking Fund of 

1862, - - - 804,601.84 1,211,767.35 



Balance, - - - $9,188,232.65 

Deduct Bank stocks, at market 

value, - - - $371,300.00 

Deduct cash on hand, - 353,644.39 $724,944.39 



§8,463,288.26 



Leaving the present liabilities, over and above assets, at a 
little more than eight millions of dollars. 

This is a gratifying fact, taking into consideration the 
herculean labors of the State to assist the General Govern- 
ment in maintaining its nationality, its political integrity, and 
in defeating the almost superhuman efforts of traitors and 
abettors of treason to destroy the Union which our forefathers 
shed so much good blood to establish. 

In the year 1850, according to the United States census, 
the State of Connecticut contained 370,972 inhabitants, and 
in the year 1860, the number had increased to 460,147. At 
a similar rate of increase for the past six years, the State 
would now number 515,000 inhabitants. 



The assessed value of the real estate and personal property, 
in the year 18G0, as exhibited by the United States census, 
was $444,274,114, and the grand list of the State for the 
same year, was only $231,294,094. The grand list for the 
year 1865, as approved March, 1866, amounts to $290,000,000. 
Now, the same relative difference may be assumed, and we 
place the present actual value of the real and personal prop- 
erty of the State at $552,300,000. 

If the above statements are an approximation to the present 
facts, a little computation will demonstrate that the entire 
debt of the State of Connecticut amounts to the comparatively 
trifling sum of fifteen dollars per capita. 

Taking into consideration the fact, that the assessed valua- 
tion of the real and personal property of the State is inserted 
in the lists, on an average, at about one-half of Us actual 
value, the rate of taxation necessary for the support of the 
State Government, and the payment of interest on the public 
debt — instead of being four mills on the dollar, as it nominally 
appears — may be stated at two mills, or one-fifth of one per 
cent, on the actual value of the property of its inhabitants, 
and of the amount so raised, the sum of $72,000 will be 
applied by law to the increase of the Sinking Fund, upon an 
annual augmentation. 

At the present rate of taxation, the revenue of the State for 
the current fiscal year, may be estimated at one and a half milk 
ion of dollars. The interest on the public debt will require 
$624,000, and the ordinary State disbursement may make the 
total annual expenditure amount to one million of dollars. 
There can thus be applied from three to five hundred thou- 
sand dollars to the extinguishment of the public debt, in addi- 
tion to the accumulation of the Sinking Funds already estab- 
lished, under a judicious and economical administration of 
public affairs. 

SCHOOL FUND. 

Of the amount invested in the several banks for the bene- 
fit of the School Fund, $141,812.61 has been converted into 
stock of the same institutions, as National Associations. The 
balance, $50,000, has been sold at the full market value of 



the stocks, netting a premium of 83,729 to the School Fund 
Revenue of the past year, and the net principal, $50,000, is 
now invested in Connecticut State Bonds. 

In conformity with a law of the State, the School Fund 
Commissioner transferred to the Treasurer of the State, 
$135,000 U. S. 10-40 Bonds, bought for the Agricultural 
College Fund, and received in exchange therefor, the same 
amount of Bonds of the State. 

The temporary loan to the State of $69,000, of the Princi- 
pal of the School Fund, has also been invested in our own 
State Bonds ; thus showing, that of the ten millions four hun- 
dred thousands of dollars of Bonds issued, the large sum of 
§1,401,000 is now held by the State for the benefit of the 
several Funds, leaving, as it were, but $8,936,000 outstanding. 

The business of the office so far as the accounts of the 
School Fund are concerned, has been materially facilitated by 
the prompt and efficient information and assistance proffered 
by the chief clerk in that department, to whom the Treasurer 
thus publicly makes his acknowledgments. 

TOWN DEPOSIT FUND. 

During the past two years, most of the debtors to the Town 
Deposit Fund paid up their loans in full; as some of the notes 
and mortgages had been unchanged for a period of thirty 
years, the present was deemed an auspicious time for calling 
in the unpaid portion of those loans. And now, the entire 
Fund $26,181.71 less a balance of $3,081.71 due by the State, 
is invested in State Bonds of the issue of 1865. The annual 
payment of interest to the several towns that are creditors of 
the Fund, will not be liable to variations as heretofore. 

STATE TAXES. 

Nearly all of the Towns are habitually punctual in the pay- 
ment of their tax "on or before the 20th day of February,'' 
as required by law. In some instances, the payment of large 
sums is delayed until the Treasurer is obliged to notify Towns 
that they will be necessarily reported to the General Assem- 
bly as delinquents, if such taxes are not paid before the 31st 
March, the end of the fiscal year. 

The urgent necessities of the State induced the Treasurer, 



the past two years, to anticipate the period fixed by law for 
the payment of tax by the towns, and of allowing interest 
thereon for the term of such pre-pay men t. 

Believing, under those circumstances, that the town delay- 
ing payment, should equitably, and would honorably, pay 
interest on such delayed payment, they were requested to 
do so; of those so called tipon, all \inhesitatingly paid the 
interest, (the names and amounts are noted on page 16,) ex- 
cept two. A Selectman of one town writes, "We shall most 
respectfully decline paying any interest on our State tax, 
having already paid all that is demanded of us by law," 
apparently forgetful of the fact that he had ignored "all that 
is demanded by law," when he neglected to pay his State 
tax "on or before the 20th day of February." The tax was 
not paid until the 16th of March. That town, therefore, 
saves an interest of 8171.00 on the town tax of 142,750 on 
the twenty-four days delayed payment thereof. 

As several of the towns do not collect the State tax until 
after it is due and payable to the State, but are prepared to 
pay after a short delay, it would seem to be unnecessarily 
harsh and severe to resort to legal process and collect by a 
levy. I therefore suggest the enactment of a section to the 
tax-law, directing the addition of one per cent, on all taxes 
remaining unpaid, on the 2d day of February, and an addi- 
tional one per cent, on all remaining unpaid on the last day 
of March in each fiscal year. 

This additional amount would impel towns to pay their tax 
into the State Treasury in ample time to enable the State 
Treasurer to make up his accounts for the year without em- 
barrassment, and also render unnecessary the unpleasant duty 
of reporting any town as having neglected to comply with the 
provisions of the Statute. 

SAVINGS BANKS. 

The question of the liability of Savings Banks to pay a 
State tax on " the whole amount of their deposits," without 
reference to their investments in U. S. Securities, is still un- 
decided. The case of the " State against the Society for 
Savings," has been carried, by appeal of the Savings Society, 



9 

to the U. S. Supreme Court, and no decision has been obtained 
thereon. 

The revenue derived from the tax on those institutions has 
been much reduced the past year, many of them having re- 
fused to comply with the law of the State whiclr taxes the 
whole amount of their deposits. 

BANKS. 

Of the twenty-five Banks in which the State was owner of 
stock for the civil list, and for the school fund, sixteen have 
justly and equitably exchanged the old certificates for those 
of stock in the same institutions, as National Banks, thereby 
giving the State a participation in their surplus funds. 

Stock held by the State, and the School Fund, in five of 
those Banks, has been sold at full market value, thereby 
realizing §20,519 over and above the original cost of invest- 
ment. 

Two, only, of the entire number in which the State now 
holds certificates of stock to the amount of $287,000 for the 
Civil List, and $68,000 for the School Fund, have not only 
refused to permit the State to associate with them as National 
Banks, but they also refuse to pay over any portion of their 
undivided profits accrued to the stock during the period in 
which the State was a stockholder therein. 

The amount of profits thus withheld, taking the market 
value of the stock as it stood on the first day of April, 1865 r 
is about 8123,000, which added to the principal, makes an 
aggregate of $410,000 that the Treasury has been deprived 
the use of since the conversion of those banks into National 
Associations. 

I have referred the subject to the State Attorney, with in- 
structions to commence legal proceedings for the recovery of 
what is equitably and honorably due. 

Of the National Banks but few have complied with that 
section of the law requiring all special incorporations to 
make returns to the Comptroller, and pay to the Treasurer 
a tax of one quarter of one per cent, thereon, consequently 
there has been but a small sum received from them. It ap- 



10 

pears to be the impression of some of the directors of those 
institutions, that being National Organizations, they are en- 
tirely removed beyond the influence and operation of our 
State laws. The Board of Equalization have met with much 
embarrassment in the adjustment of the Grand List, arising 
from the fact that many of those banks have declined to 
make any return to the local boards of assessors. All this may 
very reasonably have been caused by a well defined doubt of 
the extent of the power of the State to compel disclosures, 
and if so, some additional legislation may remove the incerti- 
tude under which many have labored. 

CASH RECEIPTS. 

The total amount of moneys paid into the Treasury during 
my official term of service, was : 

For the year ending 31st March, 1863, - $5,101,874.74 

" " " " 1864, - 9,070,820.52 

" 1865, - 11,006.545.84 

« " « 1866, - 9,707,691.15 



$34,886,932.25 

Making a total for the four years, of thirty-four millions, eight 
hundred and eighty-six thousand, nine hundred and thirty- 
two dollars and twenty-five cents. 

The above statement is exhibited, that those who are inter- 
ested may observe that the office of State Treasurer has been no 
sinecure. The large amount of receipts and disbursements, 
together with the necessity of providing financial aid to the 
State — at times under great difficulties — have required the 
constant and almost daily supervision of the incumbent of 
the Department. 

After four years of arduous labors, under heavy responsi- 
bilities; I retire from the service of the people, leaving the 
Treasury of the State in a condition that will make the rou- 
tine of official duties a facile performance to my successor ; 
and a public debt so light, that the energetic, enterprising and 
truly patriotic people of the State may, at an early period, 
wholly and easily liquidate it. 



11 

The annexed tables, statements and accounts, exhibit the 
details of the receipts and disbursements of the State Treas- 
ury during the past fiscal year. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

GABRIEL W. COITE, Treasurer. 



13 



GENERAL REVENUE. 

TAX FROM TOWNS, PAYABLE FEBRUARY 20, 1866. 









Military Com- 


Taxes due 


TOWNS. 


Grand List. 


Tax at 4 mills. 


mutation Tax 
at*2. 


ending March 
31, 1S66. 


IIartfuku - 


$35,403,478 


$141,613.93 


$2,138.00 




Avon, - 


546,454 


2,185.82 


96.00 




Berlin, ... 


1,078,882 


4,315.52 


434.00 




Bloomlield, ... 


833,529 


3,334.12 


202.00 




Bristol, ... 


1,705,942 


7,063.77 


638.00 




Burlington, ... 


456,487 


1,826.94 


60.00 


$1,885.94 


Canton, - 


1,224,792 


4.899.17 


326.00 




East Gtanby, - - - 


495,888 


1,983.55 


118.00 




East. Hartford, 


1,464,822 


5,859.29 


436.00 




East Windsor, - 


1,214,300 


4,857.20 


436.00 




Enfield, 


2,699,099 


10,67640 


296.00 




Farmington, - 

Glastenbury, - 


2,162,570 


8,650.28 


250.00 




1,422,656 


6,690.62 


628.00 




Granby, - - - - 


00y,72G 


2,438.90 


284 00 




Hartland, ... 


356,847 


1,427.39 


154.00 




Manchester, - 


1,032.047 


6.528.19 


608.00 




Marlborough, - - - 


305,482 


1,221.93 


72.00 




New Britain, - 


2,608,418 


10,433.67 


772.00 




Rocky Hill, - 

Simsbury, ... - 


471,038 


1,884.15 


130.00 




1,257,503 


6,030.01 


228.00 




Southington, - - - 


1,564,150 


6,256.60 


374.00 




South Windsor, - 


1,211,873 


4,847.49 


282.00 




Suffield, 


1,720,255 


6,881.02 


270.00 




West Hartford, - 


1,388,857 


6,555.42 


220.00 




Wethersfield, - 


1,726,711 


6,906.84 


210.00 




Windsor, - - - - 


1,421,333 


6,685.33 


476 00 




Windsor Locks, 


612,990 


2,451.96 


276.00 




V 


$67,626,129 


3270,504.52 


$10,216.00 


$1,685.94 


New Haven, - 


29,681,409 


118,725.66 


2,490.00 




Braiiford, - 


1,075,441 


4,301.76 


294.00 




Bethany, - - - - 


620,252 


2,505.01 


118.00 




Cheshire, 


1,228,439 


4,913.76 


206.00 




Derby, .... 


3,0:7,655 


12,110.63 


362.00 




East Haven, - - - 


1,514,488 


6,057.96 


430.00 




Guilford, - - - 


1,511,199 


6,044.80 


386.00 




Hamdeu, - 


1,409,091 


6,636.37 


70.00 




Madison, - - - - 


836,496 


3,345.99 


182.00 




Meriden, - 


4,300,981 


17,203.84 


1,112.00 




Midilleburv, 


365,123 


1,460.49 


80.00 




Milford, ' - 


1,001,448 


4,005.79 


270.00 




Naugatuck, ... 


1,130,904 


4,523.62 


368.00 




North Bran ford, 


533,867 


2,135.49 


120.00 




North Haven, 


695,477 


2,781.91 


282.00 




Orange, 


994,122 


3,976.49 


358.00 




Oxford, ... - 


626,107 


2,504.43 


180.00 




Prospect, - 


210,400 


841.60 


66.00 




Seymour, - 


826,748 


3,306.99 


370 00 




Strathbury, ... 


860,709 


3,442.84 


232.00 




Wallingford, 


1,796,416 


7,lf5.66 


672.00 




Waterbury, - 


6,207,^17 


25,031.27 


706.00 




Woodbridge, ... 


602,803 


2,411.21 


98.00 




Wolcott, 


296,691 


1,186.76 


78.00 






S61,410,OS3 


5245,640.33 


$9,420.00 





13 



GENERAL REVENUE. 

TAX FROM TOWNS, PAYABLE FEBRUARY 20, 



■ 






Military Com- 


Taxes due 


TOWNS. 


Grand List. 


raxat4mills. 


mutation Tax ending March 








at$2. 


31, 1866. 


New London, 


$5,448,112 


$21,792.46 


$1,088.00 




Norwich, - 


10,494,035 


41,976.15 


774.00 




Bozrah, - 


520,421 


2,105.69 


64.00 




Colchester, - 


1,545,622 


6,182.49 


384.00 




East Lyme, - 
Franklin, - 


487,873 


1,951.50 


80.00 




468,488 


1,873.96 


92.00 




Oris wold, - 


1,147,000 


4,588 00 


240.00 




Groton, - 


2,549,060 


10,196.25 


350.00 




Lebanon, ... 


1,146,573 


4,586.30 


328.00 




Ledyard, - 


603,111 


2,412.45 


296.00 




Lisbon, ... 


317,173 


1,268.60 


84.00 




Lyme, .... 

Montville, ... 


407,599 


1,630.40 


232.00 




1,131,370 


4,525.48 


372.00 




North Stonington, 


888,600 


3,554.40 


830.00 




Old Lyme, - 


545,258 


2,181.04 


96.00 




Preston, - 


856,342 


3,425.38 


256.00 


$3,681.38 


Salem, - 


374,810 


1,499.21 


52.00 




Sprague, - 


1,156,290 


4,625.17 


134.00 




Stonington, - 

Waterford, ... 


4,963,589 


19,854.38 


218.00 




932,816 


3,731.27 


248.00 






§35,990,142 


$143,960.57 


$5,708.00 


$3,681.38 


Bridgeport, - - - 


$7,996,434 


$31,985.74 


$3,176.00 




Danbury, - - - - 


4,140,217 


16,560.87 


1,720.00 




Bethel, 


671,826 


2,687.30 


144.00 




Brookfield, ... 


691,388 


2,765.65 


172.00 




Darien, - 


1,176,171 


4,704.68 


302.00 




Easton, - 


635,643 


2,542.57 


60.00 




Fairfield, ... 


3,424,534 


13,698.14 


418.00 




Greenwich, ... 


3,219,783 


12,879.13 


728.00 




Huntington, - - - 


728,050 


2,912.20 


170.00 




Monroe, . - - - 


646,771 


2,587.08 


170.00 




New Canaan, - - - 


1,188,677 


4,754.71 


338.00 




New Fairfield, . - - 


470,066 


1,880.26 


156.00 




Newtown, . - - 


1,863,965 


7,455.86 


296.00 


*S324.72 


Norwalk, - 


4,676,978 


18,707.91 


1,388.00 




Redding, ... 


1,200,907 


4,803.63 


280.00 




Ridgefield, 


1,224,898 


4,899.59 


230.00 




Stamford, ... 


4,905,256 


19,621.02 


564.00 




Sherman, .... 


427,672 


1,710.69 


74.00 




Stratford, ... 


1,684,417 


6,737.67 


232.00 




Trumbull, - 


734,611 


2,938.44 


106.00 




Weston, . - - 


513,514 


2,054.07 


232.00 


1,000.01 


Westport, - 


2,406,243 


9,624.98 


424.00 




Wilton, 


796,741 


3,186.96 


248.00 






$45,424,762 


$181,699.05 


$11,628.00 


$1,324.73 



* Paid in April, with interest. 



14 



GENERAL REVENUE. 

TAX FROM TOWNS, PAYABLE FEBRUARY 20, 1866. 









Military Com- 


Taxes <l<4fl 


TOWNS. 


Grand List. 


Tax at 4 mills 


mutation Tax 
1 at 82. 


ending M^H 
31, 1S61V 


Brooklyn, - 


$1,037,923 


$4,151.69 


$196.00 




Ashford, - 


608,990 


2,039.96 


114.00 




Canterbury, - 


697,571 


2,790.28 


160.00 




Chaplin, - 


300,560 


1,202.24 


40.00 




Eastford, 


309,806 


1.239.291 174.00 




Hampton, - 


429,223 


1,716.89 


118.00 




Killingly, ... 


1,677,761 


6,711.04 


644.00 




Plainfield, - 


1,630,024 


6,520.10 


360.00 




Porafret, ... 


1,037,774 


4,161.10 


180.00 




Putnam, - 

Scotland, ... 


1,172,619 


4,690.47 


324.00 




392,175 


1,568.70 


78.00 




Sterling, - 


375,295 


1,501.18 


110.00 




Thompson, - 


1,679,754 


6,719.02 


350.00 




Voluntown, ... 


295,958 


1,183.82 


88.00 




Windham, ... 


2,164,083 


8,656.32 


486.00 




Woodstock, ... 


1,336,763 


5.343.02 


400.00 






$15,046,269 


$60,185.08 


$3,822.00 




Litchfield, - - - 


$1,634,480 


$6,537.92 


$504.00 




Barkhamstead, - - - 


541,210 


2,164.84 


240.00 




Bethlehem, • 


526,060 


2,104.24 


142.00 




Bridgewater, 


549,765 


2,199.06 


236.00 




Canaan, - 


761,342 


3,045.37 


144.00 




Colebrook, ... 


617,216 


2,468.86 


226.00 




Cornwall, ... 


• 821,246 


3,284.98 


19400 




Goshen, - 


914,879 


3,669.52 


194.00 




Harwinton, - . - 


590,141 


2,360.56 


156.00 




Kent, .... 


633,539 


2,534.15 


190.00 




Morns, ... 


407,826 


1,631.30 


114.00 




New Hartford, - 


1,011,917 


4,047.68 


188.00 




New Milford, - - - 


2,017,306 


8,069.22 


590.00 




Norfolk, - - - - 


926,931 


3,707.72 


196.00 




North Canaan, 


908,342 


3,633.37 
7,342.90 


162.00 




Plymouth, - 


1,836,726 


904.00 




Koxbury, ... 


497,248 


1,988.99 


158.00 




Salisbury, . - - - 


2,066,626 


8,266.51 


298.00 


$8,564.51 


Sharon, ... 


1,481,741 


6,926.97 


350.00 




Torrington, . . - 


1,150,256 


4,601.03 


200.00 




Warren, ... 


357,101 


1,428.40 


146.00 




Washington, - 


1,031,594 


4,126.38 


276.00 




Watertown, ... 


1,402,481 


5,609.92 


206.00 




Winchester, - 


2,161,642 


8,646.17 


636.00 




Woodbury, ... 


1,200,795 


4,803.18 


382.00 






$26,047,310 


$104,189.24 


$7,032.00 


$8,564.51 



15 



GENERAL REVENUE. 

TAX FROM TOWNS, PAYABLE FEBRUARY 20, 1366. 









Military Com- 


Taxes due 


TOWNS. 


Grand List. 


rax at 4 mills. 


mutation Tax 
at*2. 


-nding March 
31, 1866. 


MlDDLBTOWS, 


$5,148,779 


$20,595,12 


$1,292.00 




Haddam, .... 


866,416 


3,473.66 


196.00 




Chatham, - 


890,387 


3,561.55 


162.00 




Chester, - - - . - 


374,783 


1,499.13 


108.00 




Clinton, ... 


615,537 


2,462.15 


116.00 




Cromwell, - 


568,352 


2,273.41 


146.00 


*$719.41 


Durham, ... 


492,351 


1,969.40 


122.00 




East Haddam, ... 


1,259,305 


5,037.22 


458.00 




Essex, - - - - 


945,769 


3,783.08 


226.00 




Killingworth, ... 


346,277 


1,385.10 


100.00 




Old Saybrook, 


607,990 


2,431.97 


210.00 




Portland, .... 


1,811,564 


7,246.26 


454.00 




Saybrook, ... 


548,410 


2,193.64 


104.00 




Westbrook, ... 


557,267 


2,229.07 


218.00 






$15,035,188 


$60,140.76 


$3,912.00 


$719.41 


TOLHSD, ... 


$527,969 


$2,111.88 


$120.00 




Andover, - 


279,758 


1,119.03 


36.00 




Bolton, . . . 


300,088 


1,200.35 


66.00 




Coventry, - 


912,872 


3,651.48 


302.00 




Columbia, - - - 


352,161 


1,408.64 


106.00 




Ellington, - 


813,499 


3,254.00 


186.00 




Hebron, ... 


638,197 


2,552.78 


136.00 




Mansfield, - 


800,635 


3,202.54 


328.00 




Somers, ... 


795,197 


3,180.80 


226.00 




Stafford, - 


1,308,280 


5,233.12 


464.00 




Union, - 


308,008 


1,232.04 


162.00 




Vernon, .... 


2,050,216 


8,200.98 


606.00 




Willington, . - - 


419,664 


1,678.66 


220.00 






$9,506,574 


$38,026. 3C 


$2,953.00 





Paid in April, with interest. 



TAXES DUE FROM YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1865. 



East Haven, 
Meriden, 
Middletown, 
Chatham, 



$14,850.15 
172.26 
502.46 



$297.00 
1,506.00 



$15,524.87 $1,8 



16 
GENERAL REVENUE. 

SUMMARY. 









Military Com- 


Taxes due 


COUNTIES. 


Grand Li.«t. 


Tax at 4 mills. 


mutation Tax endiug March 








at&2. 


31, 1806. 


Hartford, - 


§67,626,129 


$270,504.52 


$10,216.00 


$1,885.94 


New Haven, ... 


61,410,083 


245,640.33 


9,420.00 




New London, 


85,990,142 


143,960.57 


6,708.00 


3,68138 


Fairfield, - 


45,424,762 


181,699.05 


11,628.00 


1,324.73 


Windham, ... 


15,046,269 


60,185.08 


3,822.00 




Litchfield, 


26,047,310 


104.189.24 


7,032.00 


8,564.51 


Middlesex, - 


15,035,188 


60,140.76 


3,912.00 


719.41 


Tolland,- ... 


9,506,574 


38,026.30 


2,958.00 






$276,080,457 


$1,104,345.85 


S54,696.00 


$16,175.97 



TAXES REMAINING UNPAID MARCH 31, 1866. 

Middletown, from 1865, ------ $172.26 

Burlington, ------- 1,825.94 

Preston, -------- 3,425.38 

Newtown, ------- 324.72 

Weston, -------- 1,000.01 

Salisbury, - - - - - - 8,266.51 

Cromwell,- ------- 719.41 

$15,734.23 



MEM. OF INTEREST RECEIVED ON DELAY PAYMENT OF TAXES. 



Plymouth, - 
Lebanon, 
Simsbury, - 
East Windsor, 
Sprague, 
Colchester, 
Windham, - 
Frauklia, 



$2.71 Vernon, - 
13.11 Andover, 
16.75 Willington, 

3.28 Enfield, 
14.28 Manchester, 
27.36 
45.68 

9.83 



■ $44.03 

6.35 

■ 10 13 
62.69 

■ 33.28 



Taxes due, February 20th, 1866, - 
Taxes due from list of 1865, - 



$1,159,041 e5 
17,327.87 



Taxes remaining unpaid, March 31st, 1866, 
Amount received, 



$1,176,369.72 
16,348.23 



$1,160,021.49 



17 



TAX ON CORPORATIONS. 



NAMES. 


Location. 


No. of 
Shares. 


Par 

Val. 


Market 
Value. 


Am't of 

Tax 
received. 


American Flask and Cap Company, 


Waterbury, 


5,000 




$32.50 


$406.25 


American Publishing Company, 


Hartford, 


2,000 




25.00 


125.00 


American Shear Company, 


Woodbury, 


720 


$25 


25.00 


47.10 


Ashland-Cotton Company, 


Jewett City, 


2,105 




100.00 


526.25 


Attawaugan Hotel Company, 


Killingly, ' 


300 


25 


9.37 


7.35 


Avon Manufacturing Company, 
Barnard Hardware Company," 


Avon, 


1,600 


25 


15.00 


23.56 


Salisbury, 


1,000 


25 


2.50 


6.45 


Benedict & Burnham Manuf'gCo., 


Waterbury, 


bal. due 


fr'm 


1864. 


195.00 


Bennett Bridge Company, 


Southbury, 








18.00 


Birmingham Iron Foundry Co., 
B. K. Mills & Co., 


Derby, 


1,600 


•2." 


30.00 


126.00 


Bridgeport, 


800 25 


25.00 


52.35 


Bridgeport Gas Light Co., 1864, 


" 


3,600 25 


18.75 


176.42 


" " " " 1865, 


" 


3,600 


25 


18.75 


168.75 


Bridgeport Spring Company, 1864, 
1865, 


" 


8,000 
7,500 


25 

25 


25.00 
30.00 


52.36 
75.00 


Bridgeport Patent Leather Co., 


" 


800 




25.00 


60.00 


Bridgeport Shoe Company, 


" 


200 




12.00 


12.00 


Bridgeport Bridge Company, 
Broad Brook Company, 1864, 


Hartford, 


40 
8,000 




100.00 

37.50 


30.00 
781.25 


" " 1865, 


" 


8,000 




41.25 


825.00 


Brockett Manufacturing Company, 


Mount Carmel, 








4.45 


Brocksieper Gas Regulator Co., 
Carlisle Co., 


Bridgeport, 


3,000 




3.33 


50.00 


Vernon, 

Norwich. 


1,800 


25 


2.75 


12.97 


C. B. Rogers & Co.,* (Tax returned) 


8,000 






250.00 


Central .Manufacturing Company, 


Central Village, 


1,000 




120.00 


303.00 


Cheenev Bros. Silk Man. Co., 1864, 


Hartford, 


7,269 


100 


100.00 


1,817.25 


" " " " 1865, 


" 


7,569 




100.00 


1,892.26 


Coburn Soap and Washing Fluid Co. 
Coe Brass Manufacturing Co., 


Stamford, 


2,000 


25 


2.25 


11.75 


Wolcottville, 


4,000 


25 


25.00 


261.67 


Colt's Patent Fire Arms Company, 


Hartford, 


10,000 




200.00 


5,000.00 


Colt's Willow Ware Manuf'g Co., 


" 


1,000 


25 


25.00 


65.46 


Collins Company, 


Collinsville, 


50,000 




13.00 
25.0f 


1,625.00 


Conn. Arms Manufacturing Co., 


Glastenbury, 


12,000 


25 


630.50 


Connecticut River Mills, 


Hartford, 


1,280 


25 


25.00 


83.33 


Cornwall Bridge Company, 


Cornwall, 


40 




2000.00 


200.00 


Danburv Gas Light Company, 
Derby turnpike & Bridge Co'., 1864, 


Danbury, 


720 




15.00 


27.00 


Derby, 


100 




85.00 


42.50 


" " " " 1865, 


" 


120 




100.00 


42.50 


Eagle Lock Company, 


Terryville, 


bal. due 


fr'm 


1864. 


112.51 


East Windsor Woolen Co., 1864, 


E. Windsor, 


6,000 




25.00 


750.00 


" " " " 1865, 


" 


6,000 




25.00 


375.00 


Elm City Company, 


New Haven, 


1,700 




25.00 


212.50 


Enfield Bridge Company, 


Enfield, 


200 




25.00 


25.00 


Enfield Manufacturing Company, 


" 


11.648 




15.00 


436.80 


Eagle Company, 


Rivertou, 


670 




25.00 


71.25 


Falls Company, 


Norwich, 


20,000 




27.50 


1,440.08 


Farrist Steel Works, 


Windsor Locks, 


1,000 




100.00 


250.00 


Florence Mills, 


Rockville, 


3,200 


25 


25.00 


209.46 


Forbes Ore-bed Company, 


Salisbury, 


1,200 


25 


25.00 


78.77 


Gelston Hotel Company, 


Goodspeed's Ldg, 








10.58 


Glastenburv Knitting Company, 


Glastenbury, 


800 


25 


25.00 


62.00 


Goodycar'sl. R. Glove Man'f'g Co., 


Naugatuck, 


1,000 


25 


25.00 


62.50 


Greenwoods Company, 
Greenwoods Scythe Company, 


New Hartford, 


8,157? 




20.00 


407.88 


" 


1,380 




18.75 


64.69 


Hart Manufacturing Company, 


Berlin, 


4,000 


25 


25.00 


261.75 


Hartford Carpet Company, 
Hartford Bridge Company, 


Hartford, 


13,310 


100 


160.00 


5,324.00 


" 


600 




160.00 


240.00 


Hartford City Gas Light" Company, 
Hartford and N. Y. Steamboat Co", 


'• 


12,000 




27.50 


825.00 


" 


8,000 




32.50 


650.00 


Hartford and Albany Trans. Co., 




1,200 




25.00 


150.00 


Harris Woolen Company, 


Putnam, 


4,000 




25.00 


250.00 



18 



TAX ON CORPORATIONS. 



NAMES. 


Location. 


No. of 

Shares. 


Par 
Val 


Market 
Value. 


Ara't of 

Tax 
received. 


Hawley Bridge Company, 
Hazard Powder Company, 
Hebron Manufacturing Company, 


3rookficld, 


200 




61.00 


S .76 


Enfield, 


6,250 




100.00 


1,562.60 


Jebron, 


160 


$26 


4.00 


16.76 


Hockanum Company, 


Jockville, 


1,604 


20 


37.50! 


156.90 


Home Woolen Company, 
Humphreysville Manufacturing Co., 


iethany, 


1,000 


25 


15.00 


390.80 


Seymour, 


1,500 




40.00 


150.00 


Isley Smelting Company, 


Torrington, 








26.20 


Landers & Smith Manf 'g. Co., 


<ew Britain, 








130.83 


Leeds Company, 


Vernon, 


1,440 


25 


56.50 


213.56 


Lindsay Fire Arms Company, 


New Haven, 


6,000 


100 


10.00 


255,91 


Meriden Gas Light Company, 


Meriden, 


2,000 




10.00 


60.60 


Middletown Ferry Company, 
Middletown Gas Light Company, 


Middletown, 


200 


100 


150.00 


78.66 


" 


2,280 


25 


20.00 


114.00 


Middlesex Turnpike Company, 


Saddam, 


100 




25.00 


6.66 


Middlesex Quarry Company, 
Mineral and Manufacturing' Co., 


Portland, 


1,000 




225.00 


562.60 


Cheshire, 








273.66 


New Britain Gas Light Co., 1864, 


New Britain, 


1,200 


25 


20.00 


62.90 


" " if 1865, 


" 


1,200 


25 


25.00 


75.00 


New England Company, 


Rockville, 


2,400 


20 


37.50 


234.37 


New England Soapstone Companv, 


Torrington, 
New Haven, 


640 


25 


2.00 


3.20 


N.Haven & E.IIaven Bridge Co. 1864, 


60 


500 


1,000.00 


800.00 


" 1865, 


" ' 








150.00 


New Haven Gas Light Company, 


" 


10,000 




25.92 


648.00 


New Haven Steamboat Company, 


" 


2,000 




160.00 


750.00 


New Haven Water Company, 


" 


4,487 




40.00 


448.70 


New Haven Baking Company, 
New Milford Toll Bridge Co., 1864, 


" 


480 




40.00 


96.00 


New Milford, 


408 




10.00 


20.40 


" " " 1865, 


" 








10.20 


New London Gas Light Company, 
Norwalk Gas Light Company, 


New London, 


1,400 




12.50 


43.76 


Norwalk, 


1,439 




25.00 


91.03 


Norwich Water Power Co., 1864, 


Norwich, 


800 


10. 


100.00 


209.47 


Norwalk Lock Company, 
Norwich a»d New York Trans. Co., 
Norwich Water Power Co., 1865, 


Norwalk, 


2,000 


26 


35.00 


183.48 


Norwich, 


14,000 




37.50 


1,374.66 


" 


800 




100.00 


20'0.00 


Occum Company, 


" 


1,000 




50.00 


125.00 


Old Norwich Aqueduct Company, 


" 


40 


60 


60.00 


52.37 


Oneco Mills, 


Sterling, 
Norwich, 


2,000 




25.00 


127.50 


Ore Bed Company, 

Ore Bed and Iron Company, 








160.00 


Salisbury, 


400 




150.00 


150.00 


Orcuttville Company, 


Stafford Springs, 


bal. due 


Oct. 


1864. 


21.26 


Panola Mills, 


Vernon, 


960 


25 


12.50 


31.42 


Pawcatuck Manufacturing Co.-, 


Stonington, 


600 


2" 


25.00 


39.26 


Persse & Brooks, 


Windsor Locks, 


4,500 






375.00 


Plainville Water Power Company, 


Plainville, 


1,200 


2." 


6.00 


18.00 


Putnam Manufacturing Company, 
Quinnebaug Company, 


Putnam, 


300 




1,000.00 


760.00 
600.00 


Rock Manufacturing Co., 1864 


Rockville, 


250 




850.90 


551.34 


" " " 1865 


" 


250 




1,400.00 


875.00 


Rockville Gas Light Co., 1864 


" 


1,000 


26 


12.50 


32.69 


" " " 1865 


" 


250 


100 


75.00 


46.88 


Russell Manufacturing Company, 


Middletown, 


200 




1,000.00 


600.00 


Sage Ammunition Works, 


" 


4,000 




4.00 


80.00 


Sanseer Manufacturing Co., 1864 


" 


1,000 






32.0C 


" " " 1865 


" 


1,000 






23.57 


Saugatuck Manufacturing Co., 


Westport, 
Middletown, 


250 






1.60 


Savage Revolving Fire Arms Co., 
Seymour Paper Company, 


1,800 




25.00 


250.00 


Windsor Locks, 


4,500 




25.00 


281.26 


Sh'etucket Company, 


Norwich, 


20,000 




30.00 


1,571.00 


Shaler& Hall Quarry Company, 
Smithville Manufacturing Co., 


Portland, 


729 






125.00 


Willimantic, 








399.60 


Springville Manufacturing Co., 


Rockville, 








46.00 



^9 



TAX ON CORPORATIONS. 



NAMES. 


Location. 


No. of 
Shares 


Par 
Val 


Market 
Value. 


Am't of 

Tax 
received. 


Springville Company. 

Spring Perch Manufacturing Co., 

Stamford Manufacturing Company 


Rockvule, 
Bridgeport, 


60 

1,200 


• 40' 
25 


S225.0C 
25.0C 


$35.35 
78.50 


Stamford, 








511.80 


Stamford Gas Light Co., 1864 


" 


1,050 


25 


30.0C 


82.44 


" " " 1865 


" 


1,050 


86 


30.0C 


157.50 


Thames Flax Company, 




1,000 




1.0C 


5.00 


Tomlinson & Miner Manuf 'g Co., 


Bridgeport, 


400 


25 


25.0C 


26.18 


Tomlinson Spring and Axle Co., 
Uncasville Wharfage & Storage Co. 


" 


2,000 


25 


30.0C 


157.09 


Montville, 


164 


25 


12.5C 


5.00 


Union Mills, 


Middletown, 


250 


25 


15.0C 


49.10 


Union Manufacturing Co., 1864 


Hartford, 


1,903 




100.0C 


475.75 


" " " 1865 


" 


1,903 




50.0C 


248.63 


Union Manufacturing Co., 1864, 


Nor walk, 


4,000 




25.00 


355.81 


" " " 1865, 


" 


4,000 




25.0C 


352.00 


Weed Sewing Machine Company, 


West Winsted, 


6,928 




12.50 


226.75 


Waterbury Clock Company, 


Waterbury, 


4,000 


25 


25.06 


261.67 


Waterbury Brass Company, 


" 


1,200 


25 


25.00 


750.00 


Waterbury Gas Light Company, 


" 


4,000 




9.00 


90.00 


Wauregan Mills, 


Plainfield, 


10,000 




80.00 


2,000.00 


Warwick Tool Company, 


Middletown, 








26.25 


Westford Glass Company, 


Westford, 








18.85 


White Manufacturing Company, 


Bridgeport, 


400 


25 


25.00 


26.25 


Wheeler & Wilson S. M. Co., 1864, 


" 


16,000 


25 


50.00 


2,093.34 


" " " " " 1865, 


" 


16,000 


25 


50.00 


2,010.00 


W. &. B. Douglas Manuf'g Co., 
Williams Duck Company, 
Willimantic Gas Light Company, 


Middletown, 


2,500 




100.00 


625.00 


East Haddam, 


1,520 


25 


12.50 


49.75 


Willimantic, 


800 




12.50 


25.13 


Windsor Oil and Mining Company, 


Tariffville, 


393 




20.00 


4.91 


Winsted Manufacturing Company, 
Windham Cotton Manuf 'g Co., 


Winsted, 


500 




76.00 


93.75 


Willimantic, 


192 




400.00 


192.00 


Willimantic Linen Company, 
Woodruff & Beach Iron Works, 


" 


9,000 


25 


50.00 


1,171.87 


Hartford, 


9,000 




25.00 


1,125.00 


Zoar Bridge Company, 




208 




8.00 


8.32 




857,668.08 


C. B. Rogers & Co.,* 


(Tax returned.) 








250.00 

$57,418.08 



20 



TAX ON SAVINGS BANKS. 



NAME. 


Location. 


Stock 
Reported. 


Tax Paid. 


Ansonia Savings Bank, 


Ansonia, 


$43,544.21 


8326.58 


Bridgeport Savings Bank, 


Bridgeport, 


1,328,925.83 


9,966.94 


Bridgeport City Savings Bank, 


" 


461,309.89 


1,584.82 


Bethel Savings Bank, 
Connecticut Savings Bank, - 


Bethel, 
New Haven, 


8,079.15 


60.58 


1,008,364.47 


7,562.72 


Collinsvilie Savings Bank, 


Collinsvilie, 


137,028.13 


1,027.71 


Chelsea Savings Bank, 


Norwich, 


369,771.36 


2,773.28 


Deep River Savings Bank, 


Deep River, 
Danbury, 


131,189.50 


710.16 


Daubury Savings Bank, 
Derby Savings Bank, 


527,974.79 


3,959.80 


Derby, 


269,079.80 


2,018.08 


Essex Savings Bank, - 

Farmers and Mech. Sav. Bank, 1862, 


Essex, 


187,342.17 


1,405.06 


Norwich, 


133,281.40 


666.41 


" " Interest, 






106.62 


" " arrears and int., 1863, 






959.39 


u ii it ii 1864j 






815.67 


Falls Village Savings Bank, - 


Falls Village, 


123,421.33 


925.66 


Farmers and Mechanics Sav. Bank, 


Middletown, 


283.691.53 


1,077.68 


Farmington Savings Bank, - 


Farmington, 

U. S. Securities, 


334,535.37 


3,806.14 


" " Bal. of tax on deposits 


1864. 


1,588.3C 


Groton Savings Bank, 


Mystic River, 


300,876.26 


2,256.56 


Mech. & Workm'n S. B. & B. Ass'n., 


New Haven, 


10,949.35 


82.12 


" " " " " " 


Bridgeport, 


1,530.00 


11.47 


Manchester Savings Bank, - 


Manchester, 


8,107 94 


60.80 


Meriden Savings Bank, - 


Meriden, 


328,029.44 


1,766.48 


Middletown Savings Bank, - 


Middletown, 


1,987,962.19 


9,749.70 


Mechanics Savings Society, 


South Norwalk, 


89,868 oi 


235.19 


Mechanics Savings Bank, 


Hartford, 


164,072.50 


1,230.54 


Norwalk Savings Bank, - 


Norwalk, 


493,067.72 


3,698.00 


Norwich Savings Society, 


Norwich, 


4,123,234 33 


19,796.40 


New Haven Savings Bank, 


New Haven, 


2,170,990.54 


11,339.94 


New London Savings Bank, - 
Newtown Savings Bank, - 


New London, 


1,677,942.90 


12,584.56 


Newtown, 


103,665.00 


777.48 


New Canaan Savings Bank, - 


New Canaan, 


87,527.53 


656.44 


Norfolk Savings Bank, - 

New Milford Savings Bank, - 


Norfolk, 


40,136.06 


301.02 


New Milford, 


94,497.23 


434.90 


People's Savings Bank, - 


Hartford, 


564.27 


4.23 


Putnam Savings Bank, 


Putnam, 


68,027.63 


322.00 


People's Savings Bank, - 


Bridgeport, 


249,466.32 


1,871.00 


People's Savings Association, 
Rockville Savings Bank, - 


" 


22,734.75 


170.50 


Rockville, 


227,001.00 


1,702.50 


Stamford Savings Bank, 


Stamford, 


451,383.07 


1,697.88 


Stonington Savings Bank, 


Stonington, 


353,643.76 


2,063.13 


Southport Savings Bank, 


Southport, 


290,740.50 


1,358.18 


Salisbury Savings Bank, - 


Lakeville, 


190,596.31 


1,429.48 


Southington Savings Bank, - 


Southington, 
Hartford, 


40,951.70 


307.14 


Society for Savings, 

Stafford Springs Savings Bank, 

Savings Bank of New Britain, - 


4,652,817.14 


34,911.14 


Stafford Springs, 
New Britain, 


127,393.92 


955.44 


94,018.59 


568.90 


Savings Bank of Tolland, - 


Tolland, 


307,951.06 


2,309.63 


Staffordville Savings Bank, 


Stafford, 


107,360.29 


805.20 


State Savings Bank, - 


Hartford, 


561,972.62 


4,214.80 


Townsend Savings Bank, - 


New Haven, 


1,313,806.25 


9,853.64 


Westport Savings Bank, 


Westport, 


25,923.00 


44.42 


Winsted Savings Bank, - 


Winsted, 


157,921.73 


1,184.42 


Waterhury Savings Bank, - 


Waterbury, 


441,803.17 


3,313.62 


Windham County Savings Bank, 


Windham; 


10,223.70 


76.68 


Willimantic Savings Institute, 


Willimantic, 


275,334.31 


2,065.00 


Litchfield Savings Bank, - 


Litchfield, 


231,178.37 


1,399.91 




$178,941.90 



•21 



TAX ON AUCTION SALES. 



NAME. 


Location. 


Amount of 
• Sales. 


Tax 
received 


B. & W. Hudson, - 


Hartford, 


83,993.00 


1-39.93 


W. L. Waring, - 


New Canaan,' 


6,647.61 


56.56 


James Finney, - 


Norwalk, 


6,892.00 


68.92 


C. F. Hotchkiss, - 


New Haven, 


14,536.00 


145.36 


S. M. Fanner. .... 


So. Woodstock, 


7,463.78 


74.63 


D. H. Clark, .... 


Stamford, 


40,980.81 


409.80 


Shubal Gallup, .... 


Norwich, 


29,606.00 


296.07 


William Clapp, .... 


KiUingly, 
Norwich, 


5,200.00 


52.00 


W. W. Kinne, .... 


9,142.75 


91.44 


R. Davidson, - 


Willimantic, 


5,168.00 


67.68 


Prescott May, - 


Putnam, 


16,560.79 


165.60 


B. Booth, 


New Haven, 


6,525.20 


54.32 


Mason Kinne, - - ~ - 


Norwich, 


4,288.15 


42.88 


Davi 1 Greenslit, - - 


Hampton, 
Woodstock, 


8,907.83 


89.07 


W. R. Arnold, - 


2,016.00 


20.16 


E. C. Eaton, .... 


Plainfield, 


3,645.98 


30.40 


Ira W. Ford, 


Hartford, 


2,860.55 


28.60 


Alfred Owen, .... 


Suffield, 
Ledyard, 


60.00 


.60 


John Brewster, _ - 
William Toohy, • 


3,670.00 


36.70 


Hartford, 


5,206.38 


52.06 


Edwin Wooster, .... 


Huntington, 


1,708.96 


17.10 


Ford & Levett, .... 


Hartford, 


18,681.00 


186.81 


James W. Beach, .... 


Bridgeport, 
Hartford, 


125.00 


1.25 


G. H. Olmstead, .... 


8,453.62 


84.53 


John Watson, - 


Windham, 


6,034.09 


60.34 


0. UUey, 


Middletown, 


1,370.47 


13.70 


Elijah Ackley, .... 


Middletown, 




7.17 


Read & Toohey, .... 


Hartford, 


2,065.70 


20.65 


Martin Coe, - 




1,172.63 


11.48 




32,21581 



TAX ON TELEGRAPH COMPANIES. 



NAME OF COMPANY. 


Number of 
Messages. 


Tax 
Received. 


United States Telegraph Company, ... 1864, 
American Telegraph Company, - - - 1864, 
United States Telegraph Company, ... 1865, 
American Telegraph Company, - - - 1865, 


5,887 
54,352 


358.87 
569.22 
99.77 
764.02 

$1,491.88 



22 



•p9AT909J 
XBX 

jo ;unouiv 


$45,916.95 
52,264.43 

3,996.04 
17,785.25 

8,306.66 
13,912.54 

2,624.88 
5,175.07 

16,790.& 

1,490.00 

1,247.79 

357.08 

952.70 

$170,820.22 


■9}B?S sjqi 
jo ;no pBo.i ui 
sb\\uj jo -on' 


13.78 
51 
24.93 
17i 
50 

29 
26.22 


■pBOJ 
HI S9[TtU JO 

•0N 8 i°1A\ 


61.97 

701 

84.73 

59£ 

124 

57 

23.8 
86 

122.26 
6 
7.12 

24 


■ssaupajqapu; 
Suijbou puu 
pap'unjjo "iba. 

JD3IJBUI 9HJX 


$95.00 
100.00 

95.00 
90.00 
104.00 

100.00 
100.00 

.95 

24.50 


•8JBqg 
qOB9 jo anp3A 
;oj(.iucu 9njx 


OOuttiOO** lOO 010 1*00 
HCP^OWO lO O CM C<l CO ?H 

9* 


•pncq no qsBO 
jo innomv 


$201,863.06 
126,343.00 
1,265.27 
6,499.66 
4,734.86 
67,746.00 

6,306.97 

1,000.00 
4,845.46 
1,950.24 

85.00 


•jq9p StnjBog 
jo itinomy 


$125,000.00 
100,000.00 

5,776.64 
32,900.00 
3,000.00 

100,000.00 
36,000.00 

1,658.55 
67,770.00 


•jqap pspnnj 
jo ^unoray 


$2,000,000 
927,000 
436,000 
284,000 
202,500 
300,000 

No Report. 
100,000 
76,000 

No Report. 
1,574,500 

No Report. 


•saJBqg 
jo JSqranN 


36,196 
30,000 
10,100 
23,540 
20,000 
11,000 

6,138 
6.688 

6,000 
1,290 
2,000 

750 


o w 

3 ° 


New York, 
Hartford, 

New Haven, 

Norwich, 

Bridgeport, 

Stonington, 
Norwalk, 
New London, 
New Haven, 
Hartford, 
New Haven, 
Hartford, 
Norwalk, 
Rockville, 
New Britain, 


< 
o 
« 

O 

w 


New York and New Haven, - 

Hartford, New Haven and Springfield, 

New Haven and Northampton, - - - 

Norwich and Worcester, - 

Housatonic, - 

Naugatuck, - - - - - 

New York, Providence and Boston, 

Norwalk and Danbury, ■ 

New London Northern, - - - - 

New Haven, New London and Stonington, 

Hartford, Providence and Fishkill, 

Hartford and Wethersfield Horse Railroad, - 

Norwalk Horse Railroad, - 

Rockville, - 

New Britain and Middletown, 



28 



DUTIES AND AVAILS OF COURTS. 



COUNTIES. 


Received from 
Clerk of Courts. 


Received from 
State's AttoiBes. 


Hartford County, - - - - - 

New Haven County, - 

Middlesex County, - 

Litchfield County, .... 

New London County, - 

Windham County, - 

Tolland County," - - - - - 

Fairfield County, - 


$284.27 
1,097.87 
37.69 
177.29 
226.80 
8.29 
30.00 
244.36 


$4,993 76 

3,202.97 

335.40 

52.72 

1,214.14 

178.77 

85.21 

1,540.76 


Total avails Courts and Bonds, 


$2,106.57 


$11,603.73 
$13,710.30 



TAX ON EXPRESS COMPANIES. 



NAME. 


Amount of 
Receipts. 


Amount of 
Tax. 


Adams Express Company, ... 

J. S. Finney, - 

Connecticut River Express, - 


Assessed, 

$150.00 
1,000.00 


$2,000.00 
3.00 
20.00 

$2,023.00 



TAX ON BRIDGE AND TURNPIKE COMPANIES. 

NON-RESIDENTS. 



NAME. 


Location. 


No, of 

Shares. 


Par 
Value. 


Market 
Value. 


Tax 

Received. 


Hartford Bridge Company, - 
Derby Turnpike Company, 


Hartford, 
Derby, 


61 

1 


$100. 
100. 


$160. 
85. 


$73.20 
1.28 

$74.48 



24 



TAX ON AGENTS OF FOREIGN INSURANCE 
COMPANIES. 



NAME. 



Location. 



A. F. Abbott, 
Elijah Acklev, 

D. C. Beckwith, 
Daniel Burr, 
William Conner, 
George R. Cowles, 
Heurv Cannon, 

.1. L.Dennison, - 
Thomas Edgar, 

James Ely, - 
Joseph Fuller, 

J. H. Frink, - 
Frisbie & Wilson, 
Jones & Gregory, 
J. H. Guy, 

E. B. Goodsell, 
James M. Goodwin, 
O. B. Grant, - 
Ralph Gillette, - 
John Hinsdale, 
Harris Johnson, - 
Robert A. Johnson, - 
0. P. Jacobs, 

C. C. Kimball, 

E. Lamed, 

George F. Lester, 

C. F. Loomis, 

Asaph Merriman, 

Gardner Morse, - 

North & Blakeslee, - 

H. Nichols, 

H. S. Parsons, 

G. S. Parsons, 

Asa Perkins, - 

George Perkins, - 

Thomas H. Perkjns, - 

George W. Root, - 

Charles Robinson, 

J. W. Smith, 

Francis Sheffield, - 

Lewis C. Seiger, - 

James Staples, 

Ira Sherman, 

Sherman, Lockwood & Co. 



William Wallace, - 
L. L. G. Whitney, 
W. J. & T. F. Welton, 
B. B. Whittemore, 
Elbert White, 
H. T. Wheeler, - 
E. S. Woodford, 
Henry A. Dyer, - 
D. C." Lamed, 
Josiah T. Peck, - 
H. C. Butler, - 



Waterbury, 

Middletown, 
Litchfield, 
Westford, 
Hartford, 
Norwalk, 
New Haven, 
Norwich, 
New London, 

Thompsonville, 
Suffield, 



New London, 

New Haven, 

Danbury, 

West Meriden, 

Bridgeport, 

Hartford, 

Stouington, 

Hartford, 

West Winsted, 

Putnam, 

Hartford, 

Danielsonville, 

Hartford, 

Norwich, 

Now Haven, 

Suffield, 

West Meriden, 

New Haven, 

Bridgeport, 
New Haven, 
Waterbury, 
Groton, 
Norwich, 

Hartford, 
New Haven, 
Waterbury, 
Pawcatuck, 

Bridgeport, 



Hartford, 

Stamford, 

Waterbury, 

Norwich, 

Stamford, 

Bridgeport, 

West Winsted, 

Brooklyn, 

New London, 

Bristol, 

Meriden, 



25 



TAX ON AGENTS OF FOREIGN INSURANCE 
COMPANIES. 



NAME. 



Am't of 
Tax. 



C. F. Collins, 
H. D. Hall, - 
T. G. Birdseye, - 

A. G. Dart, - 
Caleb Mix, 

T. J. Daskins, 
Ralph Gillette, - 
M. DeForest, - 
Ralph Gillette, - 

B. L. Yale, - 

E. B. Goodsell, - 
L. S. Fuller, - 

A. B. Adams, 
J. L. Dennison, 
W. Wallace, 
W. H. Fuller, 

J. \V. Stickney, - 
Jno. B. Ward, 

F. S. Ladd, 

B. B. A\ hittemore, - 
Isaac D. Cloft, - 
W. P. Eaton, - 
Edmund Hedge, - 

Charles H. Dennison, 
W. Wallace, 
Edmund Hedge, 
Ralph Gillette, 
F. Noyes, 
Ralph' Gillette, - 
Edmund Hedge, 
Ebenezer Fuller, - 
Copperthwait & Hoyt, 
George Dickinson, 
Thomas H. Perkins, - 
A. P. Collins, 



* Deduct H. S. Parsons, returned, (overpaid,) 



Middletovvn, 

Birmingham, 

New London, 

New Haven, 

Stamford, 

Hartford, 

Bridgeport, 

Hartford, 

Meriden, 

Bridgeport, 

Farmington, 

Willimantic, 

Norwich, 

Hartford, 

Suffield, 

Rockville, 

Norwich, 

Tolland, 

Norwich, 

Groton, 

Norwich, 

New London, 



Mystic, 

Hartford, 

New London, 

Hartford, 

Stonington, 

Hartford, 

New London, 

Danbury, 
New Milford, 
Norwich, 
New Britain, 



$53.43 
27.73 
33.01 
22.21 
54.94 
6.22 
56.86 
92.50 
33.20 
79.16 
34.50 
43.32 
22.80 
33.45 
9.10 

243^4 

103.00 

.22 



54.07 
26.98 
.60 
.24 
73.05 
.3.65 
29.02 
20.00 
1.28 
10.00 
38.90 
75.39 
32.25 
19.74 
83.52 
74.76 



$5,835.48 
8.49 

$5,826.99 



26 
DIVIDENDS ON BANK STOCKS. 

OWNED BY THE STATE. 



NAME. 


Shares. 


Amount 


Date of 
Div. 


Rate. 


Amount. 


Middlctown Bank, - 
Hartford Bank, - 
Middletown Natignal Bank, 
National New Haven Bank, 
Farmers and Mech. Bank, Hartf 'd., 


F. & M. 
last year 


B'k. $25 
30. 






S425.00 
8,275.00 
2,962.50 
3,288.00 
19G.00 


Deduct Div. of H. Barnard, 
" error F. & M. Bank, 


15,146.50 

55.00 

$15,091.50 



LICENSE TO INSURANCE AGENTS. 



NAME. 


Location. 


Amount. 




C. C. Kimball, - 

Horace P. Hoadley, .'-•'- 


Hartford, 
New Haven, 


$600. 
600. 






81,200. 





TAX ON MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



NAME. 


Location. 


Cash Cap. 
Invested. 


Cash Cap. 
on deposit 


Total. 


Am't of 
Tax. 


American Mutual Life, 


N. Haven, 


$339,838.00 


$1,662.00 


$341,500.00 


$3,415.00 


Connecticut Mutual Life, 


Hartford, 


in part, 






16,306.38 


Danbury Mutual Life, 


Danbury, 


4,028.00 


227.92 


4,255.92 


42.56 


Farmington Val. Mat. Fire, 
Greenwich Mutual Fire, 


Farm'gton, 


786.38 




786.38 


7.86 


Greenw'h, 


1,126.00 


952.17 


2,078.17 


20.78 


Hartford County Fire, 


Hartford, 


48,000.00 


6,980.09 


54,980.09 


549.80 


Litchfleld Fire, 


Litchfield, 


7,950.00 


1,103.00 


9,053.00 


90.53 


Madison Mutual Fire, 


Madison, 


350.00 


1,505.13 


1,855.13 


18.55 


Middlesex Mut. Assurance, 


Middlet'n, 


78,303.44 


1,995.56 


80,299.00 


803.00 


Milford Fire, 


Milford, 


500.00 


57.74 


557.74 


6.58 


New London Co. Mut. Fire, 


N. London, 


30,565.00 


2,498.75 


33,063.75 


330.64 


Norwich Mut. Assurance, 


Norwich, 


6,800.00 




6,800.00 


68.00 


Tolland Co. Mutual Fire, 


Tolland, 






44,935.00 


449.35 


Windham Co. Mutual Fire, 


Windham, 


7,443.00 


1,186.36 


8,629.36 


86.29 

$22,194.32 



27 
TAX ON BANKS. 

STOCK AND NON-RESIDENT. 



NAME. 


Location. 


Am't of Tax 
on Stock. 


Am't of Tax 

on 
Non-Resid't. 


iF.tna National, ... 


Hartford, 




$7.14 


First National of New Milford, 


New Milford, 


$125.00 


8.16 


Central National, - 


Middletown, 




4.20 


Danbury National, 
East Haddam Bank, 


Danbury, 


302.48 


40.51 


East Haddam, 


162.05 


42.30 


Farmers and Mechanics National, 


Hartford, 




4.72 


Hartford National, - 
First National of Bethel, 


" 




667.36 


Bethel, 


54.56 


21.86 


National Iron, - 


Falls Village, 




138.00 


Jewett City National, - 
Merchants National, 


Jewett City, 


25.00 


4.60 


New Haven, 




53.46 


Merchants National, 


Norwich, 




73.11 


Meriden National, - 


Mei-iden, 


'323.50 


57.51 


Middlesex County National, - 


Middletown, 


387.50 


62.16 


Mystic National, - 


Mystic, 


60.25 




Mystic River Bank, 


Mystic Bridge, 




3.73 


New Haven County National, 
New London City "National, 


New Haven, 




98.21 


New London, 


350.00 


37.80 


Norfolk Bank, 


Norfolk, 


201.00 


120.00 


Norwich National, 


Norwich, 




37.16 


National Pahquioque, 


Danbury, 


125.00 


37.80 


Shetucket National, 


Norwich, 




11.34 


State Bank, - 


Hartford, 


704.00 


54.72 


Stonington Bank, 


Stonington, 


180.00 


65.18 


Thompson National, 


Thompson, 
New Haven, 




17.93 


National Tradesmens, - 




233.48 


Windham Bank, - - - 


Windham, 


250.00 


55.50 


Windham County National, 


Brooklyn, 

West Winsted, 


131.49 


112.78 


Winsted Bank, - - - 


522.50 


133.24 


First National, - 


Norwich, 




2.00 




$3,904.33 


$2,185.85 


Returned to New London City 


Nat'l Bank, overpaid, 


176.50 

$3,727.83 





2S 



TAX ON INSURANCE COMPANIES' STOCK. 



NAME OF COMPANY. 


Location. 


No. of 

Shares. 


Market 
Value. 


Mar. val. 
U. S. Sec. 
deducted. 


Amount of 
Tax. 


jEtna Fire, - 


Hartford, 


22,500 


$300 


$243. 


$13,668.75 


.Etna Life, 


" 


1.600 


150 


90. 


412.50 


Charter Oak Fire and Marine, 


" 


3,000 


80 




600.00 


Charter Oak Life, 


» 


2,000 


90 


84. 


420.00 


City Fire. - 


» 


2,500 


125 




781.25 


City Fire, 


New Haven, 


not rep. 








Home Fire, 


" 


5,000 


150 




1,875.00 


Hartford Fire, 


Hartford, 


10,000 


200 


139. 


3,475.00 


Mutual Security Fire, 
New England F ire, 


New Haven, 


2,000 


25 




125.00 


Hartford, 


2,000 


90 




450.00 


North American Fire, 


•' 


3,000 


108 


54. 


405.00 


Phoenix Fire, 


" 


6,000 




120. 


1,800.00 


Putnam Fire, 


" 


5,000 


93 


61. 


763.25 


Travelers Accident, 


" 


4,000 


139 


64. 


640.00 


Merchants Fire, 


" 


2,000 


125 




365.00 


Connecticut Fire, 


» 


2,000 




86. 


430.00 


Continental Life, 


" 


6,000 




5.25 


61.25 


Norwich Fire, - . - 


Norwich, 


6.00C 




60. 


520.00 


Thames F'ire, 


" 


2,00C 


90 




450.00 


Norwalk Fire, 


Norwalk, 








50.00 




827,292.00 


Returned to Thames Fire 


Ins. Co., 








121.50 




$27,170.50 



TAX ON INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

NON-RESIDENT STOCK. 



NAME OF COMPANY. 


Location. 


No. of 
Shares. 


Market 
Value. 


Mar. val. 
U. S. Sec. 
deducted. 


Amount of 
Tax. 


JEtna Life, - 


Hartford, 


108 


$150 


$90 


$72.90 


jEtna Fire, 


" 


4,050 


300 


243 


7,381.12 


Charter Oak Firo and Marine, 


" 


90 


100 




64.00 


Charter Oak Life, 


" 


35 




90 


22.05 


Connecticut Fire, - 


" 


242 


100 


95 


172.49 


City Fire, 


" 


370 


125 




346.88 


City Fire, - 


New Haven, 


not rep. 








Home Fire, 


" 


499 


150 


100 


561.38 


Hartford Fire, 


Hartford, 


2,856 


200 


139 


"2,977.38 


Mutual Security Fire, - 
New England F'ire, - 


New Haven, 


221 


25 




41.46 


Hartford, 


122 


90 




82.35 


North American Fire, - 


" 


787 


100 


50 


318.74 


Phoenix Fire, 


H 


70S 




120 


637.20 


Putnam Fire, 


" 


1,305 


100 


63 


617.66 


Travelers Accident, - 


" 


1,202 


139 




1,253.08 


Merchants Fire, - 


" 


155 


100 




145.31 


Additional Receipts, 










141.47 

$14,825.29 



29 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

Town of Cornwall, Bounties returned, - - - - - . $30.00 

" Litchfield, " " ... - 4 . 8 o 

" Meriden, Interest on delay payment of taxes, - - - 150.50 

Leman W. Cutler, Comptroller, - 79.38 

Quarter Master General, ------- 528.99 

Town of Monroe, Bounties returned, - * - - - - 54.00 

R. W. Wright, New Haven, ------ 1,002,00 

George Robinson, Clerk Comptroller's Office, - 8.00 

J. C. Day, Executive Secretary, ------ 103.00 

C. H. Rogers, Treasurer of Colchester, - 10.40 

George M. Woodruff, Treasurer of Litchfield, - 18.00 

Hon. Benj. Pomeroy, proceeds of Stationery, - - - - 22.00 

P. L. Blodgett, Treasurer of East Windsor, - 4.33 

Samuel Rockwell, Mileage returned, ----- 3.60 

C. H. Mallory, " " - 34.92 

Benj. Pomeroy, " "---.. 20.92 

Charles W. Ballard, " " - 26.28 

E. H. Bugbee, " «.__-- i 2 .06 
Robbins Battell, " " - 25.92 
J. B. Hovt, " "----_ 28.80 

Luther Boardman, absence, ------ 77.40 

A. W. Clark, returned on grant, ----- 3.00 

John Abernethy, Mileage returned, - - - - - 10.00 

F. A. Sanford, " "-.-.- 22.68 
J. M. Payne, Representative not qualified, - 143.16 
Chauneey Howard, error in bill, ..---- 74 

F. A. Brown, Treasurer Hartford, ------ 6.30 

J. W. Cooper, A. A. A. G., sale of Catalogues, - - - 74.77 

F. A. Brown, Treasurer of Hartford, ----- 67.46 

W. R. White, Treasurer of Danbury, ----- 138.53 

W. R. Shelton, Treasurer, Bounty returned, - 30.00 

Proceeds of sale of stamps on notes, ----- 169.79 

C. L. O., in error, -------- 616.99 

Town of New London, Bounties returned, - - - - 36.00 

Gideon Hall, error in payment of salary, ----- 6.61 

Geer & Pond, sale of Statutes, - - - - - 1,503,20 

John R. Buck, expenses of publishing, returned, - 35.76 
U. S. Government, War Warrant, No. 3377, - 171,455.70 

Ed. Lyon, sale of Statutes, ----.. jg.oo 

Winsted Savings Bank, unclaimed deposit, - 60.00 



Deduct C. L. O. in error, 



$176,751.05 
616.99 



30 
TRIAL BALANCE. 



Dr. CIVIL LIST. 

To paid Civil List Orders, $820,425.04 

" " Registered Orders, ------ 246,15(159 

" " Interest on State Bonds, ----- 477,363.00 

» " Bills Payable, 2,523,113.79 

" " Cora'n on Bonds, (balance,) ----- 5.00 

" " Contingency, - .- «- 181.97 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, 294,401.05 



84,361,640.44 



Dr. SCHOOL FUND. 

To Commissioners' Orders, Principal, ----- $244,285,00 

" Balance of Rev. D. Sage, unpaid, ... - 435.00 

" Commissioners' Orders, Revenue, ----- 125,990.79 

" Interest School Fund, Dividend Orders, - 133,885.91 

" Balance, to April 1st, 1866, 37,739.89 



$542,286.69 



31 



TRIAL BALANCE, 



CIVIL LIST. 
By Balance, April 1st, 1865, 

Tax on Associations, - 
" " Savings Banks, ... 

" " Auction Sales, - 
" " Railroads, - 

Avails of Courts and Bonds, 

Premium on issue of Bonds, 

Tax from Towns, - - - - 

" on Telegraph Companies, 
" " Non-Resident Bridge Companies, 
" " Express Companies, - 
" " Insurance Companies Stock, 
" " " " Non-Resident, 

" " Mutual Insurance Companies, - 

Miscellaneous Receipts, ... 

Dividends on Bank Stocks, 

Tax on Foreign Insurance Companies, 

Premium on sale of Bank Stocks, 

Tax on Non-Resident Bank Stocks, - 
" " Bank Stocks, 

Licenses to Insurance Agents, 

Cash from sale of Bonds, - 

Accrued interest on Sales, - 

Contingency, - 

Sale of Bank Stocks, 



Cr. 

$3,428.16 

57,418.08 

178,941.90 

2,215.81 

170,820.22 

13,710.30 

31.00 

1,160,021.48 

1,491.88 

74.48 

2,023.00 

27,170.50 

14,825.29 

22,194.32 

176,134.06 

15,091.50 

5,826.99 

16,790.00 

2,185.85 

3,727.83 

1,200.00 

2,367,200.00 

74.00 

43,79 

119,000.00 



By Balance, April 1st, 1866, 



$4,361,640.44 
$294,401.05 



SCHOOL FUND. 
By Balance of Principal, April 1st, 1865, 
" Collections of Principal,- - 

" " " Revenue, (prin. and int.) 

" Balance of Interest, April 1st, 1865, 
" Collections of Interest, - 




By Balance, April 1st, 1866, 



$37,739.89 



32 



TRIAL BALANCE 



Dr. NORMAL SCHOOL. 

To paid Comptroller's Orders, July 1865, 
" " " " December, 1865, 

" " " " January, 1866, - 

" " " " February, 1866, 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, 



$2,088.10 

1,799.00 

504.90 

1,805,21 

4,231.31 



$10,428.52 



Dk. INSANE POOR FUND. 

To paid Orders, April, 1865, 

'• " " July, 1865, - - - - 

" " " October, 1865, - - - - 

" " " January, 1866, ... 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, - 



$3,937.81 
3,646.99 
3 773.85 
3,794.19 
3,613,88 

$18,766.72 



GENERAL HOSPITAL SOCIETY. 



To Balance, April 1st, 1865, 
" paid Order, April, 1865, • 
" " " July, 1865, 
" " " October, 1865, 
" Balance, April 1st, 1866, 



792.05 
879.28 
593.65 
565.47 
,169.67 



DEAF AND DUMB. 



To paid Orders, May, 1865, 
" " " October, 1865, 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, 



2,312.50 
3,561 56 
1,641.86 



33 
TRIAL BALANCE. 



NORMAL SCHOOL. Cb. 

• Balance, April 1st, 1865, $2,928.52 

Grant, 1865, 7,500.00 



$10,428.52 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, $4,231.31 



INSANE POOR FUND. Cb. 

By Balance, April 1st, 1865, $3,766.72 

" Grant, 1865, 15,000.00 



$18,766.72 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, $3,613.88 



GENERAL HOSPITAL SOCIETY. Cr. 

By Grant, 1865, $2,000.00 

" " 1865, 2,000.00 



$4,000.00 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, - ' $1,169.67 



DEAF AND DUMB. Cr. 

By Balance, April 1st, 1865, 615.91 

" By Grant, 1865, - - - - - - - 7,000.00 



$7,515.91 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, $1,641.86 



34 
TRIAL BALANCE. 



Dr. HARTFORD HOSPITAL. 

To Balance, April 1st, 1865, $174.05 

" paid Order, June, 1865, --•--. 566.60 

" " " October, 1865, ------ 603.25 

" " " January, 1866, ----- 797.82 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, .--•-. 1,858.38 



Dr. INDIGENT BLIND. 

To paid Order, June, 1865, $2,297.77 

To Balance, April 1st, 1866, 2,202.23 



$4,500.00 



INDIGENT IDIOTS. 



To paid Order, April, 1865, 
" '• " July, 1865, • 
" " " October, 1865, 
" " " January, 1866, 
" Balance, April 1st, 1866, 



$676.00 
637.50 
625.00 
675.00 

2,222.11 

$4,834.61 



35 
TRIAL BALANCE. 



STATE PRISON MEDICAL SOCIETY. Cit. 

By Balance, April 1st, 1866, $1,455.00 



HARTFORD HOSPITAL. Cr. 

By Grant, 1865, - - .... $2,000.00 

" " 1865, .... - 2.000.00 



$4,000.00 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, $1,858.38 



INDIGENT BLIND. Cr. 

By -Balance, April 1st, 1865, ------ $1,500.00 

" Grant, 1865, - • 3,000.00 

$4,500.00 

By Balance. April 1st, 1866, $2,202.23 



INDIGENT IDIOTS. Cr.. 

By Balance, April 1st, 1865, ------ $1,834.61 

" Grant, 1865, 3,000.00 



$4,834.61 
By Balance, April 1st, 186S, -.-.-- $2,222.11 



86 



TRIAL BALANCE. 



Bb. sick and wounded soldiers. 

To paid Order, April, 1865, - 

" " " May, 1865, - 

•' " " June, 1865, - 

" " " July, 1865, 

" " " August, 1866, - 

" " " September, 1866, .... 

" " " October, 1865, - 

" " " November, 1865, .... 

" " " December, 1865, .... 

" " " January, 1866, .... 

'• " " March, 1866, - 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, - .... 



$1,266.66 

1,710.49 
719.78 

1,499.18 
882.40 
748.37 
587.26 
386.33 
808.16 

1,232.82 
723.56 

1,380.67 

§11,940.66 



Dr. STATE PRISON. 

To Balance, April 1st, 1866, ... 



Dr. NATIONAL MONUMENT AND CEMETERY AT GETTYSBURG. 
To paid Order, September, 1865, ..... $840.00 

• ; Balance, April 1st, 1866. ...... 480.00 



37 
TRIAL BALANCE. 



SICK AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS. Cr. 

By Balance, April 1st, 1865, $5,940.66 

" Grant, 1865, --..-.. 6,000.00 



$11,940.66 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, - $1,380.67 



GOV. W. A. BUCKINGHAM, FOR EXPENSE INCURRED BY HIM. Cr. 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, •- - $3,000.00 



NATIONAL MONUMENT AND CEMETERY AT GETTYSBURG. Cr. 
By Balance, April 1st, 1865, - ... $1,320.00 



$1,320.00 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, .--.-- $480.00 



3* 



TRIAL BALANCE 



Dr . loan account. 

To Balance, D. Sage, April 1st, 1866, ----- 33,300.00 



TOWN DEPOSIT FUND. PRINCIPAL. 



To Balance, April 1st, 1866, 



00 



To Balance, April 1st, 1865, ------ 

" State Bonds, December 25, 1865, ------ 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866. - - - - - - 60.14 



$21,085.14 



Dr. 


TOWN DEPOSIT FUND. 


INTEREST. 




To Interest 


paid East Granby, 1864, 


- 


8125.03 


" " 


" Granby, - 




296.11 


" " 


" Bolton, ------ 




114.65 


" 


" Rocky Hill, - 


. 


177.18 


" « 


" Wethersfield, - - - 


- 


303.55 


(i (> 


" Southburv, - - - 


- 


239.28 


« 


" East Granby, 1865, 


- 


125.03 




" North Branford, 




168.30 
$1,549.13 



Dr. SINKING FUND, 1862. INTEREST AND PREMIUM ACCOUNT. 
To purchase of Connecticut State Bonds, (To Principal.) - - $121,400.00 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, ------ 701.84 



39 



TRIAL BALANCE. 



TOWN DEPOSIT FUND. PRINCIPAL. Cr. 

By Over Loan of 1864, $325.00 

" Bills Payable, October 16, 1865, 23,760.14 



$24,085.14 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, - - . - - - - $60.14 



TOWN DEPOSIT FUND. INTEREST. Cr. 

By Balance, April 1st, 1865, ------ $395.22 

" Interest collected, ------- 1,030.35 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, ------ 123,56 



SINKING FUND, 1862. INTEREST AND PREMIUM ACCOUNT. Cr. 

By Balance of account, April 1st, 1865, - $55,910.84 

" Interest, May 4th, 1865, ------ 29,654.70 

" " March 31st, 1866, - - - - - - 31,970.83 

« « " » " ----- 3,363.75 

" " " « 176.72 

" » " » » 1,025.00 

$122,101.84 

By Balance, April 1st, 1866, ------ $701,84 



40 
TKIAL BALANCE. 



Dr. SINKING FUND, 1864. INTEREST AND PBEMIUM ACCOUNT. 
To purchase of Connfcticut State Bonds, to Principal, - - $39,600.00 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, 2,066.51 



84*1,665.51 



Dk. STATE PBISON, GBANT OF 1865. 

To paid Orders, August 17th, 1865, $3,500.00 

" Balance, April 1st, 1866, 5,770.96 

$9,270.96 



41 
TRIAL BALANCE, 



SINKING FUND, 1864. INTEREST AND PREMIUM ACCOUNT. Cr. 
By Balance of Account, April 1st, 1865, .... $27,955.41 

" " " additional, April 1st, 1865, - - 3,231.19 

" Interest, April 1st, 1865, 375.00 

" " May 4th, 1865, 1,478.77 

" " March 81st, 1866, 8,244.17 



$41,665.51 
By Balance, April 1st, 1866, $2,065.51 



SINKING FUND, 1862. Cb. 

By Connecticut State Bonds, ------ $803,900.00 



SINKING FUND, 1864. Cr. 

By Connecticut State Bonds, ------ $405,100.00 



STATE PRISON, GRANT OF 1865. Cr. 

By Grants, 1865, -------- $7,270.96 

" Cash, March 29th, 1866, ------ 2,000.00 

$9,270.96 

By Balance, April 1st, 1 866, ------ $5,770.96 



ACCOUNT OF INTEREST AT BANK. Cr. 

By Balance, April 1st, 1866, $12,073.65 



42 
BALANCES BELONGING TO THE SEVERAL FUNDS. 



Dr. 

Civil List Fund, $294,401.05 

School Fund, 37,739.89 

Normal School, 4,231.31 

Insane Poor, -------- 3,613.88 

General Hospita] Society, 1,169,57 

Deaf and Dumb, ------- 1,641.86 

State Prison Medical Society, ------ 1,455.00 

Hartford Hospital, ------- 1,858.38 

Indigent Blind, - - 2,202.23 

Indigent Idiots, 2,222.11 

Sick and Wounded Soldiers, J,380.67 

Gov. W. A. Buckingham, 3,000.00 

National Monument and Cemetery at Gettysburg, - 480.00 
Town Deposit Fund, Principal, - - - - - 

Sinking Fund, 1862. Interest and Premium, . - - - 701.84 

Sinking Fund, 1864. " " " ... 2,065.51 

State Prison, Grant of 1865, ------ 5,770.96 

Interest at Bank Account, 12,073.55 



GENERAL BALANCE. 

GABRIEL W. COITE, TREASURER, 



14 



8376,067.95 



To Receipts— Civil List, including balance, April 1st, 1865, - 


- $4,361,640.44 


« " School Fund, Principal, - 


257,633.14 


" « " " Interest, - - - - 


161,909.17 


" " Sinking Fund, 1862, Interest, 


122,101.84 


u a « " !864, " 


41,665.51 


" « Town Deposit Fund, Principal, 


24,085.14 


u ii a » » Interest, 


1,425.57 


" " Normal School, - 


10,428.52 


■i " Deaf and Dumb, - 


7,515.91 


" " Indigent Idiots, - - - - 


4,834.61 


" " Indigent Blind, - - - - - 


4,500.00 


" " Insane Poor, ------ 


18,766.72 


" " Sick and Wounded Soldiers, - - - 


11,940.66 


» « National Monument and Cemetery at Gettysburg, 


1,320.00 


" " General Hospital Society, - 


4,000.00 


" » Hartford Hospital Society, - 


4,000.00 


" " State Prison, Grant 1865, - 


9,270.96 


» » State Prison Medical Society, 


1,455.00 


« » Gov. W. A. Buckingham, 


3,000.00 


" " Interest at Bank, (C L. O., overdrawn,) - 


12,073.55 




$5,063,566.74 



4^ 



BALANCES BELONGING TO THE SEVERAL FUNDS. 



Cr. 

State Prison. - $19,000.00 

Loan Account, D. Sage, 3,300.00 

Town Deposit Fund, Interest, ------ 123.56 

Balance, - 353,644.39 



GENERAL BALANCE. 

IN ACCOUNT WITH THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



By Payments — Civil List, ----- 

School Fund, Principal, 

" " Interest. - - - - 

Sinking Fund, 1862, Interest, 

" " 1864, " 

Town Deposit Fund, Principal, 

" " " Interest, - 

Normal School, - 

Deaf and Dumb, - 
Indigent Idiots, - 

Indigent Blind, - 

Insane Poor, ----- 
Sick and Wounded Soldiers, - 
National Monument and Cemetery at Gettysburg, 
General Hospital Society, - 

Hartford Hospital Society, - - - 

State Prison, Grant 1865, - 

Loan Account, D. Sage, - 
State Prison, - - - - 

Balance, to April 1st, 1866, - 



$4,067,239.39 

244,285.00 

137,517.42 

121,400.00 

39,600.00 

24,025.00 

1,549.13 

6,197.21 

5,874.05 

2,612.50 

2,297.77 

15,152.84 

10,559.99 

840.00 

2,830.43 

2,141.62 

3,500.00 

3,300.00 

19,000.00 

353,644.39 



$5,063,566.74 



44 



Treasurer's Office, ) 
Hartford, April, 18G6. \ 

The subscribers, appointed by the General Assembly to 
audit the Accounts of the State Treasurer, have examined 
the same, from the 1st day of April, 1865, to the 31st day of 
March, 1866, both days inclusive, and so far as we have 
compared the same with the several vouchers, do find the 
same correct. 

A summary statement of said accounts is given above, 
which shows the balance of cash on hand on the 31st day of 
March, A. D., 1866, to have been three hundred and fifty- 
three thousand, six hundred and forty-four dollars, and 
thirty-nine cents, (1353,644.39.) 

H. K. W. WELCH, ) Auditors of 
THOMAS BELKNAP, j State Accounts. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing Treasurer's Report is 
correct, so far as the same relates to, or is connected with, 
the School Fund. 

ALBERT SEDGWICK, 
Commissioner of the School Fund. 
School Fund Office, ) 
Hartford, April, 1866. \ 



ERRATA. 

Page 2, line 5— for " March 1st," read " March 31st." 
Page 7, line 26— for " $26,484.71," read « $23,760.14." 
Page 7, line 26— for " $3,084.71," read "$60.14." 
Page 8, line 24— for " the 2d day," read " the 20th day.' 



REPORT 



Comptroller of public Recounts, 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 



MAY SESSION, 1866. 



printed by ©vrtev of the :£rt|i.sl;ituvr. 



HARTFORD: 
CASE, LOCKWOOD AND COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

18G6. 



COMPTROLLER'S REPORT, 



State op Connecticut, ) 

Comptroller's Office, New Haven, May 2d, 1866. ) 

To the Honorable, the General Assembly of the State of Con- 
necticut, now in Session : 

In compliance with the requirements of law, the Comptrol- 
ler of Public Accounts herewith presents to the General 
Assembly his annual Report of the Receipts and Expenditures 
of the Public Funds for the year ending March 31st, 1866. 

The Grand List just completed shows a healthy and legiti- 
mate increase over that of last year of eleven millions nine 
hundred and seventy-four thousand six hundred and sixty- 
four dollars, (811,974,664,) to which may be added the sum 
of one million nine hundred and fifty-two thousand dollars, 
(61,952,000,) as additions made by the Board of Equaliza- 
tion. 

These additions are mainly on Bank Stocks. In much the 
largest number of Towns in the State all such stocks were 
assessed and set in the lists at their full, fair market value ; 
in a part, stocks were assessed at their proportionate value 
only, after deducting the amount held by the Banks in Uni- 
ted States Securities, while in other Towns such stocks were 
not assessed and set in the lists at all. This diversity of 
practice arose principally from the peculiarly unsettled posi- 
tion of the question, whether the Stocks of National Banks 
were legitimately subject to State and municipal taxation. 

That question, as we understand it, having been settled, 
there could be no other course left for us but to add to such 



towns as had omitted to set in their lists their Bank Stocks, 
in whole or in part, so much as was necessary to restore, as 
far as possible, an equitable basis for State Taxation. We 
have done so ; if wrong, your Honorable Body can, and un- 
doubtedly will, rectify that error. 

The law passed at the last session of the General Assem- 
bly, requiring Assessors to make out a list for such persons 
as neglect or refuse so to do, on or before the 10th of Novem- 
ber, annually, adding thereto the sum o$ ten per cent, on the 
valuation, has had the effect to add to the Grand List of the 
State the sum of two millions five hundred and fifty-seven 
thousand one hundred and eight dollars, ($2,557,108,) di- 
rectly, while in some towns the ten per cent, has been added 
to the individual lists, and therefore lost sight of. Some 
Assessors, it is reported, have wholly refused to make any 
such additions. 

Another year's experience has only served to strengthen 
my conviction of the necessity of the repeal of the Act passed 
by the General Assembly in 18G4, establishing a " Court of 
Claims." Li my last Report I said, "it must have been 
aimed at this department; I have no recollection of a claim 
free from taint ever having been suspended, — certainly never 
absolutely rejected. The State, in these matters, is more 
sinned against than sinning. Just demands, when necessary, 
can be more easily and economically investigated by a com- 
mittee of the Legislature, it is believed, than when prosecuted 
possibly in a distant part of the State, defended by an attor- 
ney wholly ignorant of the facts, and the reasons governing 
the Executive officer in arriving at his conclusions in the 
case. I respectfully recommend the repeal of that law. 

The following is an estimate of the Receipts and Expendi- 
tures of the State for the year ending March Cist, 1867, ex- 
cept for contingent expenses, including Grants, for which I 
can make no reliable estimate : 



ESTIMATED RECEIPTS. 

From Forfeited Bonds, - $10,000 

" Avails of Courts, .... 2,000 

" Dividends on Bank Stocks, " - 10,000 

" Tax on Banks, (1 per cent.,) - - 1,000 

" " Insurance Companies, - - 30,000 

" " Associations and Incorporations, - 60,000 

" " Stocks owned by Non-Residents, 15,000 

" " Agents of Foreign Ins. Companies, - 6,000 

" " Railroad Corporations, - - 170,000 

" " Cash Capital of Mutual Ins. Companies, 22,000 

" " Deposits in Savings Banks, - 180,000 

" Tax for Commutation for Military Service, - 55,000 

" Tax on Sales at Auction, - - 2,000 

" Miscellaneous Sources, - - - 3,000 

" a State Tax of four mills on the dollar on List 

of 1865, .... 1,060,052 



Total amount of Estimated Receipts, $1,626,052 

ESTIMATED EXPENDITURES. 

Debenture and Contingent Expenses of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, .... $35,000 

Salaries, ------ 28,000 

Contingent Expenses, including Grants, (no estimate.) 

Judicial " ' " " - - 100,000 

Expense of the State Paupers, - - 1,500 

" " Superintending Common Schools, - 4,000 

Salary of Directors of the State Prison, - 300 

Account of Public Buildings and Institutions, - 40,000 

Interest on State Bonds, - 567,000 
Advances to the Quarter-Master, Pay-Master and 

Adjutant-Generals, - 125,000 



$900,800 
Respectfully submitted, 

LEMAN W. CUTLER, 

Comptroller of Public Accounts. 



No. 1. 

DEBENTURE AND CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF THE GENERAL 
ASSEMBLY, SESSION OF 18G5. 

1 Grant for Debenture of the Senate, 84,328.90 
1 " " " House 

of Representatives, 39,291.92 

$43,620.82 

11 Grants for Contingent Expenses of 

the Senate, 4,844.21 

12 Grants for Contingent Expenses of 

the House of Representatives, 5,183.16 

16 Grants for Contingent Expenses of 

the General Assembly, 7,936.74 

17,964.11 



Dollars, $61,584.93 



No. 2. 

ACCOUNT OF SALARIES PAID FROM 31ST OF MARCH, 1865, TO 
1ST OF APRIL, 1866. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS. 

Orders in favor of 

His Excellency Wm. A. Buckingham, 

for his Salary as Governor, 81,100.00 

His Honor Roger Avcrill, for his. Salary 

as Lieut. Governor, 300.00 

Honorable Gabriel W. Coite, for his 

Salary as Treasurer, 700.00 

Honorable Gabriel W. Coite, for his 

Salary as Treasurer, extra for 2 years, 1,000.00 
Honorable J. Hammond Trumbull, for 

his Salary as Secretary, 1,000.00 

Honorable Leman W. Cutler, for his 

Salary as Comptroller, 1,000.00 

J 85,100.00 



JUDICIAL OFFICERS. 

Orders in favor of 

Honorable Joel Hinman, Chief Judge 

of the Supreme Court, #2,240.00 

Honorable Thos. B. Butler, Associate 

Judge of the Supreme Court, 2,305.00 

Honorable Henry Dutton, Associate 

Judge of the Supreme Court, 2,000.00 

Honorable J. D. Park, Associate Judge 

of the Supreme Court,' 2,315.00 

Honorable C. J. McCurdy, Associate 

Judge of the Supreme Court, 2,175.00 

Honorable Elisha Carpenter, Associate 

Judge of the Supreme Court, 2,335.00 

Honorable James Phelps, Judge of the 

Superior Court, 2,190.00 

Honorable D. W. Pardee, Judge of the 

Superior Court, 2,160.00 

Honorable D wight Loomis, Judge of the 

Superior Court, 2,255.00 

Honorable Gideon Hall, Judge of the 

Superior Court, 477.89 

$20,452.89 

John Hooker, Esq., Reporter of Judicial 

Decisions, $1,200.00 

J. E. Ward, Esq., Executive Secretary, 1,000.00 
C. J. Hoadley, Esq., State Librarian, 600.00 

$2,800.00 



Dollars, $28,352.S9 



No. 3. 

ACCOUNT CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF GOVERNMENT FROM 31ST OF 
MARCH, 18G5, TO 1ST OF APRIL, I860. 

1 Order for 

F. P. Colton, for services 3 months, and expenses, $75.40 

Henry Fowler, for services in Comptroller's Office, 225.00 

New London Bank, for tax erroneously paid, 15.75 

Jeremiah Fowler, for services in Comptroller's Office, 152.00 

Bobbins & Winship, for Desk for Treasurer's Office, 77.00 
Westell Russell, Sheriff, for distributing Public 

Documents, 5 - 00 
R. A. Wheeler, Sheriff, for distributing Public 

Documents and returning Votes, 10.26 
Amos Pease, Sheriff, for distributing Public Docu- 
ments and returning Votes, 22.9b' 
W. H. Burr, for decorating Senate and Representa- 
tives Halls, 67 - 24 
Hartford Water Works, for acc't render'd for G mos., 7.50 
F. P. Colton, for expense of cleaning Offices, 134.00 
H. Maerckline, for decorating State House, 4.00 
Jas. P. Marsh, for 3 months' salary and expenses, 288.49 
Geo. Robinson, for 3 months' salary, 210.00 
W. H. Burr, for account rendered, 33.13 
C. J. Hoadlcy, for salary, &c, as State Librarian, 242.50 
W. H. Bourne, for salary as Clerk in Treas'rs Office, 172.50 
Merch'ts Nav. & Trans. Co., for tax refunded, 2,037.50 
State Library Committee, for books purchased, 42.82 
G. O. Hotchkiss, Sheriff, for care of State House, 

N. H., distributing Public Documents, &c, 45.15 
State Teachers' Association, for 1st moiety of annu- 

^ al Grant, I 2 - 00 
Matthew Bulkley, Sheriff, for returning "\ otes from 

Fairfield Co. 2 years, 4G - 18 
W. A. Buckingham, for Contingent Expenses of 

Executive Office, 104 -^ 

City Gas Light Co., for gas for Offices, 5.70 



1 Order for 

F. P. Colton, for 1 month's services and expenses, §75.65 
Reed & Glafckc, for repairing Table, 3.00 
Carrington & Ilotclikiss, for printing Reports, 3,933.34 
Carrington ct Hotchkiss, for printing Adjutant and 

Q. M. Generals Reports, 3,472.82 

G. Robinson, Plumber, for work at State House, 5.58 
Geo. Robinson, for expenses on Reports from New 

Haven, 14.50 
Daily Post, for Advertising, 6.37 
Henry Fowler, for services in Comptroller's Office, 227.50 
Jeremiah Fowler, " " ' " " 92.00 
F. P. Colton, for services as messenger and Execu- 
tive do., • 185.00 
Talcott & Post, for trimmings for State House, 46.38 
A. N. Clark, for printing Report of State Librarian, 206.42 
Prescott May, Sheriff, for returning Votes and dis- 
tributing Public Documents, 21.20 
W. S. Bronson & Co., for repairs of Stoves, etc., at 

State House, 32.12 
H. TV. Conklin, for acc't rendered for Gov. Buck- 
ingham, 23.55 
Fox ct Woodford, for acc't rendered for Offices, 32.05 
Rawson Read, for repair of Table, etc., 3.75 
Geer ct Pond, for acc't rend'rd for Gov. Buckingham, 24.25 
Johnson & Peckham, " " " 19.55 

E. M. Deming, for " " " 17.00 
Case, Lockwood <t Co., for printing, etc., for Offices, 482.48 
J. W. Arthur, for work, <tc, for Offices, 17.55 
W. TV Roberts, for work for Gov. Buckingham, 25.00 
Stillman <t Parsons, for work for Treasurer, 221.25 
H. J. Morse, for expense in settlement of accounts 

with the IT. S., 60.35 

A. X. Clark ct Co., for acc't for Advertising, 10.42 

Hartford Ice Co., for Ice for the General Assembly, 45.90 

F. P. Colton, for 1 month's services and expenses, 71.00 
State Library Committee, for books purchased, 7.00 
C. J. Hoadley, for 6 months' salary and expenses, 691.81 
Jas. P. Marsh, " 3 " « 511.73 



10 

1 Order for 

Geo. Robinson, " 3 months' salary, 8381.00 

W. H. Bourne, " 3 « 381.00 

Hartford City Gas Light Co., for gas for Offices, 8.36 
Jeremiah Fowler, for services in Comptroller's Office, 64.00 
W. T. Elmer, Clerk, for expense of Senate Journal, 882.00 
C. Boswcll and H. K. W. Welch, for services as 

Auditors, 250.00 

F. P. Colton, for 2 months' services and expenses, 62.00 
A. N. Clark & Co., for printing Public and Private 

Acts, 2,646.78 

Brown & Gross, for Stationery, &c, for Offices, 235.47 

Henry Fowler, for services in Comptroller's Office, 230.00 
J. R. Buck, Clcrk$ for expense of Journal of House 

of Representatives, 823.24 
Hartford Water Works, for account one quarter to 

Nov. 1st, 18.60 
W. J. Coite, for salary as Clerk in Treasurer's Office, 385.00 
Committee do Mohegan Indians, for acc't rendered 

by L. Hebard, for expenses, 37.66 

Jas. P. Marsh, for 3 months' salary and expenses, 439.18 
A. N. Clark & Co., for printing Senate and House 

Journals, 3,598.48 

A. N. Clark & Co., for printing Senate and House 

Journals, extra, 79.85 

Burr Brothers, for advertising Votes, 6.75 

W. J. Coite, for expense de State Bonds, 100.00 

W. A. Buckingham, for Office expenses, 101.66 

Jeremiah Fowler, for services to date, 46.00 

Hartford Daily Post, for 1 year's subscription, 6.00 

J. W. Arthur, for work at State House, 18.15 

Geo. Robinson, for 3 months' salary, 818.50 
O. H. Bronson, for coal for Offices, 

C. J. Hoadlcy, for books purchased, 25.50 
State Teachers' Association, for 2d moiety of annual 

Grant, 125.00 
F. P. Colton, for 1 month's services and expenses, 60.89 
C. W. Snow, Sheriff, for returning Votes and dis- 
tributing Public Documents, 11.29 



11 

1 Order for 

Hartford City Gas Light Co., for gas for 3 months, $13.68 

yEtna Insurance Co., for tax erroneously paid, 67.43 

Chauncey Rowc, for services in Comptroller's Office, 75.00 

G. Robinson, Plumber, for work at State ETouse, 1.38 

Henry Fowler, for services in Comptroller's Office, 230.00 

W. J. Coite, for services in Treasurer's Office, 152.50 

Thos. Roberts, for repairs of Stoves, • 10.26 

Hartford Ice Co., for Ice for Offices, 19.65 

Lewis Rowelk for work at State House, 28.10 

A. N. Clark & Co., for printing and advertising, 177.9b' 

Thompson & Hussy, for work at State House, 39.01 

W. S. Bronson <fc Co., for repairs of Stoves, &c, 26.55 

Hudson Hollister, for charcoal for Offices, 39.81 

F. P. Colton, for 1 month's services and expenses, 28.00 

W. H. Bourne, for services as Clerk in Treas'rs Office, 528.50 

Timothy Sheldon, for work at State House, 5.50 

Case, Lockwood & Co., for printing, &c, for Offices, 387.26 

Town of Hartford, for rent of room in Halls of Record, 200.00 

State Library Committee, for books purchased, 38.62 

F. P. Colton, for 1 month's services and expenses, 31.98 

2 Orders for 

Committee on Revision of Statutes, for acc't for 

printing Statutes, 4,000.00 

1 Order for 
H. J. Morse, for expense in settlement of accounts 

with the U. S., . 145.80 

J. R. Hawley <fc Co., for acc't for advertising, &c, 45.63 

Jas. P. Marsh, for 3 months' services and expenses, 365.99 

Geo. Robinson, " 3 " " 318.50 
C. J. Hoadley, for expense distributing Statutes to 

States, 37.00 

Jeremiah Fowler, for services in Comptroller's Office, 26.00 
Smith, Blodgett & Co., for freight and cartage of 

Statutes, 10.50 
Railroad Commissioners, for expense of printing 

handbills, 15.00 
Hartford City Gas Light Co., for acc't rendered for 

Offices, 4.18 



12 

2 Orders for 

Committee on Revision of Statutes, for amount to 

balance contract for printing, 84,320.00 

1 Order for 

F. P. Colton, for 1 month's services, 25.00 
State Library Committee, for books purchased, 185.49 

G. W. Coite, Treas'r, for am't paid to Registrars, 136.75 

do. " " conting't expenses of Treas- 

urer's Office, G32.96 

G.W.Coite,Trcas'r,forexpense of issuingState Bonds, 5,238.60 
G. W. Coite, Treas'r, for balance of interest paid 

on Loans, <fcc, 131,435.97 

Geo. Robinson, for expens's of Comptrol'r's Office lyr., 132.78 
C. J. Hoadley, for expenses as State Librarian, 102.22 

Brown & Gross, for stationery for Offices, 98.45 

H. J. Morse, for expense of journey to Washington, 75.20 



$176,342.40 
Commissioners for taking 1 Soldiers' 1 Votes. 
Orders for sundry persons for time and expenses 

as Commissioners, 8994.62 

Expense of Military Force. 

Orders for 

Infantry Co. G, 2d R., for May parade, 10G.00 

Sundry persons, for Rent of Armories 

for sundry Companies, 8,013.29 

Sundry persons, for expense of Courts 

Martial, 217.17 

Joseph Seldcn, for salary as Assistant 

Adjutant-General, 1,987.46 

Frances Wayland, for salary as Assistant 

Adjutant-General, 300.00 

Bingham & Dodd, for account rendered 

for Gov. Buckingham, 20.00 

E. B. & E. C. Kellogg, for account ren- 
dered for Gov. Buckingham, 112.88 

Am. Telegraph Co., for account ren- 
dered for Gov. Buckingham, 73.32 

10,830.12 



13 

Account Printing Laivs, 8rc. 
Orders for sundry persons for printing 

Laws, &c, in newspapers, $3,169.10 

Expense of School Libraries. 
Orders for D. N. Camp and D. C. Gil- 
man, for sundry School Districts, 590.00 

Grants for Contingent Expenses. 

1 Grant for 

G. W. Lovejoy, for loss of an arm and 

eye in the State's service, 1,600.00 

D. Clark and S. Dodd, for services as 

Auditors of Col. Hatheway's acc'ts, 85.00 

W. A. Buckingham, for expense in 
building Pavilions at the Knight 
Hospital, paid by him, 10,856.25 

John S. Ives, for am't in full for all 

claims against the State, 889.00 

Dutton, "Waldo and Booth, for services 
and expenses as a Committee to re- 
vise Statutes, 3,500.00 

S. W. Kellogg, for benefit of Augustus 

Larkin, ' 145.20 

G. W. Russell, for expense as a mem- 
ber of the Medical Board, 200.00 

Ashbel Woodward, for expense as a 

member of the Medical Board, 200.00 

John Nichols, for bounty fur his family, 169.00 

Norwich k Worcester R. R. Co., for 

tax illegally collected, 14,640.00 

P. A. Jewctt, for expense as a member 

of the Medical Board, 200.00 

C. H. Amesbury, for military service, 10.50 

Brown & Gross, for 63 copies of Stat- 
utes of 1854, returned, 157.50 



32,652.45 



Total amount of contingent expenses, $224,578.69 



14 



No. 4. 

ACCOUNT JUDICIAL EXPENSES. 

For Orders drawn by Clerks of Courts and Registered by the 
Comptroller. 

HARTFORD COUNTY. 

5 Orders by Chauncey Howard, Clerk, 

for 116 bills of cost, $5,831.29 

4 Orders by Chauncey Howard, Clerk, 

for board of prisoners, 4,425.39 

6 Orders by Chauncey Howard, Clerk, 

for balance of Jury Debenture, 2,245.14 

6 Orders by Chauncey Howard, Clerk, 

for attendance of Sheriff, &c, 1,633.01 



14,134.83 



NEW HAVEN COUNTY. 

8 Orders by A. D. Osborne, Clerk, for 

278 bills of cost, 10,595.67 

5 Orders by A. D. Osborne, Clerk, for 

board of Prisoners, 6,615.54 

5 Orders by A. D. Osborne, Clerk, for 

balance of Jury Debenture, 2,149.64 

5 Orders by A. D. Osborne, Clerk, for 

attendance of Sheriff, &c., 1,508.29 



20,869.14 



NEW LONDON COUNTY. 

4 Orders by W. L. Brewer, Clerk, for 

143 bills of cost, 4,872.23 

4 Orders by W. L. Bvewcr, Clerk, for 

board of Prisoners, 3,661.78 

4 Orders by W. L. Brewer, Clerk, for 

balance of Jury Debenture, 1,324.98 

4 Orders by W. L. Brewer, Clerk, for 

attendance of Sheriff, &c, 791.71 

, 10,oo0.iU 



15 



FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 



4 Orders by E. S. Abernethy, Clerk, 

for 123 bills of cost, $5,092.02 

8 Orders by E. S. Abernethy, Clerk, 

for board of Prisoners, 2,501.23 

4 Orders by E. S. Abernethy, Clerk, 

for balance of Jury Debenture, 1,324.62 

7 Orders by E. S. Abernethy, Clerk, 

for attendance of Sheriff, &c, 753.23 



WINDHAM COUNTY. 

5 Orders by Uriel Fuller, Clerk, for 

81 bills of cost, 1,842.83 

5 Orders by Uriel Fuller, Clerk, for 

board of Prisoners, 826.53 

4 Orders by Uriel Fuller, Clerk, for 

balance of Jury Debenture, 781.84 

1 Order by Uriel Fuller, Clerk, for 

attendance of Sheriff, &c, 133.99 



LITCHFIELD COUNTY. 

4 Orders by W. L. Ransom, Clerk, for 

83 bills of cost, 3,016.18 

5 Orders by W. L. Ransom, Clerk, for 

board of Prisoners, 1,980.38 

4 Orders by W. L. Ransom, Clerk, for 

balance of Jury Debenture, 935.08 

5 Orders by W. L. Ransom, Clerk, for 
attendance of Sheriff, &c, 574.14 



),671.10 



3,585.19 



6,505.7! 



16 



MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

4 Orders by W. P. Vinal et al., Clerk, 

for 70 bills of cost, $1,733.58 

4 Orders by W. P. Vinal et al., Clerk, 

for board of Prisoners, 1,261.16 

4 Orders by W. P. Vinal et al., Clerk, 

for balance of Jury Debenture, 975.15 

4 Orders by W. P. Vinal et al., Clerk, 

for attendance of Sheriff, &c, 625.78 



TOLLAND COUNTY. 

3 Orders by Joseph Bishop, Clerk, for 

39 bills of cost, 1,918.96 

3 Orders by Joseph Bishop, Clerk, for 

board of Prisoners, 449.17 

3 Orders by Joseph Bishop, Clerk, for 

balance of Jury Debenture, 934.94 

3 Orders by Joseph Bishop, Clerk, for 

attendance of Sheriff, <tc, 447.75 



Trustees of the State Reform School. 

4 Orders by E. W. Hatch, Superintend- 
ent, for board bills, 20,004.06 

4 Orders by Trustees, for their expen- 
ses, 224.96 



4,595.67 



3,780.82 



20,229.02 



Grants for Judicial Expenses. 
1 Grant for Directors of the Conn. 

State Prison, for repairs, 1,500.00 

1 Grant for Directors of the Conn. 

State Prison, for expenses, 5.770.96 



7,270.96 



Total amount of Judicial expenses, $101,293.21 



No. 5. 

EXPENSE OP SUPPORTING THE STATE PAUPERS. 

2 Orders for W. F. Clark, for his year- 
ly compensation, 1,500.00 



No. 6. 

EXPENSE OF SUPERINTENDING COMMON SCHOOLS. 

5 Orders for D. N". Camp, Sup'dt, for 

salaries and expenses, 2,160.60 

4 Orders for D. N. Camp, Sup'dt, for 

Teachers' Institutes, 482.00 

2 Orders for D. C. Oilman, Sec'y, for 

salaries, 700.00 

2 Orders for D. C. Gilman, Sec'y, for 

Teachers' Institutes, 480.00 

1 Order for D. C. Gilman, Sec'y, for 

expenses of the Board of Education, 413.87 



4,236.47 



No. 7. 

DIRECTORS OF THE CONNECTICUT STATE PRISON. 

1 Order for the Directors, for their 
salary, 300.00 



No. 8. 

ACCOUNT OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

Assylumfor the Deaf and Dumb. 
1 Grant for the Asylum for Indigent 
Pupils, 7,000.00 



18 

Retreat for the Insane. 
1 Grant for the support of Indigent 

Patients, 15,000.00 

Perkins Institution for the Blind. 
1 Grant for the said Institution, 3,000.00 

Agricultural Societies. 
8 Grants for the County, &c, Socie- 
ties, 1,120.00 

Trustees of the State Normal School. 
1 Grant for the benefit of said School, 7,500.00 

General Hospital Society. 
1 Grant for the said Society for 1864, 
omitted, §2,000; 1 do. for 1865, 
82.000, 4,000.00 

Hartford Hospital. 
1 Grant for the said Hospital for 1864, 
omitted, 82,000; 1 do. for 18l 
12,000, 4,000.00 

Lakeville Institution. 
1 Grant for the education of Indigent 

Idiots, 3,000.00 

Sick and Wounded Soldiers. 
1 Grant in favor of Gov. Buckingham, 6,000.00 



-850,620.00 



No, 9. 

EXPENSE OP FAMILIES. 

Orders for Towns for expense of Soldiers Families, 8304,100.44 



1!) 



No. 10. 



ADVANCES TO THE QUARTER-MASTER GENERAL. 

Orders for Win. A. Aiken, Q. M. Gen'l, for ex- 
penses, $110,000.00 



No. 11. 

ADVANCES TO THE PAY-MASTER GENERAL. 

Orders for William Fitch, Pay-Master General, $170,000.00 



No. 12. 

ADVANCES TO THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

Orders for E. J. Morse, Adj't-Gen'l, for expenses, §10,000.00 



Dr. General Account of Receipts and Expenditures of Funds 



Fur Payments from the Treasury from March 31.s/, 1865, to 
April 1st, 1866, for the current expenses of Government as 
per preceding accounts, numbering from 1 to 12, under the 
following heads, viz. : 

Account No. 1, Debenture and Con- 
tingent Expenses of the General 
Assembly, $61,584.93 

Account No. 2, Account of Salaries, 28,352.89 

Account No. 3, Conting'-t Expenses, 

including Grants, 221,578.69 

Account No. 4, Judicial Expenses, 

including Grants, 101,293.21 

Account No. 5, Expense of Support- 
ing the State Paupers, 1,500.00 

Account No. 6, Expense of Super- 
intending Common Schools, 4,236.47 

Account No. 7, Salary of the Direc- 
tors of the State Prison, §00.00 

Account No. 8, Account of Public 

Buildings and Institutions, 50,620.00 

Account No. 9, Expense of Families 

of Volunteers, 304,109.44 

Account No. 10, Advances made to 

the Quarter-Master General, 110,000.00 

Account No. 11, Advances made to 

the Pay-Master General, 170,000.00 

Account No. 12, Advances made to 

the Adjutant-General, • 10,000.00 

81,066,575.63 

Interest on State Bonds, 477,363.00 

Cash paid on temporary loans, 2,523,113.79 

84,067,052.42 
Balance in Treas'y April 1st, 1866, to new acc't, 294,544.23 



84,361,596.65 



21 

appropriated to the Current Expenses of Government. Cr. 

By Payments into the Treasury from the Z\st of March, 1865, 
to the 1st of April, 1866. 



PROM FORFEITED BONDS, ETC. 


By Cash of 




R. D. Hubbard, State's Attorney, 




Hartford County, 


4,993.76 


E. K. Foster, State's Attorney, New 




Haven County, 


3,202.97 


W. T. Elmer, State's Attorney, Mid- 




dlesex County, 


335.40 


G. W. Phillips, State's Attorney, 




Windham County, 


178.77 


C. F. Sedgwick, State's Attorney, 




Litchfield County, 


52.72 


Daniel Chadwick, State's Attorney, 




New London County, 


1,214.14 


J. H. Brockway, State's Attorney, 




Tolland County, 


85.21 


J. M. Carter, State's Attorney, Fair- 




field County, 


1,540.76 




111,603.73 



FROM AVAILS OF COURTS. 

By Cash of 

Joseph Bishop, Clerk Tolland Supe- 
rior Court, 30.00 

W. P. Vinal, Clerk Middlesex Supe- 
rior Court, 37.69 

Uriel Fuller, Clerk Windham Supe- 
rior Court, 8.29 

W. D. Brewer, Clerk' New London 

Superior Court, 95.01 

A. D. Osborne, Clerk New Haven 

Superior Court, 1,074.37 

Robert Coit, Clerk New London Su- 
perior Court, 131.79 



Dr. General Account of Receipts and Expenditures of Funds 
Amount brought forward, 14,361,596.65 



84,361,596.65 



23 
appropriated to the Current Expenses of Government. Cr. 

H. E. Pardee, Clerk New Haven 

City Court, 23.50 

E. S. Abernethy, Clerk Fairfield 

Superior Court, 244.36 

W. L. Eansom, Clerk Litchfield Su- 
perior Court, 177.29 

Chauncey Howard, Clerk Hartford 

Superior Court, 284.27 

82,106.57 

By Cash for tax on Corporations, 57,418.08 

" " on Savings Banks, 178,941.90 

" " on Sales at Auction, 2,215.81 

" " from Towns, 1,160,021.48 

" " from Railroad Corporations, 170,820.22 

" " from Banks, Q per cent.,) 3,727.83 

" " on Stocks owned by Non-Residents, 17,011.14 

" " on Stocks of Insurance Companies, 27,170.50 

" " on Stocks of Mut. Ins. Companies, 22,194.32 

" " from Agents of Foreign Ins. Cos., 5,826.99 

" " from Turnpike Companies, 74.48 

" " from the United States, on acc't, 171,495.70 

" " from the Sale of State Bonds, 2,367,200.00 

" " from accrued Interest on Bonds, 74.00 

" " from Miscellaneous sources, 4,638.36 

" " from Telegraph Companies, '1,491.88 

" " from Express Companies, 2,023.00 

" for Premium on State Bonds, 31.00 

" for Dividends on Bank Stocks, 15,091.50 

By Cash for Premium of sale of Bank Stocks, 16,790.00 

" « Bank Stocks sold, 119,000.00 

" " Licences for Insurance Agents, 1,200.00 

$4,358,168.49 
Add for balance of acc't April 1st, 1865, 3,428.16 

•^4,361,596.65 



By balance in Treasury from old acc't, $294,544.23 



24 
Dr. ' General Account of Orders on the School Fund 

2 Orders for Albert Sedgwick, Commis- 
sioner, for his salary and expenses 1 
year, $1,456.31 

1 Order for Albert Sedgwick, Commis- 
sioner, for liis salary 6 months in ad- 
vance, 625.00 

2 Orders for W. G. Coite, Treasurer, 
for his salary, payable from School 

Fund, 300.00 

$2,381.31 



ACCOUNT APPROPRIATION FOR THE SUPPORT OF SCHOOLS. 

For 134 Orders in favor of Towns, &c, 
drawn by the Comptroller, on the 
Treasurer, from the 31st of March, 
1865, to 1st of April, 1866, 131,454.60 

$133,835.91 



25 
from 31** of March, 1865, to 1st of April 1866. Cr. 



By amount of Orders drawn by the Comptroller 
on the Treasurer, and paid by him from Inter- 
est on the School Fund, from 31st of March, 
1865, to the 1st of April, 1866, as per Comp- 
troller's accounts and Auditor's report, $133 835.91 



$133,835.91 



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REPORT 



COMMISSIONER 



SCHOOL FUND, 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 



MAY SESSION, 1866. 



printed by Order of the jCcgislature. 



HARTFORD: 
CASE, LOCKWOOD AND COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1866. 



REPORT 



To the Honorable General Assembly of the State of Connect- 
icut, holden at New Haven on the first Wednesday of May, 
A. D. 1866. 

The Commissioner of the School Fund reports : 
That the business of his office has been conducted during the 
past year with success. The principal of the fund has not 
been diminished by loss, or by any misfortunes attending the 
administration of this Department. The last computation by 
the Auditors of Public Accounts, established the principal of 
the Fund on the second day of September, A. D. 1864, at 
$2,046,532.23. A part of this sum included the estimated 
value of some wild lands, some of which have been disposed 
of at prices not to diminish the amount of the Fund. The 
estimate also included the amount of a loan, made many 
years since, which has not been productive of income for 
several years past. The circumstances under which this loan 
was made, and the history of the negotiations in relation to 
it, have furnished many items in former reports of the Com- 
missioner. No important change in its condition has occur- 
red since last year, except that a judgment has been obtained 
for the amount due on the bond. 

The amount of principal received into the Treasury during 
the year ending March 31, 1866, was $252,836.00 viz. : 
On Bonds, Contracts and sale of Lands, - - $133,836.00 

Sale of Bank Stocks, 50,000.00 

Amount due from the State, - 69,000.00 

$252,836.00 



This sale of Bank Stock was made by virtue of an order 
of the General Assembly of last year, and in compliance with 
the order the amount has been invested in the bonds of this 
State drawing interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum, 
payable semi-annually. Also the sum of $69,000, the previ- 
ous indebtedness of the State to the Fund, has been in like 
manner invested. 

The Fund owns $68,000 of the stock of the Hartford 
Bank ; and it is understood that the bank has a large surplus of 
earnings on hand, which gives to the stock a greatly enhanced 
value above the original subscription price which the Com- 
missioner thinks the School Fund ought to have in proportion 
to the amount of its stock. The directors of the Bank re- 
fuse to allow this claim, and will pay only the value of the 
stock. It is understood that a suit is pending between the 
State and another bank, which will virtually settle this ques- 
tion, and the Commissioner awaits the decision of that suit, 
or the further action of the Legislature, before taking further 
action in the mater. The amount of principal in the Treas- 
ury on the 15th of April was $13,348.14, and that sum has 
since been invested in bonds and mortgages. 

The whole amount of revemie from the Fund from all 
sources during the year was $136,471.94. 

The amount paid on the Comptroller's orders for dividends 
to the School Districts, and for salaries and expenses is $140,- 
316.70. There was remaining in the Treasury, subject to 
future orders, $24,827.74. 

The Commissioner has repeatedly suggested to the Legisla- 
ture the opinion that the distribution of the revenue of the 
fund should be in proportion to the attendance on the Schools, 
rather than in proportion to the number of children returned 
from the several Districts, as being more just to those for 
whose benefit the income of the Fund was originally intended. 
This opinion is still entertained by him ; and he again invites 
an examination and a favorable action on this important 
question. 

The whole number of children entitled to the avails of the 
Fund according to the last returns is 118,780. Upon which 






number a dividend of one dollar and ten cents each was 
declared, and amounting to $130,658. The number returned 
last year was 114,825, being an increase of 3,955. It will be 
seen by the tables annexed that this large increase comes 
principally from the cities and manufacturing districts, where 
a much less number in proportion to the whole attend the 
Common Schools than in the rural districts, thus taking from 
the latter a portion of the money to which they are justly 
entitled. 

The expenses of the management of the Fund for the last 
year, as appears by the Treasux-er's report annexed, has been 
considerably more than during the previous year. This 
comes from the increased prices demanded by attorneys and 
agents for their services, and from the payment of the sum of 
$2,070 which had accrued on State bonds, purchased up to 
the time when they were assigned to the State. This amount 
was returned to the Treasury, when the interest on the bonds 
were paid. 

The lands which were donated by Congress to this State for 
the benefit of an Agricultural College, were sold for the sum 
of $135,000 as stated in the last report. The Legislature at 
its last Session authorized the Commissioner to invest this 
sum in the bonds of this State, which has been done. The 
income from this fund is payable to Yale College, that insti- 
tution having engaged to comply with the requirements speci- 
fied in the original donation. The interest on these bonds are 
payable semi-annually on the 1st of January and 1st of 
July, and during the past year the College has received from 
this source §7,531.26. 

The annexed tables contain minute and accurate particu- 
lars of the condition of the Fund and of its administration 
during the year, and for all such information as the Legisla- 
ture may need in regard to any branch of the service refer- 
ence is respectfully made to them as follows : 

1st. An abstract of the schedule of the property constitut- 
ing the principal of the Fund, September 2d, 1864, certified 
by the Auditors of Public Accounts. 



2d. The Treasurer's statement of receipts and disburse- 
ments of revenue for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1866. 

3d. The Treasurer's statement of receipts and disburse- 
ments of principal for the fiscal year. 

4th. A statement of the amount of revenue actually 
received at the treasury from all sources, the disbursements 
for dividend to schools, salaries and expenses, the rate of divi- 
dend per capita, and the amount of surplus revenue at the 
close of each fiscal year, from 1825 to 1866, inclusive. 

5th. Statement showing the amount of dividends received 
from each bank from April 1st, 1865, to March 31st, 1866. 

6th. Statement of the number of children between four 
and sixteen years of age, in each School Society, in the year 
ending March 31st, 1866, apportioned by the Comptroller 
according to such enumerations, with the increase and decrease 
of such children in each society in one year. 

7th. A statement of re-investment of principal, for year 
ending March 31st, 1866. 

8th. A list of debtors in arrears or interest payable at the 
Treasury, September 2d, 1865. 

ALBERT SEDGWICK, 

Commissioner of the School Fund. 

School Fund Office, 
Hartford, April 21st, 1866. 



No. 1. 

Abstract of the Schedule of Property and Securities belonging to and 
constituting the Capital of the School Fund of Connecticut, on the 
second day of September, A. D. 1864, as prepared by the Commis- 
sioner of said Fund, and by us audited and examined, and each 
item thereof compared with documents and vouchers in the office of 
said Commissioner. 

IN BANK STOCK. 

In eighteen Banks, ..... $268,900.00 

IN CONTRACTS, BONDS AND MORTGAGES. 

Against individuals residing in Connecticut, . 1,312,531.81 

" «• « Massachusetts, . 89,524 20 

New York, . 328,222.56 

Ohio, . . . 21,373.54 

IN CASH. 

In hands of Treasurer and Agents, , . 23,080.12 

IN WILD LANDS. 

In the State of Connecticut, .... 400.00 

" Wisconsin, . . . 2,500.00 



$2,046,532.23 



HENRY K. W. WELCH,) Auditors of 
CHARLES BOSWELL, j Public Accounts. 



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11 



No. 5. 



Statement showing the amount of Dividends received from each Bank 
from April 1st, 1865, to March 3lst, 1866, inclusive. 



NAME OF BANK. 


Amount of 
Stock. 


Amount of 
Dividend. 




$68,000.00 
30,100.00 
15,000.00 
10,900 00 
10,000.00 
10,862.61 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,050.00 
10,000.00 
8,500.00 
6,400.00 
5,000.00 
5,000.00 


$3,400.00 
2,408.00. 
1,350.00 
1,635.00 


Farmers and Mechanics National Bank.. . . 






1,100.00 




800.00 




1,0Q0.00 
2,000.00 






1,005.00 


Middlesex County National Bank 


1,000.00 
935.00 




640.00 




450.00 




500.00 








$209,812.61 


$18,223.00 



12 



No. 6. 



SCHED ULE of the number of Children between Four and 
Sixteen years of age in each School Society, according to the 
enumeration in the month of January, A. D. 1866, and the divi- 
dends of School Money made to each Society in the year ending 
March 31 si, 1866, apportioned by the Comptroller according to each 
enumeration, with the Increase and Decrease of such children in 
each Society in one year. 

HARTFORD COUNTY. 



Name of each School Society. 



2 SSiS s e ge 



U 7Z ■ 2 — 

•r — v .a 



o a 


*d 


°'od 


11. 

P5 M 


J5 2 

S3 
il 


Amount 
Divider 
at $1.1 
pro rat 


10 


7,294 


$8,023.40 


6 


224 


246.40 


9 


537 


590.70 


9 


348 


382.80 


13 


872 


959.20 


9 


32.") 


357.50 


9 


642 


706.20 


10 


696 


765.70 


6 


207 


227.70 


12 


730 


803.00 


14 


1,559 


1,714.90 


11 


898 


987.80 


17 


832 


915.20 


10 


415 


456 50 


9 


209 


229.90 


9 


831 


914.10 


4 


121 


133.10 


C 


1,513 


1,664.30 


4 


238 


261.80 


12 


683 


751.30 


11 


894 


983.40 


10 


370 


407.00 


11 


777 


854.70 


8 


342 


37G.20 


10 


539 


592.90 


10 


572 


629.20 


2 


611 


672.10 


251 


23,279 


$25,606.90 



Hartford 

Avon 

Berlin 

Bloomficld 

Bristol 

Burlington 

Canton 

East Hartford . . 
East Granby. . . 
East Windsor.. 

Enfield 

*Earmington. . . 
Glastonbury. . . . 

Granby 

Hartland 

Manchester 

Marlborough. . . 
New Biitain . . . 

Rocky Hill 

tSimsbury 

Southington... . 
South Windsor. 

Sufficld 

West Hartford. 
Wetbcrsficld. . . 

Windsor 

Windsor Locks 



48 Deducted in this Town by Comptroller. 



t 6 



13 



NEW HAVEN COUNTY. 



Name of each School Society. 



o g S: 
e.b a: 






New Haven 

Branford 

Bethany 

Cheshire 

Derby 

East Haven 

Guilford 

*Hamden 

Madison 

tMeriden 

Middlebury 

Milford 

Naugatuck 

North Branford. 
(North Haven . . 

Orange 

Oxford 

Prospect 

Seymour 

Southbury 

Wallingford . . . 

Waterbury 

Woodbridge . . . 
"Wolcott 



•11, 



667.70 1 , 

272 

599.50 

1,733.60 
687.50 
595.10 
729.30 
526.90 

1,980.00 
152.90 
711.70 
756.80 
291.50 
400.40 
555.50 
302.50 
159.50 
529.10 
297.00 
831.60 

3,328.60 
256.30 
11990 



210125,140 S27, 654. 00 10501 109 



* 19 Deducted in this Town by Comptroller. 
t 2 " 



14 



NEW LONDON COUNTY 



Name of each School Society. 


— B 

S.2 


o a 
is 2 

-2 2 
ES 


Amount of 
Dividend 
at $1.10 
pro rata. 


n 


O jg 

II 




7 
7 
15 
9 
8 
14 
11 
16 
14 
10 
7 
13 
12 
15 
12 
8 
4 
19 
8 
11 


2,292 
289 
686 
407 
179 
568 

1,250 
470 
383 
196 
337 
560 

3,512 
440 
526 

817 

1,586 

3.36 

671 


$2,521.20 
317.90 
75460 
447.70 
196.90 
624.80 

1,375.00 
517.00 
421.30 
215.60 
370.70 
• 616.00 

3,863.20 
484.00 
578.60 
217.80 
898.70 

1,744.60 
369.60 
738 10 


68 
46 

22 

51 

12 
12 

12 
10 

9 

1242 
3 


96 
















96 








39 




















n 








SI 








4 








5 


Old Lyme 






8 








22C 


15,703 


$17,273.30 


4*7 


207 



13 Deducted in this Town by Comptroller. 



15 



FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 



Name of each School Society. 



11° 



S3 2 



9 i_ 7. 



Fairfield 

Danbury 

Bethel 

"Bridgeport . . 
Brookfield. . . . 

Darien 

Easton 

Greenwich 

tHuntington.. 

Monroe 

New Canaan.. 
New Fairfield 

Newtown 

Norwalk ...... 

tRedding 

§Ridgefield.... 

Sherman 

Stamford 

Stratford 

liTrumbull.... 

Weston 

Westport 

Wilton 



1,335 

1,986 
358 

3,715 
259 
456 
272 

1, 

296 
709 
230 
930 

2,119 
381 
553 
218 

1,904 
47 
277 
332 
824 
484 



$1,468.50 

2,184.60 

393.80 

4,086.50 

284 

501.60 

299.20 

2,108.70 

338 

325.60 

779 

253.00 

1,023.00 

2,330.90 

419.10 

608.30 

239.80 

2,094.40 

524.70 

304.70 

365.20 

906.40 

532.40 



246! 20,34o| $22,374.0o| 803 58 



* 13 Deducted in this Town by Comptroller. 

t 16 " 

13" 

S 3 " 

II 80 Added " " " 



16 



LITCHFIELD COUNTY. 



Name of each School Society. 



^•= 


-Ss 


S.SS 


£:s 




£° 


22 


749 


10 


257 


8 


185 


5 


303 


10 


401 


10 


329 


17 


569 


12 


33G 


12 


278 


14 


465 


6 


193 


10 


720 


20 


864 


13 


423 


5 


347 


14 


966 


8 


242 


14 


954 


18 


686 


11 


653 



Ja*l 



1^ 



Litchfield. . . . 
Barkhamsted , 
Bethlehem — 
Bridgewater . 

Canaan 

Colebrook... 

Cornwall 

Goshen 

*Har\vinton . , 

Kent , 

Morris 

New Hartford 
New Milford., 

Norfolk , 

North Canaan 

Plymouth 

Roxbury 

Salisbury 

Sharon 

Torrington.... 

t Warren 

Watertown . . , 
Winchester . . . 
Woodbury. . . 
Washington.., 



10 717 
14| 446 
121 399 



$823.90 
282.70 
203.50 
333.30 
441.10 
361.90 
625.90 
369.60 
305.80 
511.50 
212.30 
792.00 
950.40 
465.30 
381.70 

1,062.60 
266.20 

1,049.40 
754.60 
718.30 
206.80 
427.90 
788.70 
490.60 
438.90 



292! 12,059) $13,264.90 377! 221 



* 10 Deducted in this Town by Comptroller, 
t 8 



17 



WINDHAM COUNTY 



Name of each School Society. 



Brooklyn 

Ashford 

Canterbury . . 

Chaplin 

Eastford 

Hampton.. . . 
•Killingly... 
tPlainfield... 
jPomfret.... 

Putnam 

J Sterling. . . 
Thompson.. , 
Voluntown. . 
[Windham . . 
fWoodstock 
Scotland . . . , 



I" 



500 
314 
426 
181 
302 
232 
1,256 
986 
324 
784 
237 

359 

1,158 

776 

153 



$550 
345.40 
468.60 
199.10 
332.20 
255,20 

1,381.60 

1,084.60 
356.40 
862.40 
260.70 

1,072.50 
394.90 

1,273 
853.60 
168.30 



69 8.96.3| $9,859.30 685 72 



* 118 Deducted in this Town hy Comptroller. 



J 416 " 
§ 16 " 

|| 94 Added 
1 16 Deducted 



18 



MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 



Name of each School Society. 



Middlctown... 

Haddam 

Chatham 

Chester 

Clinton 

Cromwell 

Durham 

East Haddam 

Essex 

Killing worth.. 
Old Saybrook 

Saybrook 

♦Portland 

Westbrook . . . 



2,670 
475 
480 
242 
339 
455 
259 
782 
374 
210 
286 
24 

1,01 
233 



$2,936.00 
522.50 
528.00 
266 20 
372.90 
500 50 
284.90 
860 20 
411.40 
231.00 
314.60 
272.80 
1,118.70 
256 30 



8,070| $8,877.00 4051 25 



19 Deducted in this Town by Comptroller. 



19 



TOLLAND COUNTY. 



Name of earh School Society. 



S .2 £ : 






*Tolland.. 
Andover . . 

Bolton 

Columbia . 
Coventry .. 
Ellington., 
t Hebron.. . 
Mansfield . 
Somers . . . 
Stafford . . . 
Union 
Vernon.. . . 
Wellington 



12 


320, 


$352.00! 


4 


103 


113.30 


5 


165J 


181.50 


7 


221 


243.10 


10 


503 


553.30 


9 


396' 


435.60 


11 


296 


325.60 


16 


448 


492.80 


10 


343 


377.30 


18 


Sll 


892.10 


6 


189 


207.90 


8' 


1,176 


1,293.60 


9 


25.") 


280.50 



125 5,226 $5,748.60, 236, 82 



* 11 Deducted in this Town by Comptroller. 
t 14 



20 



SUMMARY 



COUNTIES. 



Hartford County. 
New Haven 
New London 
Fairfield 

Litchfield 

Windham 

Middlesex 

Tolland 



27 
24 
I 20 
23 
25 
16 
14 



Zi\ 

MS 

H\ 


Number of 
Children. 

Amount of 
Dividend 
at $1.10 
pro rata. 


"o a 
a 2 
|1 


l 6 - 


251 


23,279 $25,606.90 


843 


157 


210 


25,140 27,654.00 


1,050 


109 


220 


15,703 17,273.30 




207 


246 


20,340 22,374.00 


803 


58 


292 


12,059 13,264.90 


377 


221 


169 


8,963 ' 9,859.30 


685 


72 


121 


8,070 8,877.00 405 


25 


125 


5,226 5,748.60 


236 
0, 4,886 


82 


118,780 


, 931 



Whole number returned in 1865, 
1866, 



111, 
118/ 



Increase of children in one year, 



ANNUAL REPORT 



BOARD OF EDUCATION 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT, 



PRESENTED TO THE 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY, MAY SESSION, 1866, 



TOGETHER WITH THE 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE BOARD. 



HARTFORD: 
PRESS OF CASE, LOCKWOOD AND COMPANY. 

1866. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

REPORT OF THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION, 5 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE BOARD, 17 

REPORT. 

I. Introduction, ....... 17 

Summary of the Educational Statistics for the year, - - 19 

II. Sukvey of the Resources and Population of Connecticut, 21 

Population, ' - - - - - - - 21 

Emigration and Immigration, - - - - 21 

Resident Foreigners, - - - - - • 21 

Decrease of Children, relatively, 22 

Wealth of the State, ...... 22 

Amount of Improved Lands, ..... 23 

Remarkable growth of Manufactures, .... 24 

Reflections and Inferences, « - - - -25 

III. Detailed Statistics of the Common Schools, 27 

Number of Children, ...... 27 

Number of Scholars, ...... 27 

Average Attendance, ...... 28 

Amount of Money raised for Schools, .... 30 

Pay of Teachers, - -- . . . -36 

New School-Houses, ...... 37 

Text-Books, ........ 33 

Number of Graded Schools, ..... 33 

IV. High Schools and Academies, .... 41 

Endowments and Incorporations, .... 43 

Town High Schools, - - . . .. -45 

District High Schools, ...... 45 

Higher Education in Towns enumerating 1,000 Children and more, 47 

in smaller Towns, .... 50 

V. The Normal School, • - . - . . 55 

General Principles respecting its Management, ... 59 

VI. The Sheffield Scientific School, - - 61 

VII. Colleges and Professional Schools, ... 62 

VIII. Supplementary Schools, ..... 64 



IX. General Educational Influences, - 
Teachers' Institutes, - 
Other Educational Conferences, - 
State Teachers' Association, - 
Periodicals, .... 

American Institute of Instruction, - 
State appropriation for Libraries, - 



PAGE. 

66 
66 



DISCUSSIONS. 

X. Disadvantages of the existing District System; Sugges- 
tions with reference to Town action and Consolidation, 

XI. Necessity of looking after the Destitute and Neg- 
lected ; Employment of Children in Factories, 

XII. High Schools as an essential part of a good system of 
Common Schools, ....... 

XIII- Conclusion, ....... 



APPENDIX. 
Miscellaneous Documents pertaining to Education, 

1. Papers Distributed by the Board the past year, 

2. List of Local School Reports printed, 

3. Judge Sanford's Decision on Corporal Punishment, - 

4. Decimal System of Weights and Measures, 

5. Prof. Camp's Report on Teachers' Institutes, 

6. School Libraries, - 

7. Terms of Admission to the Sheffield Scientific School, 
Documents respecting the Normal School, 

1. Terms of Admission ; Terms and Vacations, 

2. Historical Tables of Trustees and Instructors, - 

3. Prof. Camp's Letter of Resignation, - 

4. Number of Pupils and Graduates since 1850, 

5. List of Graduates teaching in Connecticut in 1 865, - 

6. Circular and Replies, ...... 

Letters from A. Parish, H. E. Sawyer, H. B. Buckham, and 
J. E. Barnes. 
List of School Visitors in the several Towns, 
Statistical Tables, arranged by Counties and Towns, 
The School Laws in force in January, 18G6, with an Index, 
Extracts from the Reports of the Local School Visitors, 
Index, ......... 



99 
99 
100 
103 
104 
105 
107 
108 
10S 
110 
112 
113 
114 
117 



125 
129 
153 
183 

22 7 



REPORT 

Of the Board of Education of the State of Connecticut, 

TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 



The act approved on the twenty-first of July, 1865, by which the 
Legislature of Connecticut created a Board of Education for the State 
and defined its duties, requires said Board annually to lay before the 
Legislature " a detailed report of all the doings of the Board, with such 
observations upon the condition and efficiency of the system of popular 
education, and such suggestions as to the best means of improving it, 
as the experience and reflection of the Board may dictate." That 
report is hereby respectfully submitted. 

Scarcely nine months have elapsed since the Board were appointed 
to their very responsible office, and by the statute made Trustees of the 
Normal School and entrusted with the "general supervision and control 
of the educational interests of the State." So large a field they could 
not even become well acquainted with in all its parts in so short a 
time. It is hoped, therefore, that some indulgence will be granted 
them if they shall not seem in all respects to have accomplished an 
ordinary year's work in their province. It is also to be said that in 
these first months of their administration they have deemed it best to 
move with great caution, using but a small part of the power given 
them by the Legislature, and making no changes except where good 
results were clearly promised. The report of their doings will there- 
fore be brief. 

The first meeting of the members of the Board was called by the 
help of the telegraph on the day of their appointment, when no business 



of importance was transacted except that which the condition of the 
Normal School made immediately necessary. The vacation which pre- 
cedes the beginning of the school year had commenced, and it now 
rested with the Board to take the necessary steps for the continuance 
of the School. Mr. Camp was authorized to put the building in a 
proper condition for the re-opening ot the school, to provide fuel, and 
make the ordinary announcements to the public respecting the admis- 
sion of pupils in September. 

At a meeting of the Board held August 12th, it was. voted that all 
the teachers then employed in the Normal School be requested to con- 
tinue in their respective positions. This vote involved one important 
change, for it gave to the institution the entire services of Mr. Camp 
as Principal, whereas he had up to that time been chiefly occupied 
with his duties as Superintendent of the Common Schools of the whole 
State. The Board made this important addition to the teaching force 
of the Normal School that they might meet the just desire of the Legis- 
lature to increase its efficiency and success. Mr. Camp's long ex- 
perience in training teachers, and his familiarity with all the relations 
as well as with the management of the school, fitted him, in the judg- 
ment of the Board, now that he was unincumbered with other public 
duties, to give to the institution a new impulse, of which the good 
results would soon be manifest. 

At the same meeting, Mr. Daniel C. Gilman, who had recently 
resigned his place as Librarian of Yale College, and was still dis- 
charging some duties in the Sheffield Scientific School in New Haven, 
was, without solicitation from any quarter, elected Secretary of the 
Board. For several years previous he had devoted much attention to 
the subject of popular education in Connecticut and elsewhere. Mr. 
Gilman accepted the appointment, and has since labored constantly 
and most efficiently in the cause of common school education in various 
parts of the State and for the Normal School. His valuable and inter- 
esting report to the Board is herewith transmitted as a part of the 
report of the Board to the Legislature. Particular attention is called 
to the various statistical tables in his report. Similar tables have 



been found in other States to be most efficient means of diffusing cor- 
rect information and of awakening zeal. 

The Normal School has occupied much of the attention of the Board 
from the very day of their appointment. It has been under con- 
sideration at every meeting, and while the general interests of educa- 
tion in the State have not been overlooked, this institution has rested 
on their minds, as, at present, the chief burden of their responsibility. 
The importance of a gooji school for the training of teachers for the 
general progress of education in the State is now generally conceded. 
Nor can it be doubted that Connecticut, which once took the lead of 
the States in common school education, desires still to advance in per- 
fecting and increasing the efficiency of her educational system. If she 
owes her eminence in influence and in material wealth to any cause 
within her own control, it is doubtless to the fact that from the earliest 
times she has been untiringly faithful in educating her children. And 
if, taking a higher view of property, we may say that the great item 
of wealth in a State is its citizens, and it is legitimate for communities, 
by public enactments, to promote the general wealth, then it is cer- 
tainly proper for the State to do what it can, within reasonable limits, 
for the promotion of education. For nothing more certainly adds to 
the substantial value of the individual man than education — nothing 
gives him greater power over his own faculties to apply them to 
useful ends without waste — nothing else confers on him that versatile 
use of those faculties, which, in the case of a multitude of New Eng- 
land men, has made adversity only the stepping-stone to success. 

In education, moreover, progress is essential to efficiency; and the 
man who aspires after the unenviable notoriety of opposing it, will not 
only win a lasting inheritance of shame for his name, but will, if suc- 
cessful, damage the general prosperity. . 

The Normal School may be looked upon as the central point of the 
general progress which is so much to be desired, and to that, as it has 
been remarked, the Board have chiefly directed their attention thus 
far. They have discussed at great length among themselves the 
proper method of conducting such an institution; have considered 
what is the main thing to be aimed at in it, whether the acquisition of 



the knowledge to be imparted by teachers, or the art or arts by which 
such knowledge should be imparted ; the length of time which should 
be spent in such a school, and the means which should be used to en- 
force proper demands in this respect ; the amount of literary acquisi- 
tion to be required of candidates for admission ; the method of providing 
for the material wants of the pupils while connected with the school, 
and many other questions which press themselves on their attention. 
For the sake of obtaining light they have consulted many gentlemen 
not connected with the Board, who were either interested in the school 
itself or in the cause of public education. In November last they held 
a consultation in New Britain with a large number of persons living 
near the school, who, at the request of the Board, were invited by Mr. 
Camp to be present, that it might be learned what the most constant 
observers of the school might suggest respecting its management. A 
similar meeting was held a few days later in Hartford, when gentlemen 
were present from different parts of the State. Others were, by 
direction of the Board, consulted by the Secretary, who addressed to 
them letters of inquiry asking their judgment on certain specified 
topics. 

At a meeting held in December, the Board, in order to prepare 
themselves still further for an intelligent exercise of their judgment in 
the management of the institution, requested the Secretary and one of 
their own number, attended by such others as might find it convenient, 
to visit the normal schools of Massachusetts. This committee, who, 
in their visit to the institution at Westfield, had been accompanied by 
one other member of the Board, made a particular report of what 
they had observed to the meeting held in New Haven on the 15 th of 
January following. At that meeting, after a prolonged consideration 
of the whole subject, it was unanimously voted that the Secretary 
inform Mr. Camp that the Board contemplated such a re-organization 
of the school as might involve a change of teachers, and request him 
to make this known to his associates. 

Before the next meeting of the Board, which was held in March, 
the Principal of the school and two of his assistants sent to the Sec- 
retary a tender of their resignations, which were to take effect at the 



• 9 

end of the term then current. The Board at their meeting requested 
Mr. Camp and Miss Marshall to remain in the service of the school 
till the end of the year in July. But Miss Marshall preferred to make 
an engagement to teach in Elmira, and soon after the recent vacation 
began Mr. Camp informed the Secretary that his health required an 
immediate and prolonged intermission of his public employments. 
He sailed for Europe about the 24th of April. The Board would tes- 
tify to the handsome manner in which Mr. Camp met all the questions 
which came up during the year, and in the name of the State which 
he has served so long would thank him for the service he has rendered 
to the cause of public education. 

In the emergency which arose on Mr. Camp's final decision, the 
Executive Committee were fortunate in obtaining the temporary aid 
of Isaac N. Carleton, A. M., who, being free from other engagements 
as a teacher until September, consented to act as the successor of Mr. 
Camp until the end of the school year in July. The place made va- 
cant by the resignation of Miss Marshall, whom the Board would 
gladly have detained longer at her post, is filled by Miss Craigin. 

The Board have inquired much and carefully for a suitable person 
to occupy permanently the position of Principal of the school.* 

The expenses of the Normal School have been increased by the 
change which made the entire salary of the Principal a charge on its 
annual appropriation, whereas he had until this year had his salary, 
with the exception of three hundred dollars, otherwise provided for by 
the State. A slight increase of pay has also been granted to one or 
two of the other teachers. The Board have also been under the ne- 
cessity of incurring a considerable expense, amounting to $355.53, for 
a new pavement in front of the school building. The financial year 
ends on the 31st of March, and, therefore, covers only a part of the 
administration of the Board thus far. 

* A paragraph was here inserted in the report as presented to the Legislature, 
announcing that a gentleman had accepted the position of Principal of the Nor- 
mal School. As he has since accepted a more lucrative offer, the paragraph l e- 
specting him i3 not printed. 



10 • 

The sum total for the year, including the expenses incurred during 
one term by the former Trustees, is $6,197.21. 

The whole number of pupils who have been in attendance during 
the year is as follows : 





Ladies. 


Gentlemen. 


Total 


During the Summer Term, 


74 


12 


86 


During the Autumn Term, 


70 


15 


85 


During the Winter Term, 


58 


12 


70 



The number now in the school under the instruction of Mr. Carle- 
ton, Mr. Bartlett, and Miss Oaigin, is about sixty. 

The Board have during the year exercised the authority conferred 
on them by the Legislature to reject those candidates for admission 
who on examination were found deficient in knowledge of the element- 
ary studies in which they were examined. It is hoped that this 
power of rejection which is now exercised will hereafter induce greater 
efforts at preparation on the part of those who propose to become pu- 
pils of the school. 

The attention of the Board has been called to the evils which were 
said to attend the relation of the Normal School to the school of the 
Central District of New Britain, but it has not seemed wise to dis- 
pense with the advantage to be derived from model schools. They 
have therefore made no change, except to request the district not to 
rely on the pupils of the Normal School for help in teaching so far as 
to diminish the number of teachers ordinarily employed for such 
schools. This, it is believed, will prove advantageous for all con- 
cerned. 

The question of a boarding house for the accommodation of the 
pupils of the Normal School has not yet reached a satisfactory solu- 
tion. A committee, however, consisting in part of gentlemen of New 
Britain, have the whole subject under consideration. The great diffi- 
culty which the pupils meet with in finding suitable boarding- 
places makes this a subject of great practical importance. 



11 

The Act of the Legislature gave the Board power to direct what 
books should be used in all the schools of the State. Fortunately the 
exercise of this power was not made compulsory, for the labor of 
examining the multitude of school-books which were pressed on the 
attention of the Board, and of deciding with deliberate judgment on 
their comparative merits, would have been too great for a single year. 
But in answer to the numerous letters of inquiry addressed to the 
Secretary on this subject the following conclusions were reached at a 
meeting held in October, and the Secretary was requested to embody 
them in a circular to be distributed to School Visitors throughout the 
State. 

" In reply to the numerous inquiries as to the probable action of the 
Board, the following preliminary statement is made : 

1. The Board of Education is unwilling, in a matter of such grave 
importance, embarrassed by such obvious difficulties, to act without 
mature deliberation, and considerable time must necessarily elapse 
before a definite conclusion is reached. 

2. Until the Board does act, the power of deciding upon text- 
books remains, as heretofore, with the School Visitors of the several 
towns, or the local Boards of Education in the consolidated school 
districts. 

3. The Board, in the most emphatic manner, recommends that in 
every town a uniformity of school-books be at once secured in the 
public schools. "Where there is any delay in securing this result, the 
School Visitors should require that at least in every district only one 
set of school-books be used. The practice which still prevails in soui,. 
towns of employing in the same district, and the same school, seve 
books of the same grade, on the same subject, ought at once to be 
broken up. 

4. Whenever the Board does act in the matter of textbooks 
will probably be in an advisory and not in a compulsory manner, — 



12 

tending gradually to introduce the best books without interfering too 
much with local usages or preferment. At any rate it it not likely 
that hasty or radical changes will be made." 

At an earlier meeting it was recommended to the several school 
districts of the State to procure for every school a copy of the last 
revised edition of Webster's Quarto Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, which the publishers afterward agreed to furnish to the dis- 
tricts at a very low price. 

The Board have directed the printing of extra copies of that portion 
of the revised statutes of the State which contains the laws pertaining 
to schools, for distribution to school officers. The same appears as an 
appendix to this report. 

The school registers and other blanks required by law have been 
prepared and distributed by the Secretary. 

Teachers' Institutes have been held in the several counties as here- 
tofore. To increase the benefits which may be derived from these 
temporary labors for the instruction of teachers and for kindling anew 
their zeal in their work, the Board would suggest that the Secretary 
be allowed to use his discretion in extending the time during which 
the several institutes may be held, and to meet the increased expense 
by diminishing the number of institutes to be held during the year. 
It is believed that they may, be made the means of very great and 
manifest usefulness to the general education of the State. 

The Board would respectfully suggest to the Legislature the desira- 
bleness of encouraging by some enactment the consolidation of districts 
in the several towns. The present mutual independence of eight or 
ten, or, in some cases, of more than twenty districts in a single town, 
is adapted to prevent the establishment of graded schools, and in 
general to check the progress of improvement in the education of the 
children of the commonwealth. 



13 

In conclusion, the Board would express their firm belief that the 
present time is most favorable for devising and executing measures 
which will tend to improve the common schools. It is their earnest 
desire to cooperate with the Legislature, the local School Visitors and 
District Committees, and the Teachers of the State, in efforts to pro- 
mote the thorough education of the people. 

WILLIAM A. BUCKINGHAM, 
ROGER AVERILL, 
THOMAS A. THACHER, 
ELISHA CARPENTER, 
ALFRED COIT, 
GEORGE M. WOODRUFF. 

New Havex, May 1, 1866. 



REPORT 



SECRETARY OF THE BOARD. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



To the Board of Education of the State of Connecticut : 

Gentlemen: Having had the honor in August last of being 
appointed Secretary of the Board of Education, an office in- 
volving the superintendence of common schools, I entered at 
once upon the duties of the post, and have endeavored during 
the eight months which have since intervened to do all in my 
power for the advancement of education throughout the State. 
I have acted constantly under your instruction and guidance 
in all doubtful cases, and I have derived great help from your 
co-operation and support. While the Normal School has nat- 
urally demanded a considerable share of your attention, the 
other educational interests of the State have been continually 
brought before you, and various instrumentalities have been 
employed with your sanction for the improvement of schools 
of every grade. In accordance with the law I now submit to 
you and through you to the Legislature the following report. 
If there are any of our citizens who have looked for sudden 
and remarkable improvements to be accomplished within the 
year, they will probably be disappointed; but it is hoped that 
they and all other friends of education will find in the work 
which is projected and in the recommendations which are 
made, the assurance of early and decided progress. 

It seems to me important at the present time to take a sur- 
vey as comprehensive as circumstances will permit of the pres- 
ent condition of public education in the State of Connecticut, 
in order that the Legislature and the Board of Education, to 
which by an organic change in the law the care of the Com- 
mon Schools is now entrusted, may devise wise measures for 
the maintenance and promotion of this important institution^ 
2 



18 

and thus contribute to the advancement of intellectual and 
moral culture in our ancient commonwealth. 

For many years the opportunities have not been so favorable 
as they are just now for uniting all classes in the community, 
irrespective of creed, party, or nationality, in vigorous efforts 
for the improvement of public education. Important questions 
in respect to the abolition of slavery, on which the wise and 
good have been for years divided, and which have tended to 
separate even in the district school meeting those who should 
always have stood united in liberal and progressive sentiments, 
are now for ever settled. The war, which has absorbed since 
1861 all the best forces of the State, has happily ended in the 
establishment of the Union and the vindication of the princi- 
ples of local self-government. The return of peace is charac- 
terized not only at home, but in the national councils at Wash- 
ington, and still more remarkably in the discussions which are 
in progress throughout all the Southern States, by a lively de- 
mand for the more thorough diffusion of public education as 
indispensable to the support of a free republic. So likewise in 
our own State there are manifold indications of an educational 
awakening. Spontaneous movements have begun in a number 
of places for the improvement of the public schools. Propo- 
sitions and suggestions of an important character are now un- 
der discussion in most of the larger towns and villages. Every 
where there arc indications of a desire to consider all classes 
■of schools — from the simplest primary school to the professional 
seminary — as parts of one harmonious system for the improve- 
ment of the community. Under such circumstances it is not 
surprising that the establishment of a central advisory and 
administrative Board of Education has been received with 
tokens of marked congratulation. 

In accordance with the usage which has been observed by 
my predecessors for a number of years, I now present a sum- 
mary of the statistics for the year ending in August, 18G5. 
It seems proper to remark in this place that these returns arc 
only approximately correct. Every effort has been made to 
secure accuracy so far as it could be secured by the Superin- 
tendent of Common Schools and by the Boards of Visitors in 



19 

most of the towns. The exertions made by the last named 
officials arc deserving of grateful recognition. So, too, from 
many of the districts careful returns have been received. But 
in many school districts and in a few towns the value of these 
figures is inadequately appreciated, and it is only by persistent 
inquiry that the information is secured. For the current year, 
blanks of a new form have been distributed, by means of 
which it is hoped that the collection of returns will be facili- 
tated. The local school visitors are advised that the law re- 
quires from every district a faithful report on the state of the 
schools as an indispensable condition for receiving the public 
money. 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS, 

Relating- to the Common Schoo/s of Connecticut, for the year 

ending- August 31st, 1865. 

Number of towns in the state, - 162 

Number of towns which have made no returns, - 

Number of school districts in the state, - - 1,623 

Number of common or public schools, - - 1,662 

Number of departments in public schools, - 1,991 

Number of children between the ages of four and six- 
teen years, January, 1865, ... 114,825 
Number of children between the ages of four and six- 
teen years, January, 1866, ... 118,812 
Increase over previous year, 1865, - 3,987 

Average number in each district between four and six- 
teen years of age, January 1866, 74 
Average length of winter school in weeks, - 18 
Average length of summer school in weeks, - 17 
Whole number of scholars registered in winter, - 78,149 
Whole number of scholars registered in summer, - 71,603 
Per centage of those enumerated registered in winter, 68 
Average attendance in winter, - - - 57,131 
Average attendance in summer, - - - 51,751 
Per centage of attendance in winter as compared with 

number registered in winter, - .73 

Number in public schools over sixteen years of age, 2,544 



20 

Number of male teachers in winter, - 655 

Number of male teachers in summer, - 113 

Number of female teachers in winter, - 1,448 

Number of female teachers in summer, - 1,959 

Number of teachers who have taught the same school 

two or more successive terms, - 1,074 

Number of teachers who never taught before, - 558 

Number of teachers who are reported as having attended 

a Normal School, .... 391 

Average wages per month of male teachers, including 

board, ------ $49.00 

Average wages per month of female teachers, including 

board, $22.61 

Number of schools of two grades, - - - 113 

Number of schools of three or more grades, - 73 

Number of new school-houses erected during the year, 20 
Number of school-houses reported 'good,' - 1,296 

Number of school-houses reported 'bad,' - 310 

Capital of School Fund, - - - 2,046,522.23 

Revenue of School Fund distributed February 28th, 

1865, $131,997.80 

Revenue of School Fund distributed February 28th, 

1866, 136,471.94 

Dividend per scholar from School Fund, 1865, - 1.15 

Dividend per scholar from School Fund, 1S66, - 1.10 

Capital of Town Deposit Fund, - - 763,661.83 

Revenue of Town Deposit Fund at 6 per cent., 45,819.71 
Amount raised by town tax for schools, - 91,280.31 

Amount raised by district tax for schools, - 201,066.38 

Amount raised by tuition for schools, - 49,984.25 

Amount raised from other sources for schools, - 39,782.79 
Amount expended for new school-houses, - 62,353.50 

Amount expended for repairs, - - - 29,515.87 

Number of school-houses without outbuildings, - 177 
Number of school-houses with enclosed yards, - 246 

Number of districts which have outline maps, - 883 

Number of districts which have a school library, 453 

Number of districts which assess a tax on property, 291 

No. of districts which receive tuition from resident pupils, 499 



•21 



II. KESOUECES AND POPULATION OF CONNECTICUT. 

Having presented this educational summary, I now propose 
to add a few general statements in respect to the condition of 
Connecticut, which may help to elucidate that which has gone 
hefore, and may assist the reflecting reader in deducing various 
important inferences and conclusions. 

The population of Connecticut in 1860 was somewhat less 
than half a million persons, or in exact terms, 460,147. Judg- 
ing hy the number of children enumerated in the school cen- 
sus of January, 1865, the population had increased during the 
five years subsequent to the national census about 62,000 per- 
sons — that is to say, about thirteen per cent. — amounting in 
1865 to about 522,000 persons. 

During the ten years previous to the census of 1860, Con- 
necticut which has been famous more than half a century for 
distributing her children over all the Union, ceased to rank 
among the States which are called "migrative," because they 
send out more persons than they draw in — and took its position 
among the States called "receiving," because they receive 
more persons into their borders than they send away. But 
our native born citizens are still enterprising and adventurous, 
and are widely scattered through other parts of the country, 
especially (as the census shows) in New York, Ohio, Massachu- 
setts, and Illinois. Nearly half as many natives of the State 
were resident elsewhere in the United States as were within 
the limits of Connecticut in 1860. Somewhat more than one- 
sixth of the actual residents of the State are of foreign birth, 
and most of these are natives of Ireland. The proportion is 
thus more exactly stated: 

Americans, - - - 82.46 per cent. 

Irish, .... 12.05 " 
English, - - - 1.93 " 

German, - 1.85 " 

Other foreigners, - - 1.71 " 



Total, .... 100. 



It is another curious fact that the relative number of chil- 
dren in the State appears to have been steadily diminishing 
for the last forty years. The earliest returns on this subject 
begin in 1820, when the income of the School Fund was first 
distributed in proportion to the number of children between 
the ages of four and sixteen. In the following table may be 
seen the number of children between those ages enumerated 
in this State in the years when a census of the United States 
has been taken. The ratio of the number of children to the 
whole number of people is also given, and a glance will show 
that the relative number of children has diminished eight per 
cent. 

Children Enumerated in Connecticut. 







Number of 
children be- 


Per cent, of 






tween 4 and 


children to 


Tear. 


Population. 


16 years. 


population. 


1820 


275,202 


84,179 


30.59 


1830 


297,675 


85,006 


28.55 


1840 


309,978 


82,676 


26.67 


1850 


370,792 


90,700 


24.46 


1860 


460,147 


105,464 


22.92 


1865 ' 


[522,145]* 


114,825 


[22]* 



Let us next look for a moment at the wealth of the State. 
Many persons will no doubt be surprised to learn that little 
Connecticut stands ahead of all her sisters in the diffusion of 
wealth. Not even Massachusetts and New York with their 
large capital cities compare with Connecticut in the amount 
of wealth proportioned to the population. Take the census 
of 1860, divide up the reported amount of real and personal 
property among the population, and it will appear that in Kan- 
sas there is the least amount for each citizen, in Connecticut 
the most. The following table, prepared by Professor II. A. 
Newton, shows the order in which- the several States take rank. 
To account for the enormous wealth of some of the Southern 
States it should be borne in mind that in 1860 slaves were 
counted as chattels. We have changed all that for the future 
The New England States stand in the following order: 

Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, and Maine. 



Amount of weallh in proportion 


i to the whole population in the 




several United States, 1860. 




Connecticut, - 


- #966 


Arkansas, - 


$504 


Louisiana, 


850 


Pennsylvania, 


487 


South Carolina, 


- 779 


New Hampshire, 


484 


Rhode Island, 


775 


New York, 


- 475 


Mississippi, 


- 768 


Tennessee, 


446 


New Jersey, 


696 


Virginia, 


- 434 


Massachusetts, 


- 662 


Missouri, - 


424 


Georgia, - 


611 


Delaware, 


- 412 


Texas, 


- 604 


Indiana, - 


392 


Kentucky, 


576 


Vermont, 


- 389 


Oregon, 


- 551 


Iowa, 


366 


Maryland, 


549 


North Carolina, 


- 361 


California, 


- 547 


Wisconsin, 


353 


Florida, - 


521 


Michigan, 


- 343 


Illinois, 


. - 515 


Maine, 


303 


Alabama, - 


514 


Minnesota, 


- 301 


Ohio, - 


- 510 


Kansas, 


292 



Another view of the condition of the State may be taken by 
comparing the number of acres of improved land with the 
square miles of territory. Here, too, as in wealth, Connecti- 
cut leads all other States; it is far in advance of those which 
are in this respect most favored. 

Number of acres of land improved for each square mile in the 





several United 


Stales, 1860. 




Connecticut, - 


- 392 


Kentucky, 


- 228 


Maryland, 


321 


Pennsylvania, 


223 


Ohio, - 


- 317 


South Carolina, 


- 186 


New York, 


312 


Virginia, - 


186 


Vermont, 


- 304 


Tennessee, 


- 151 


Delaware, - 


SOO 


North Carolina, - 


145 


Massachusetts, 


- 276 


Georgia, 


- 139 


New Hampshire 


, - 255 


Alabama, - 


127 


Rhode Island, 


- 253 


Mississippi, 


- 109 


Indiana, - 


241 


Missouri, - 


93 


Illinois, 


- 239 


Maine, 


89 


New Jersey, 


234 


Wisconsin, 


69 



24 



Iowa, - 
Michigan, ■ 
Louisiana, 
Arkansas, ■ 
California, 



67 Florida, - 

61 Texas, 

59 Oregon, - 

37 Minnesota, 

13 Kansas, 



11 

11 

9 

7 



Another interesting fact is this, that the relative value of 
the agriculture and manufactures of the state is changing. 
The factories are gaining on the farms. Villages are absorb- 
ing the wealth and the people of the country districts. The 
change in ten years as shown by the census is very striking. 
The capital employed in manufactures during that period, 
increased from twenty-five to forty-five million of dollars, an 
increase of eighty per cent. ; while the capital employed in 
farming, increased during the same ten years, from eighty- 
two to one hundred and four millions, — an increase of only 
twenty-seven per cent. The following tables exhibit this and 
several other collateral facts. 

Capital and Labor employed in Manufacturing in Connecticut in 
1850 and 1860. 





Number 




of F.s- 




tablish- 




meuts. 


1850. 


3,737 


1860. 


3,019 


Increase, 




Increase 




per cent., 
Decrease, 




718 



Capital. 


Cost of 

.Material. 


Hands era- 
ployed. 


Annual 
cost of 
Labor. 


Male. 


Fem. 


$25,870,648 

45,590,430 

19,713,782 

.76,19 


823,608,971 
40,909,090 
17,300,119 


34,218 

44,002 

9,754 

.28 


16,483 
20,467 
3,984 

.24 


512,435,984 
19,026,200 
0,590,216 
.53 



Annual 
value of 
Products. 

§47,114,585 
81,924,555 
34,809,970 
.74 



Capital employed in Agriculture in Connecticut in 1850 and 1860. 



Acres of Land. 

Iinprov ed, Unimprov 

in ed in 

Farms. Farms. 



Cash 
value of 
Farms. 



Value of 
fanning 
Imple- 
ments and 
Machin'y. 



Value of 
Live Total. 

Stock. 



1850. 

1860. 
Increase, 
Increase 
per cent., 



768,178 615,701 

830,807 673,457 

62,629 75,756 

.0354 .0938 



-72, 72<i. 42J >1, 892,5 II ?7,467,490 $82,086,453 
90,830.005 2,339,481 11,311,079 104,480,565 
18,103,683 446.940 3,843,589 22,394,112 



25 

Any one familiar with the growth of such places as New 
Haven, Hartford, Norwich, Meriden, Sprague, "Willi man tic, 
Rockville and other manufacturing towns, — or with the 
growth of our villages all along the Naugatuck and Quinne- 
baug rivers, — not to mention other equally striking cases, — 
must perceive that the interests and occupations of the peo- 
ple of the state are undergoing great changes. 

Conclusions and Inferences. 
To these statistical lessons we may add a few historical 
statements, too well known to require either proof or com- 
ment, and by the combination we may draw up a sort of in- 
ventory of our ability and resom*ces. 

1. Connecticut is the richest state in the Union, — i. e., 
she has the greatest wealth in proportion to population. 

She can therefore afford to do what she pleases in the mat- 
ter of public education. 

2. Connecticut stands first in the amount of improved 
land in proportion to area. 

Farmers therefore as a class need not fear liberality. 

3. Connecticut stands among the foremost in the variety 
and value of her manufactured products, — and manufactur- 
ing establishments are rapidly increasing in number and 
wealth. 

The labor of educated mechanics was never in such demand. 

4. Connecticut has a large and increasing foreign popu- 
lation, nearly one-sixth of her people having been born in 
other lands, — nearly one-eighth of them in Ireland. 

Nothing so soon supplants foreign ideas with American 
principles as good public schools. 

5. Connecticut has educated for the nation more men of 
influence, senators and representatives in congress, state 
governors, clergymen, authors, college presidents, etc., than 
any other state, in proportion to her population.* 

Our schools and colleges deserve this credit. 

* For some curiom illustrations of this statement, see Dr. Bushnell's famous 
" Speech for Connecticut," reprinted lately in his " Work and Play ; " and consult also 
an elaborate inquiry by Rev. I. N. Turbox, printed in the New Englander, for 1865. 



26 

G. Connecticut is distinguished for the inventive genius 
of her sons, and for their readiness in applying the principles 
of science to the wants of art.* 

The wide diffusion of education must have tended to pro- 
duce this general power of discovery and contrivance. 

7. Connecticut, in the earliest colonial days, established 
a system of public schools, including at the outset high 
schools, and subsequently a college. 

All grades of schools should still be regarded as parts of 
one system. 

8. Connecticut, under the guidance of James Hillhouse 
set apart more than half a century ago a fund for the en- 
couragement of common schools, — and to this the prosperity 
of the state has been largely due. 

Now that the fund is wholly inadequate to the necessities 
of the state, it belongs to the present generation, by their 
own willing contributions, to perpetuate in the future the 
advantages we have inherited from the past. 

These facts and reflections unitedly considered seem to 
prove that our past enterprise in the business of public edu- 
cation has contributed to the advancement of the state in all 
the elements of prosperity, — in wealth, influence, reputation, 
and the wide diffusion of comfort, intelligence, and morality. 
We have lately been in danger of resting with too much 
composure on our former acquisitions and accomplishments. 
Our neighboring sister states have in many respects been 
more alert than we. Many of the states at the West, which 
we may fitly call our daughters, especially those which have 
been strongly influenced by our past experience, are surpass- 
ing us in their liberal endeavors to educate the people. It 
is time for us to take our bearings. 

* The names of Whitney, Fitch, Goodyear, Morse, Colt, Ames, and many other 
distinguished inventors might bo cited. 



27 



III. DETAILED SURVEY CF THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 
From these general comments on the condition of the state, 
I proceed to discuss in detail the statistics of the Common 
Schools. . 

NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE. 

The number of children between the ages of 4 and 16 
years, in the month of January, 1866, was 118,812, which is 
nearly 4,000 more than the number enumerated in January, 
1865, and 6,467 more than the number enumerated in Janu- 
ary, 1864. If the ratio of the children to the entire popula- 
tion remains about the same as it was in 1860, say 22 per 
cent., the population of the state is now about 522,000. As" 
the school returns are made up for the year ending in Au- 
gust, 1865, it is obviously proper that all comparisons and per 
centages should likewise be based on the enumeration of 
1865. 

NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 

Many more children go to school in winter than in sum- 
mer, — about eight per cent. more. The registers have 
recorded 78,149 scholars in winter schools, and 71,603 in sum- 
mer. Taking the larger of these figures, (the winter attend- 
ance,) we see that the public schools the past year 
appear to have actually taught 68 per cent, of the children 
of the state. This figure is probably a little too high, — in 
consequence of the number of scholars above 16 years of 
age. There are reported 2,544 such scholars. If we deduct 
this number from the number registered in winter, and then 
ascertain the per centage, we shall find that only 65 per 
cent, of the children of school age (4-16 years) were en- 
rolled as scholars last year. The separate towns differ very 
much in this respect, as will be seen by a subsequent table. 
In general we may say that there are forty-two towns, each 
of which reports eighty per cent, or more of the children 
enumerated as attendants on the common schools. These 
towns are mostly agricultural communities. On the other 
hand there are thirty-eight towns in which the common 



28 

schools do not include over Qo per cent, of the enumerated 
number of children. Killingworth has the largest per cent- 
age of scholars, and Nor walk and Greenwich the lowest of all 
the towns in the state. 

A comparison of several years shows very little variation 
in the number of children enrolled in winter as scholars in 
the common schools. No returns were made till 1857, and 
for two or three years subsequent it is fair to presume that 
the reports were imperfect. The figures are as follows : 

In 1857, 61 per cent, of the enumerated were registered. 

Ih58, 74 " " 

1859,70 " " " 

1800, 71 " " " " 

1861,68 " " " " 

1862,68 " " " " 

1863, 69 " " " " 

1864, 69 " " " " 

1865, 68 " " . " 

These figures show that for nine years past, 68 per cent, of 
the children of school age have been enrolled in winter as 
scholars in the common schools of the state. For five years 
past this figure has hardly varied. The average attendance 
is much larger in winter than in summer, owing without 
doubt to the demand for children's labor in the out of door 
employments of summer. 

AVERAGE ATTENDANCE OP CHILDREN AT SCHOOL. 

The report shows that on the average seventy-three children 
out of every hundred enrolled as scholars in winter are pres- 
ent at school — in other words, a little more than one-fourth of 
those who are enrolled as scholars are absent on the average 
from school. 

To render this statement of any practical value some further 
comparison is necessary. 

Twenty-seven towns bring up their average attendance in 
winter to 80 per cent, or over; two towns — Harwinton and 
Somers — reporting that the attendance is over 90 per cent. 



29 

On the other hand forty-seven towns fall below 70 per cent., 
and six towns do not report above 60 per cent. 

Comparing the past year with the two years next previous, 
a slight improvement is visible. The returns for the last four 
years (none having been made before) arc as follows: 

1862, 74 per cent, average attendance. 

1863, 71 

1864, 72 " " 

1865, 73 " " " 

Further light is thrown on these subjects by the following 
tables : 



Towns having the highest per centage of ' Registered in Win- 
ter'' as compared ivilh the number of '■Enumerated.'' 
(80 Per Cent, and Upwards ) 







c 


•~ 






e 


V. 




TOWNS. 


8 


X. 




TOWNS. 


S 


■£ 






£ 


o 






£ 




1. 


Killing worth, 


10^5 


25 


23. j 

24. \ 


Enfield, 


85 


12 


2. 


Bozrah, 


9- 


12 


Bolton, 


85 


6 


3. 


Chaplin, 


98 


9 


25. | 


'Oxford, 


83 


7 


4. 


Griswold, 


96 


41 


26. J 


Brooklyn, 


8:1 


10 


5. 


j Middlebury, 


94 


6 


27. 1 


Litchfield, 


83 


17 


6. 


[ Canterbury, 


94 


28 


28. 1 


^Canton, 


83 


46 


7. 


Salem, 


93 


17 


29. 


'Washington, 


82 





8. 


( Hampton, 


92 6|30. 


Sherman, 


82 


4 


9. 


< Southbury, 


9212 31. { 


Woodbridge, 


82 


5 


10. 


( Columbia, 


9217'|32. 


Union, 


S2 


11 


11. 


( Tolland, 


9010 33. 


^Stafford, 


82 


51 


12. 


< Andover, 


90 6 34. t 


Hartland, 


81 


12 


13. 


( Mansfield, 


90jl8 : |35. • 


Voluntown, 


81 


16 


14. 


l Somers, 


89'l5!|36. 


Lebanon, 


81 


61 


15. 


< Colebrook, 


89 


24!|37. 


'Derby, 


80 


15 


16. 


( Ledyard, 


89 


28 38. 


Saybrook, 


80 


5 


17. 


f Westbrook, 


88 


6 39. 
12 40. ^ 


Franklin, 


SI I 


10 


18. 


< Barkhamsted, 


88 


Pom fret, 


80 


12 


19. 


( Preston, 


88 


14i 41. 


Watcrford, 
^Woodstock, 


8C 


24 


20. 


East Lyme, 


87 


9 


42. 


8< 


(30 


21. 


( Hebron, 

( No. Stonington, 


86 


11 










22. 


81 


IT 











so 



Towns having the lowest per centage of ' Registered in Win- 
ter,' as compared with the number of ' Enumerated.' 
(Less than G6 Pkr Cent.) 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 



\ Norwalk, 
) Greenwich, 
("Stamford, 
Wallingford, 

Mil ford, 
(^ North Branford, 

llamden, 
( Bethany, 
I Old Sayhrook, 

{Danbury, 
Salisbury, 
Prospect, 
New Haven, 
( Windham, 
j Stratford, 
( Sprague, 
J Winchester, 
] North Canaan, 
^ Weston, 



45 20 
45 6 
53 31 
5313 
53 

53 2 

54 2 
55 12 

55 3 
5623 

56 9 

56 4 
5665 

57 38J 
57, 4l 

25 
58 12i 

58 8 
58 6 ! 



20. 
21. 

■2-1. 
28. 
4 24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 



29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 

33. 
34. 

35. 
36. 
37. 

38. 



Middle-town, 

Hartford, 

Bristol, 

East Granby, 

Orange, 

Warren, 

East Windsor. 

East Haven, ■ 

Meriden, 

Westport, 

Darien, 

Bloomheld, 

Bridgeport, 

Monroe, 

Reading, 

Glastenbury, 

Granby, 

Plymouth, 

Simsbury, 



59124 

59185 



14 
9 
1 
8 

22 
3 

20 

14 
8 
3 

32 

10 
7 

13 
7 



Toivns in each Count// having Highest and Lowest. 





Highest. 


c 


•x 


Lowest. 


S i <f 


COUNTIES. 


TOWNS. 


£ 


Z 


TOWNS. 


tS 5 


Hartford, 


Enfield, 


85 


12 


Hartford, 


59185 


New Haven, 


Middlcbury, 


94 


6 


Wallingford, 


53 


13 


New London, 


Bozrah, 


99 


12 


Sprague, 


58 


25 


Fairfield, 


Sherman, 


82 


4 


Norwalk, 


45 


20 


Windham, 


Chaplin, 


98 9 Windham, 


57 38 


Litchfield, 


Colebrook, 


89 24 Salisbury, 


56 9 


Middlesex, 


Killing-worth, 


103|25pld Say brook, 


55 3 


Tolland, 


Columbia, 


9217|Ellingtoii, 


66 3 



31 

Toicns having the highest average attendance in winter, as 
compared with their whole number registered in winter. 

(80 Per Cent, and over.) 





TOWNS. Pr 


ft. 




TOWNS. F 


.ct. 


1. 


Harwinton, 


04 


15. 


'Glastonbury, 


82 





Soiners, 


92 


16. 


Hamden, 


82 


3. 


Goshen, 


89 


17. 1 


Middletown, 


82 


4. 


( Bloomfield, 


8s 


118. 


^Montville, 


82 


5. 


< Middlebury, 


88 


19. < 

20. 1 


Ellington, 


Si 


6. 


( Warren, 


88 


Stafford, 
Vernon, 


si 


7. 


Cheshire, 


86H21. 


si 


8. 


\ East Windsor, 


85 22. 


f Durham, 


80 


9. 


( South Windsor, 


85 23. 


East Hartford, 


80 


10. 


( Avon, 


81 21. 


Franklin, 


so 


11. 


< Madison, 


84 


25. ' 


New Haven, 


so 


12. 


( YYoodbridge, 


84 


26. 


Tolland, 


80 


13. 


\ Burlington, 


83 


27. 


l^Wcst Hartford, 


80 


14. 


) East Granby, 


831 




1 



Towns having the lowest average attendance in winter, as 
compared with their whole number registered in winter. 

(Less than 70 Per Cent.) 



TOWNS. 



Pr. ct. 



I: 



Daricn, 

Lisbon, 

Easton, 

Rocky Hill, 

Salisbury, 

Sprague, 
'Kent, 

New Fairfield, 

Newtown, 

Salem, 

Voluntown, 

Wilton, 

Huntington, 
) North Stonington, 
fBridgewater, 
J Greenwich, 
\ Plainfield, 
^Putnam, 
( Berlin, 

Bethel, 
J Branfoi'd, 

Derby, 

New Milford, 
1 Stamford, 



TOWNS. 



Pr. 



52 
54 
59 
60 
62 
63 
63 
63 
63 
(13 
63 
H4 
61 
65 
65 
65 
65 
66 
66 
66 
66 
66 
66 



25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 



Watcrtown, 
Wcstport, 

{Brooklyn, 
Monroe, 
New Canaan. 
Roxbury, 
Say brook, 
Waterford, 
Fairfield, 
Farmington, 
Griswold, 
Hartford, 



45. \ 



Litchfield, 

Manchester, 

Redding, 

Sterling,' 
^Washington, 
f Bolton, 

Chester, 

Lebanon, 

Norfolk, 
j Portland, 
^Wallingford, 



ss 



Towns in each county which had the highest and the lowest 
average, attendance in ivinler. 





Highest. 


c 


Lowest. 


a 














Towns. 


fc 


Towns. 


£ 


Hartford, 


Bloomficld, 


Ss 


Rockv Hill, 


59 


New Haven, 


Middlehnry, 


88 


Branford & Derhy, 


66 


New London, 


Montville, 


82 


Lisbon, 


52 


Fairfield, 


Bridgeport, 


79 


Baric n, 


52 


Windham, 


Scotland, 


78 


Sprague, 


62 


Litchfield, 


Harwinton, 


94 


Salisbury, 


60 


Middlesex, 


Middletown, 


82 


Saybrook, 


67 


Tolland, 


Somers, 


92 


Bolton, 


69 



MONEY RAISED FOR THE SUPPORT OF SCHOOLS BY TAXATION. 

During the past year the whole amount of money raised 
by the taxation of property in towns and districts, was some- 
what over $290,000, — an increase of nearly $55,000 over the 
highest amount ever raised before. This amount is eqiial to 
$2.55 for every child enumerated. Never before, if the 
figures can be trusted, was there raised a sum equal to $2.00 
per scholar. Adding the amount received from the school 
fund, $1.15, it appears that the average amount through the 
state, at the command of the local school authorities, was 
$3.70 for every scholar enumerated, or $4.86 for every scholar 
registered in winter. During the present year (1866-7) the 
State will distribute but $1.10 per scholar. It is obvious that 
the towns must tax themselves more liberally than they have 
done, if good schools are to be maintained. 



The following figures will show how this fact will compare 
with the statistics of former years. 





Amount raisec 


by Taxation. 


YEARS. 








Total. 


Per Scholar. 


1856. 


$121,441 


$1.21 


1857. 


124,074 


1.22 


1858. 


146,149 


1.42 


1859. 


156,761 


1.49 


1860. 


•162,500 


*1.50 


1861. 


163,653 


1.50 


1862. 


182,483 


1.65 


186-3. 


172,177 


1.54 


1864. 


228,118 


1.99 


1865. 


292,347 


2.55 



Partly estimated, returns incomplete. 



It is astonishing to see what a difference there is among 
the towns of the state in this respect. One-third of the 
towns in the state did not raise from all sources as much as 
$3.25 per scholar, enumerated ; one-fourth of the towns 
raised over $4.50. Windham, including the thriving village 
of Willimantic, raised the largest amount from all sources, 
namely, $8.86 per scholar. It was closely followed by Nor- 
wich, which raised $8.75 per scholar, — more than a dollar 
per scholar in advance of every other town. The town 
which raised least reports from all sources, only $1.94 per 
scholar. These figures, let it be borne in mind, include the 
state appropriation (1.15 per scholar) and the income from 
town deposit fund. 

Most of the money raised by the taxation is raised by 
district tax and not by town tax. By town tax, Meriden 
raises more in proportion than any other town. The district 
which raises the largest amount per scholar is the Central 
district in Norwich. The town tax is by far the most eco- 
nomical and judicious mode in most places of raising school 
money. No separate valuation or collection is necessary. 
3 



u 



Towns which raised, from all sources, the least amount of 
money for each child enumerated, exclusive of money for 
new school houses. 

(Each of these Towns raised less than $3.25 for each child emumerated.) 



TOWNS. 


\m't. 


TOWNS. 


^m't. 


1. 


Brauford, 


1.94 


29. 


\ Milford, 


2.78 


2. 


North Canaan, 


2.16 


30. 


I Wilton, 


2.78 


3. 


Woodstock, 


2.17 


31. 


Old Saybrook, 


2.79 


4. 


Winchester, 


2.24 


32. 


Oxford, 


2.81 


5. 


I Eastford, 
j Sterling, 


2.30:33. 


Waterford, 


2.93 


6. 


2.30 34. 


Simsbury, 


2.99 


7. 


Putnam, 


2.36135. 
2.37 36. 


( Goshen, 


3.01 


8. 


( New Fairfield, 
\ Voluntown, 


] Hampton, 


3.01 


9. 


2.37 37. 


( Westford, 


3.01 


10. 


Plainfield, 


2.4l|l38. 


New Hartford, 


3.03 


11. 


Somers, 


2.43,|39. 


( East LTaddam, 


3.04 


12. 


Weston, 


2.44 


40. 


< Ellington, 


3.04 


13. 


\ Killingly, 
( Old Lyme, 


2.45 


41. 


( Hebron, 


3.04 


14. 


2.45 


42. 


j East Granby, 
I Pomfret, 


3.06 


15. 


Salem, 


2.46 


43. 


3.06 


16. 


Union, 


2.47 


44. 


Willington, 


3.08 


17. 


( Griswold, 
( Salisbury, 


2.49 


45. 


Norfolk, 


3.10 


18. 


2.49 


46. 


( Durham, 


3.11 


19. 


Kent, 


2.52 


47. 


I Mansfield, 


3.11 


20. 


Granby, 


2.61 


48. 


( Norwalk, 


3.11 


21. 


Lyme, 


2.63 


49. 


Canterbury, 


3.12 


22. 


( Bloomfield, * 
( Westbrook, 


2.65 


50. 


Chester, 


3.13 


23. 


2.65 


51. 


Harwinton, 


3.14 


24. 


\ Canaan, 
j Orange, 


2.66 


52. 


Wallingford, 


3.17 


25. 


2.66 


53. 


Wethersfield, 


3.18 


26. 


Ashford, 


2.71 


54. 


Woodbury, 


3.19 


27. 
28. 


Newtown, 
Easton, 


2.75 
2.77 


55. 


Warren, 


3.22 



35 



Towns which raised, from all sources, the greatest amount of 
money for each child enumerated, exclusive of money raised 
for new school houses. 

(Each of these Towns raised more than $4.50 for every child enumerated.) 



TOWNS. 


Am't. 


TOWNS. 


Am't. 


1. Windham, 


8.86 


20. 


\ Say brook, 


5.09 


2. Norwich, 


8.75 


21. 


\ Waterbury, 


5.09 


3. Derby, 


7.67 


22. 


Prospect, 


5.07 


4. Stonington, 


7.42 


23. 


Darien, 


5.04 


5. Hartford, 


7.21 


24. 


Andover, 


5.03 


6. Wolcott, 


7.08 


25. 


Stamford, 


5.00 


7. Canton, 


7.06 


26. 


Tolland, 


4.99 


8. Bristol, 


6.82 


27. 


Trumbull, 


4.96 


9. Stafford, 


6.72 


28. 


( Bethel, 
{ Suffield, 


4.93. 


10. New Haven, 


6.43 


29. 


4.93 


11. Washington, 


6.22 


30. 


Naugatuck, 


4.92; 


12. New Britain, 


6.15 


31. 


Montville, 


4.90 


13. Bozrah, 


6.11 


32. 


Bolton, 


4.85 


14. Barkhamsted, 


5.96 


33. 


Farmington, 


4.84 


15. Enfield, 


5.62 


34. 


North Haven, 


4.77 


16. New Milford, 


5.61 


35. 


Vernon, 


4.76 


17. Woodbridge, 


5.49^ 


36. 


Madison, 


4.67 


18. Preston, 


5.46 


37. 


Hamden, 


4.56. 


19. East Hartford, 


5.43 


38. 


New London, 


4.54 



Towns in each County which raised the greatest and tin 
for each child enumerated. 





GREATEST. 


LEAST. 




TOWN. ., 


Am't. 


TOWN. 


Am't. 


Hartford, 


Hartford, 


7.21 


Gran by, 


2.61 


New Haven, 


Derby, 


7.67 


Branford, 


1.94 


New London, 


Norwich, 


8.75 


Old Lyme, 


2.45 


Fairfield, 


Darien, 


5.04 


New Fairfield, 


2.37 


Windham, 


Windham, 


8.86 


Woodstock, 


2.17 


Litchfield, 


Washington, 


6.221 


North Canaan, 


2.16 


Middlesex, 


Saybrook, 


5.09 


Westbrook, 


2.65 


Tolland, 


Stafford, 


6.72 


Somers, 


2.4a 



88 



PAY OF TEACHERS. 

Closely connected with the amount collected for school 
purposes, is the amount paid out for teacher's wages. During 
the past year the figures show a decided increase in the 
amount thus expended ; but not so much as the increased 
exjtenses of living seem to demand. The pecuniary induce- 
ments to make the teacher's work a life-long occupation, are 
now so poor, that the number of professional male teachers 
is rapidly diminishing. Many are deserting the educational 
ranks, and but few recruits are coming in. Consequently, in 
large towns, a few male teachers are employed as the princi- 
pals of large graded schools, and their assistants are all ladies; 
and in the country, women are taking the places which a few 
years ago were occupied by young men. 

The following figures show the average amount of teacher's 
wages (board included) for the last ten years. In the cities 
and large towns the average is much higher. 



YEAR. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


1856 


$29.00 


$17.25 


1857 


30.00 


16.00 


1858 


30.84 


16.66 


1859 


30.05 


16.59 


1860 


31.20 


17.34 


1861 


32.02 


16.14 


1862 


28.12 


15.80 


1863 


28.74 


16.82 


1864 


33.00 


18.00 


1865 


49.00 


22.61 



I feel compelled in this connection to urge upon the local 
authorities the importance of remunerating good teachers 
sufficiently to make them willing to remain at their posts. The 
demand for teachers, male and female, all over the country 
is now so great, that large inducements are offered to those 
who have acquired a good reputation, if they will accept 
positions at a distance. Within the year many excellent per- 
sons have thus been called away from the state, and our large 



37 



towns are especially liable to suffer from such changes. I 
know we often hear that it is easy to find teachers, and that 
there are several applicants for every vacancy. This may be 
so. But experienced teachers are not plenty. It is on the 
contrary very hard to find disengaged, a first rate instructor. 
It is far better I am sure, to encourage a good teacher to re- 
main by offering good wages, than to fill the vacant place by 
an inexperienced or incompetent instructor, at a lower price. 
If we would have a good school, the most essential requisite 
is a good teacher, and to secure the services of such a one, 
we must offer liberal compensation. 

SCHOOL HOUSES. 

It appears from the returns, that during the year ending 
August, 1865, twenty new school houses were erected at a 
cost of over sixty thousand dollars. Of these the most costly 
were the Dwight School in New Haven, named in accordance 
with the New Haven usage, after one of the distinguished 
men of the place, and the graded school in Willimantic. 



New School Houses in the year ending Aug. 31st, 1865. 


TOWNS. 


NO. 


COST. 


TOWNS. 


NO. 


TOWNS. 


Farmington, 


1 




Bridgeport, 




$4,250.00 


Glastenbury, 


2 


$4,000.00 


Dan bury, 




141.25 


Simsbury, 


1 


10,000.00 


Easton, 


1 


630.00 


West Hartford, 


1 


1,316.27 














Hampton, 


1 


1,900.00 


New Haven, 


1 


•6,940.68 


Killingly, 


1 




Bethany, 


1 


3,100.00 


Windham, 


1 


21,605.00 


Derby, 




645.66 


Woodstock, 


1 


700.00 


Meriden, 
Prospect, 


2 
2 


2,700.00 
950.00 


Litchfield, 
Harwinton, 


1 
1 


850.00 
674.64 


Stonington, 


1 


1,000.00 


Tolland, 


1 


950 00 




20 


$62,353.50 



♦Dwight School, in part. 



38 



TEXT-BOOKs. 



By the action of the last legislature the Board of Educa- 
tion was empowered to prescribe a uniform series of text- 
books, but as yet they have not exercised this preroga- 
tive. The multiplicity of applications addressed to the sec- 
retary and to the members of Board, requesting favor for 
particular books, sometimes on very questionable grounds, 
early showed the difficulties which would at once arise if a 
definite course of action was entered upon having reference 
to the selection of a series for the state. 

In most towns the school visitors prescribe the books which 
are used in the several districts. In 110 towns out of 162, 
the books approved by the local school visitors are uniformly 
employed ; in 28 towns there has been an unsuccessful attempt 
to secure a uniform series ; in 18 towns no attempt is made 
to secure uniformity ; from 6 towns there was no report. 
Twelve different series of Readers are in use in the state, and 
the diversity of judgment in respect to their value may be 
seen from the fact that the Reader most in use is employed 
in 33 towns, or about one fifth of the towns of the state ; 
the next is employed in 28 towns, the next in 27 towns, the 
next in 25 towns ; and the remaining series in 18, 17, 15, 3, 
3, 1, 1, 1, towns respectively. Webster's spelling book is 
used in 112 towns out of 162 towns, twelve other Spellers 
being employed elsewhere. Ten different Arithmetics are in 
use, the most common book being found in 100 towns. Ten 
series of Geographies are prescribed, 68 towns only agreeing 
upon one series. Eleven Grammars are in use, one of them 
being prescribed in 79 towns. 

NUMBER OF GRADED SCHOOLS. 

Only sixty-eight towns in the state have begun the system 
of graded schools, and in some of these the system is very im- 
perfectly established. There are only 186 schools in the State 
(out of 1,662) which are reported as graded, and of these 



there are 113 which have but two departments, and 73 which 
have three or more departments. It can not be that the ad- 
vantages of gradation or classification are understood, or more 
of the towns would adopt this system, and in towns where it 
is adopted greater perfection would be attained. It appears 
that seven-eighths of all our schools are in fact the old fash- 
ioned ' mixed' schools, in which scholars of all ages are taught 
by one teacher. In some country towns where the population 
is scattered no other sort of school is possible ; but in all our 
growing and thriving places, where a large number of persons 
are gathered in a central village or borough, something better, 
than a i; mixed" school should be found. 

The following statement shows the names of the towns re- 
ported as maintaining "graded schools" the past year: 



Towns having- Graded Schools. 






TOWNS. 


! 

5 


© 
B 
o 

CO 


TOWNS. 


"2 

CM 


1 

5 


Hartford County. 






Fairfield County. 






Hartford, 


3 


8 


Bridgeport, 


5 


3 


Bristol, 


2 


1 


Danbury, 


3 


1 


Canton, 





1 


Fairfield, 


2 





East Hartford, 


2 


1 


Greenwich, 





1 


East Windsor, 


2 





New Canaan, 


1 





Enfield, 


3 


2 


Norwalk, 





3 


Parmington, 


4 





Stamford, 


■2 


1 


Glastenbury, 


1 







13 


9 


•Granby, 


2 





Windham County. . 






Manchester, 


1 


1 


Brooklyn, 


2 





New Britain, 


1 


1 


Killingly, 
Plainfield, 


4 





Rocky Hill, 


1 


u 


1 





Southington, 


2 





Putnam, 


2 





Suffield, 


3 





Thomson, 


1 





Windsor Locks, 


1 


1 


Windham, 





2 




28 


16 


Woodstock, 


2 





New Haven County. 








12 


2 


New Haven, 


2 


13 


Litchfield County. 






Branford, 


1 


o 


Barkhamsted, 


1 





Derby, 


2 


4 


Colebrook, 


1 





East Haven, 


2 





New Hartford, 


4 





Meridcn, 


3 


1 


New Milford, 


1 





Naugatuck, 


1 


1 


Plymouth, 
Torrington, 


3 


1 


North Branford, 


1 








1 


Orange, 


1 





Watcrtown, 


1 





Wallingford, 


2 


Winchester, 





1 


Waterbury, 


4 1 
1920 


Middlesex County. 


11 


3 


New London" County. 






Middletown, 


3 





New London, 


3 


6 


Chatham, 


1 





Norwich, 


2 y 


Cromwell, 


1 





Colchester, 


1 


East Haddam, 


2 





Griswold, 


1 


Portland, 


2 





Groton, 


3 


1 


Saybrook, 


1 





Montville, 


1 


x 


10 


o 


Preston, 
Sprague, 
Stonington, 


1 



3 

13 


! 

2 
21 


Tolland County. 
Tolland, 
Somers, 
Stafford, 


1 
2 
4 











Vernon, 





2 








1 


2 






Total, 1 


13 


7:! 



41 

I have now presented the returns required by law, in respect 
to the condition of the Common Schools of the State. A 
thorough investigation of the condition of education in this 
community, involves an inquiry into the number and the 
character, both financial and intellectual, of various other 
institutions in which the State is more or less concerned, and 
which exert an important influence upon the instruction and 
welfare of the people. Among these instrumentalities may 
be mentioned the private schools of every grade ; the schools 
maintained by churches, and especially those which are 
supported by the care of the Roman Catholic Church ; the 
special schools which have more or less of a charitable char- 
acter and are designed to provide for the peculiar necessities 
of particular classes in the community ; the endowed acade- 
mies and educational trusts which were formerly much more 
influential than they are at present ; the orphan asylums, and 
the various state institutions for the relief of the unfortunate 
or criminal ; besides the colleges and professional schools for 
which the state has been long distinguished. But I have 
neither the requisite authority nor time to make a complete 
survey of all these interesting and efficient agencies. I shall 
only attempt in a general way, to present such facts as I have 
been able to gather and which seem to me likely to be usefnl 
to the Legislature and the Board. 

IV. HIGH SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES. 
But little attention has of late been given in this state to 
the condition and influence of our schools of higher grade, 
such, that is, as furnish instruction in the higher branches of 
an English education, in the ancient and modern languages, 
in mathematics beyond arithmetic, and in the rudiments of 
natural science. Believing that such establishments exert a 
most salutary influence on the schools of lower grade, and 
thus take rank among the most efficient instrumentalities for 
the education of the masses, I shall give at the present time 
some prominence to this subject, in the hope that another year 
the imperfect returns which are herewith published, may be 
made more complete, and that the record of the state, not 



42 

now very creditable to our -liberality and enterprise, may 
present hereafter a more favorable aspect. 

For the sake of collecting information on this subject, I 
sent out in the month of March last, a circular addressed to 
some friend of public education in every town of the state. 
The following inquiries were propounded : 

" Will you be good enough to state what arrangements are 
made in your town for the training of children in studies 
beyond what are called the ' common English branches.' If 
there is a public high school, or an endowed Academy, will 
you give me, in a few words, an account of its condition. If 
any of the common schools furnish instruction beyond the 
rudiments, will you tell me how generally this is done and 
with what success. If private schools in your town furnish 
good advantages, will you estimate the number of your 
resident children who avail themselves of these opportunities 
to pursue the higher branches of knowledge. If children 
are sent out of town for this advanced instruction, will you 
estimate how many thus go away from home." 

In reply to this circular, letters have been received from 
ninety-one towns, many of them written with care and involv- 
ing important suggestions. As I have not been able to ac- 
knowledge all these letters, I desire in this way to express my 
appreciation of the service which has been so kindly rendered 
by so many gentlemen. 

From the replies thus received and from other sources, the 
following particulars have been gathered. It is thought that 
they give a fair if not a very encouraging view of the oppor- 
tunities (aside from private schools) which are afforded to 
the older children of the state to secure instruction beyond 
the common English branches. 

The institutions for secondary instruction in this state, 
which have in any sense a public character, are of three 
kinds : 1, Chartered schools, or Trusteeships ; 2, Town High 
Schools ; 3, District High Schools. Each of these classes 
deserves consideration by itself. 



43 

1. ENDOWMENTS AND INCORPORATIONS. 

The two educational establishments in the state which are 
most venerable, are the Grammar Schools at Hartford and 
New Haven, which were endowed by the bequest of Gov. 
Edward Hopkins, who died in 1657. No other schools com- 
pare with these in age. Both of them are still nourishing. 
The private acts of the state show that forty-two charters have 
been granted between the year 1793 and the present time, for 
the encouragement of what have commonly been called 
" Academies." These schools have generally been provided 
with buildings by a joint stock subscription or in some similar 
way, and their current expenses have been met by tuition, 
and the income of funds. Of the schools which have been 
thus established, by far the larger part have ceased to have 
any vitality. The period most favorable to this kind of foun- 
dation appears to have been the twenty years between 1819 
and 1839. Three of the most recent incorporations, and the 
two denominational schools are the most flourishing. The 
following list contains the name of all these chartered schools. 

List of Endowments and Incorporations, in the Slate of Con- 
necticut, for the support of Schools of the higher grades. 

[The star indicates that the school is still maintained.] 
Date of 



Foundation. 



Designation. 



1660 *Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven. 

1664 *Hopkins Grammar School, Hartf'd. (Incorp.1798.) 

1781 *Staples Free School, Easton. (Incorp. 1793.) 

1783 *Plainfield Academy, (Incorporated?) 

Date of 
Incorporation. 

1801 *Episcopal Academy of Connecticut, Cheshire. 

1801 Union School New Haven, Proprietors of. 

1802 *Berlin Academy. 

1802 Woodstock Academy. 

1803 *Bacon Academy, Colchester. 

1804 Fairfield Academy, (Re-incorp. 1821.) 
1806 'Stratford Academy. 

1809 New Township Academy, New Haven. 

1812 Union Academy, Union ? 



44 

1814 Danbury Academy. 

1819 Hartford Academy. 

1819 Morris Academy, Morris. 

1819 Female Academy, in New London. 

1821 Chelsea Grammar School, Norwich. (Estab. 1807.) 

1823 *Goshen Academy, (Re-incorporated, 1827.) 

1824 New Haven Scientific and Military Academy. 

1825 Lee's Academy, Madison. 
1827 *Greenwich Academy. 
1827 *Hartford Female Academy. 

1827 *Litchfield Female Academy. 

1828 Middlesex Academy, Middletown. 

1828 Norwich Female Academy. 

1829 Ellington School. 

1829 Tolland Academy. 

1830 Brooklyn Academy. 

1833 *HiU's Academy, Essex. 

1834 *Killingworth Academy, now in Clinton. 
1834 New London Female Academy. 

1834 New London Union School. 

1834 North Greenwich Academy, Greenwich. 

1835 Connecticut Literary Institution, Suffield. 
1838 Newtown Academical Association. 

1840 Connecticut Female Institute, Ellington. 

1848 Waterbury Academy. 

,1850 Bulkeley School, New London. f 

1851 Seymour High School Association. 

1853 Norwich High School. 

1854 *Norwich Free Academy. 

1855 *Guilford Institute. 

(Possibly some others of these Schools should be indicated 
as " still maintained.") 

In 1839, a general act was passed by the Legislature, 
authorizing citizens of the state to form an incorporation, 
under certain conditions, for the maintenance of an Academy. 
The number of such corporations is not known to me, but 

t This school is about to be established. 



45 

they have been not infrequently established. Indeed, in 
regard to almost, all these endowed and incorporated schools, 
it is very difficult to procure information. Very few of them 
are required to make any public report. Many of them 
are dormant or dead. Some of them have funds given for 
the promotion of specific objects. It seems worth inquiring, 
how far these funds have been preserved and directed to their 
appropriate ends. Even small trusts should be watched by 
the public with a careful eye, for thus only can they be 
protected, and thus only is security afforded that larger trusts 
will be applied to the objects for which they are designed. 

2. TOWN HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The Town High Schools are sustained by the towns in 
accordance with the statute which requires the towns to 
provide for the support of common schools within their limits, 
and prescribes the specific mode in which the schools of higher 
grade may be managed by towns rather than by districts. 
Any town under these enactments may establish a high school, 
to be directed by a High School Committee and the Board of 
School Visitors appointed by the town. 

Hartford (1847), New London (two high schools,) Milford 
(1842), East Hartford (1860), Cromwell (1862), and Sey- 
mour (1865), maintain on this plan the Schools of higher grade. 
The statistics relating to these schools and the district high 
schools, have been given in the statistics pertaining to Common 
Schools, though they are there so covered up as to have no 
special significance or value. I am persuaded that more of 
the towns would act in the matter of establishing public high 
schools, if the citizens understood how easily, efficiently and 
economically such institutions may be managed. 

Some persons may hold that such schools arc not a proper 
part of the system of public instruction ; and some, I am 
constrained to believe, regard the word "Common" applied 
to schools, as signifying "ordinary" or "elementary," as if 
common schools were thus distinguished from "uncommon" 
or High Schools, instead of regarding the word "Common" 
in its true meaning — "open or belonging to all," "Public." 



46 

The High School is as truly a part of the Connecticut Com- 
mon. School system, as the Grammar School or Alphabet 
School. In the earliest colonial times, and ever since, its 
importance as a part of the system, and consequently its 
thoroughly public and popular character have never been 
lost sight of. 

3. DISTRICT HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The District High Schools, excepting in two or three 
exceptional districts, are managed like all other district 
schools, by the district committee under the direction of the 
town school visitors. Any district has all the power necessary 
for maintaining a District High School. 

The School Districts below named maintain High Schools: 
New Haven City, Middletown City, Stamford First, Mystic 
Bridge, (in Stonington,) Mystic River, (in Groton,) Water- 
bury Central, Willimantic, (in Windham,) Rockville, (in 
Vernon,) Collinsville, (in Canton,) Bristol, Third and Fourth, 
New Britain, Central, West Hartford, Centre. 

In some of these districts the High Schools are much better 
organized than in others. Separate High School buildings 
are almost unknown, but the older classes are usually taught 
in distinct apartments of the graded school buildings. Tt is 
quite likely that other districts should be included in the 
above list. In this first report, only such are mentioned as 
have been made known to me. Many of the District High 
Schools are hardly worthy the name — having no definite 
course of study, or requirements for admission, consisting 
only of such older classes as desire instruction in the higher 
mathematics and in languages. 

Having given this general account of the different kinds of 
higher schools, which are more or less under the public 
control, we may now inquire what provisions are made in 
each of the larger towns. In the first of the following tables, 
the towns will be mentioned in the relative order of their 
population, following the enumeration of children in 1865. 
In looking at this meagre story, it may be well for the citizens 
of Connecticut to compare the condition of our own State 
with Massachusetts. In the latter state, during 1864-5, the 



number of High Schools was 120, kept according to the law 
for the benefit of the town, ten months at least exclusive of 
vacations. Every town having 500 families is required by 
the law in that state, to maintain a High School. New York, 
Ohio, Michigan, and other western states, afford other materials 
for comparison. 

Table. I. Provision for higher instruction which is made in those 
towns of the State which enumerate 1000 children or more. (22 
towns.) 

NEW HAVEN. 

1. The Hopkins Grammar School, the oldest institution of the 
kind in the State. Established in 1660 by a bequest from Gov. 
Edward Hopkins of the Connecticut colony, who died in London, in 
1657, leaving by his will a large amount of property to trustees, to be 
expended " for the breeding up of hopeful youths in the way of learn- 
ing for the public service of the country in future times." This school 
is under the direction of a self-perpetuating body of trustees, continued 
from its establishment. 

It is a classical school of very high order. 

Principal, Henry N. Johnson, A. M. 

2. The High School, established by the City School District in 
1859. The school has labored under some peculiar disadvantages, 
but has maintained a very high character for the thoroughness of its 
instruction. At present, a discussion is going on respecting what shall 
be done with this school in the future. The school has trained a lar°-e 
number of young ladies to be Teachers in the Public Schools. 

Principal, William Kixne, A. M. 
Assistants, J. D. "Whitjiore, 

AND THREE LADIES. 

In 1865 an attempt to unite the two institutions named above, was 
unsuccessful. 

HARTFORD. 

The Hopkins Grammar School and the Public High School. The 
first of these owes its existence to the bequest of Gov. Edward 
Hopkins, mentioned in the above account of the Hopkins Grammar 
School of New Haven. He was Governor of Connecticut each 
alternate year from 1640 to 1652, or seven years in all. In 1664, 
the town of Hartford received £400 from his estate for the estab- 



48 

lishment of a Grammar School. Upon the death of the original 
trustees, these funds passed into the care of the town, where they 
remained more than a century. In 1798, "The Trustees of the 
Hartford Grammar School" were incorporated by the Legislature, 
with power to fill all vacancies which may occur in their number. 
In 1847 the Grammar School became connected with the newly 
established Public High School, of which it has since constituted the 
classical department. That institution, after eight years of discussion, 
came into existence in 1847, and is now enjoying peculiar prosperity. 
The project of erecting a new High School building is now under 
consideration. 

Principal, Samuel M. Capron, A. M. 
The Hartford Female Academy was incorporated in 1827. 

Norwich. The Free Academy, incorporated in 1854. School 
opened in 1856. At the outset, four distinct courses of study were 
provided for in this institution. First, Classical ; designed for those 
destined to enter college. Second, Scientific ; designed for those who 
propose to enter some scientific or polytechnic school, with a view to 
making science a profession. Third, Business or Practical ; designed 
for boys who are to pass directly from this institution into the practical 
employments of life. Fourth, Higher Instruction for girls ; designed 
for those who finish their school education at this institution. 

This school is provided with a large and commodious edifice : a 
good library and apparatus ; a fund of $60,000 for maintaining the 
school, contributed by private generosity ; besides a library fund of 
$5,000. It is free to all children of Norwich, and others may be 
received on the pavment of tuition. 

Principal, Rev. "William Hutchison, A. M. 

Bridgeport. No public institution for higher education. 

Waterburt. A High School in the centre district, being the 
highest department of the graded school. A handsome and convenient 
school-house. 

Principal, Mr. A. Norton Lewis. 

A Collegiate Institute for young ladies, established 18C5. A fine 
edifice, with all the modern improvements, located in a pleasant part 
of the city and surrounded by ample grounds. Designed to furnish 
to young ladies advantages for a thorough and complete education. 
Three departments — Elementary, Academic and Collegiate. In the 
latter, a four years course of study. 

Principal, Rev. R. G. Williams. 



49 

New London. Two High Schools : the Barllett High School 
for boys, and the Young Ladies' High Schoo 1 , both town Institutions, 
in successful operation, and well attended. 

Principals, Mr. E. B. Jennings, Miss Marion A. Green. 

Middletown. A High School in the city district. 

Principal, Henry E. Saw*er, A. M. 

Norwalk. No public institution for higher education. 

Danburt. High School project under discussion. 

Stamford. A High School department in the graded school of 
tbe first district, containing also some pupils from other districts. 

Greenwich. An Academy having about 65 scholars. 

Meriden. The project of establishing a High School now under 
consideration. The town has since voted to establish a High School 
immediately, and to erect a High School building, cort not to exceed 
$50,000. 

Stonington. At Mystic Bridge, a District High School, being 
the highest department of the graded school in that district. Free 
education provided for all the children to the extent of fitting for col- 
lege any who desire it. Principal, Mr. John K. Bucklin. 

Derbt. No report. 

Enfield. Earnest discussion now going on respecting the estab- 
lishment of a High School at Thompsonville. 

New Britain. A High School in the Central district, established 
in 1849. A three years' course of study. 

Principal, John H. Peck, A. B. 

Groton. A High School in the Mystic River district, in existence 
25 years. Good buildings with male and female departments. About 
12 scholars from the west part of the town go to New London. 

Fairfield. No report. 

Killinglt. No Academy or High School. Perhaps six of the. 
public schools furnish instruction in Algebra, and occasionally in higher 
branches. 

Windham. In Willimantic, 2d District, a District High School, 
where the ordinary studies of Academies are taught. In Willimantic 
1st, and three other districts, Algebra is taught; in several districts 
book-keeping, 

Vernon. A High School in Rockville. Enlargement under 
consideration. An Academy building in Vernon Centre, in which a 
High School during winter. 

Portland. No returns. 
4 



50 

Table II. Towns having less than 1,000 Children each, from which 
returns have been received respecting higher instructions. 
Avon. No Academy or High School. 

Barkhamsted. No Academy or High School. A graded school 
in Riverton Village, answering some of the purposes of a High School. 
Berlin. An Academy, incorporated, not endowed, with respecta- 
ble apparatus, 20 to 60 pupils. 

Bethany. No Academy or High School. A graded school in 
Beacon Falls district. 

Bethlehem. No permanent High School. 

Bloomfield. An Academy, providing higher education to all in 
the town who desire it. 

Bolton. No High School or Academy. 
Bozrah. No school higher than common district schools. 
Branford. No High School or Academy. 
Bridgewater. No High School or Academy. 
Bristol. A graded school supported by two districts (3d and 4th) 
united. The highest department taught by a college graduate is equal 
to a first class Academy, and is an honor to the place. It is attended 
by some from almost every district in town. 

Brooklyn. No public school of any kind for higher education. 
Several efforts to establish a public High School, but the proposal 
voted down. 

Canaan. No High School or Academy. 

Canterbury. No High School or Academy. A few in public 
schools study Algebra and Geometry. 

Canton. A public High School or graded school, in a flourishing 
condition. 

Chatham. No arrangements for instruction beyond the common 
English branches. 

Chester. A graded school in the centre district for 10 or 12 years 
past ; the senior department usually taught in winter by a student from 
Yale or Wesleyan University ; some scholars from other districts. 

Clinton. An Academy, not endowed. The building rented for 
a nominal price to a teacher who resides in the town ; about 30 scholars. 
Colchester. Bacon Academy, a large building, thoroughly re- 
paired a few years since: a fund of $25,000, formerly more. This 
institution furnishes higher instruction for this and the surrounding 
towns; has 80 to 100 pupils. 

Westchester Society has a fund amounting nominally to $4,300 ; 
yearly income a little over $200, paid on condition that teachers can 
instruct in Latin or Greek. 

Colebrook. Very little instruction, except in common branches. 
Coventry. No public school of higher grade. In four district 
schools Algebra, Geometry, .and Book-keeping taught. 



51 

Cromwell. A town High School, which went into operation more 
than three years ago in the Academy building, now prosperous. About 
40 scholars. 

Darien. No arrangement for studies beyond the common English 
branches. Occasionally instruction given in public schools in Alge- 
bra, Geometry, Book-keeping, Latin, &c. Some older scholars go to 
Norwalk or Stamford. 

Eastford. Algebra and Geometry taught in about half of the 
district schools. 

East Granbt. No Academy, or High School. Some older schol- 
ars go to the adjoining village of Tariffville, where is a graded school. 

East Hartford. District High School, (not Town, as before 
stated) begun in 18G0 ; 45 pupils. Principal, S. G. Stone. 

East Haven. No High School or Academy; no higher branches 
in public schools. Not allowed. 

East Lyme. No school of higher grade. Ten pursue the more 
advanced studies. 

Easton. The " Staples Free School." The following statement 18 
from one of the Trustees : 

" We have an institution called ' Staples Free School,' which was 
founded in 1781. Though called a ' free school," it is evident that the 
donor and founder did not expect it to be absolutely free, except to 
such (to use his own lauguage) ' as have not estate sufficient to defray 
the expenses of education.' For several years it was kept within the 
limits of what is now the town of Fairfield, and had for one of its first 
Trustees, General G. S. Silliman, father of the late Professor Silliman. 

" The grade of the school as founded was thatof the grammar schools 
of that day. 

"Its teachers of late have been usually graduates of Y. C., compe- 
tent to fit boys thoroughly for any of our colleges. 

" The income of the fund is at present sufficient to pay the expenses 
of the institution, except a charge of $2 and $1.50 per term, accord- 
ing to studies, for those who are able to pay." 

In the report of the State Superintendent of Public Schools for 
1861, page 19, it is stated that "the fund of this school has been 
carefully guarded, and now amounts to about $10,000." 

Ellington. A High School, (so called,) not connected with pub- 
lic school, said to be about to be given up. 

Essex. An endowed Academy, now in flourishing condition. 
Higher branches usually pursued in one district school in winter, 
where the teacher in Senior Department is often a college student. 

Farmington. No Academy or High School. Latin not permit- 
ted in public schools, and teachers not often competent to teach it. 

Franklin. No Academy or public school of higher grade. 

Goshen. A good School in the Academy, with 30 resident pupils. 

Granbt. No High School or Academy. 



52 

Guilford. The " Guilford Institute," endowed in 1853 by the 
liberality of a former resident of the town. A fine building, classical 
and English departments, and from 60 to 70 pupils. Algebra and 
Book-keeping successfully taught in most of the district schools. 

Principal, E. H. Wilson, A. B. 

Haddam. An Academy, not now very flourishing. A fine build- 
ing, but few scholars. Higher branches taught successfully in about 
half of the public schools. 

Hamden. No Academy or High School. About 10 or 12 attend 
school in New Haven. 

Hampton. A High School one term, (public?). Algebra taught 
in all the public schools. 

Hartland. No Academy or High School. 

Kent. No public school higher than district school. 

Lebanon. Until a few years ago, a High School maintained 
since the settlement of the town. Eighty years since it had great 
celebrity, and attracted scholars from distant parts of the country. 
No endowed Academy, but a building owned by trustees and occupied 
only in winter. Few scholars. 

Ledtard. No Academy or High School. District committees 
take particular pains to secure well qualified teachers, especially 
where there are advanced scholars. 

Lyme. No High School or Academy. Algebra taught in two or 
three districts. 

Madison. An Academy building, in which is taught a private 
school of 40 scholars. None in public schools beyond common studies. 

Monroe. No Academy or High School. Two or three public 
schools furnish instruction beyond the rudiments. 

Montville. No permanent arrangements for higher education. 
Higher branches studied in some of the district schools. 

Morris. A public High School through the winter, sometimes 
through the year, with 18 or 20 scholars. Some of the district 
teachers employed because of higher qualifications. 

Naugatuck. No Academy or High School. Graded schools in 
Union and Centre districts. Slight arrangements for higher studies. 

New Hartford. Some graded schools, in the higher department . 
of which, Algebra, Geomety and Latin are taught. 

Norfolk. A private school, taught by a graduate of Mt. Holyoke 
Seminary. 20 to 40 scholars. 

North Branford. No Academy or High School. Algebra 
taught generally in public schools, Latin rarely. 

North Canaan. No Academy or High School. Instruction in 
district schools seldom beyond the English branches. . 

Old Satbrook. No High School or Academy. 

Orange. An Academy building, and a school usually part of 
each year. 



53 

Plainfield. The ancient and honored Academy is now outgrown 
and overshadowed by other schools, has few pupils, not many of them 
advanced. 

Plymouth. No endowed Academy, no public school for higher 
education. Some of the public schools furnish instruction in the 
higher branches. 

Pomfret. No public High School or Academy. Algebra, Latin, 
and Book-keeping taught in many public schools. 

Preston. No Academy or High School. Algebra and Book- 
keeping taught in most districts, Latin very seldom. Some children 
living in the west part of the town go to Norwich. 

Putnam. Two large districts with graded schools. Algebra 
taught in district schools in a few instances. 

Ridgefield. No Academy or High School, and no instruction in 
public schools beyond the common branches. 

Rocky Hill. A High School about four months in each year, 
with 38 scholars. 

Roxbury. No public high schools, but higher branches taught 
in several of the district schools. 

Salisbury. No public High School, but one soon to be established 
in Lakeville. An Academy at the centre has formerly been taught 
successfully, now languishing. A first class public school at Lime 
Rock, at which Algebra, Geometry, and Languages are. taught. 

Saybrook. Deep River Centre District has a graded school, in 
the higher department of which Algebra, Latin, and the higher Eng- 
lish branches are pursued. 

Scotland. No arrangements for advanced studies. 

Seymour. A town High School now in operation more than a 
year, very successful, designed for advanced scholars. 

Simsbury. A graded school in Tariffville, excellent teachers. 

Somers. No Academy or High School. No higher studies in the 
district schools. A good private school. Many scholars go out of 
town. 

Southington. (From Webster R. Walkley, A. M. Principal of 
the Lewis Academy.) 

The Lewis Academy is known as a classical and English school for 
both sexes. It is under the instruction of a Principal and an Associ- 
ate Principal. It was founded September 21st, 1846. The Academy 
building was completed November 14th, 1848, and was first occupied 
by a school December 4th, 1848. It is of brick, and cost $5,623.06. 

There are two funds connected with the institution, bearing the 
names of the donors: 

Their present value is as follows: 

The Addin Lewis Fund, - - $10,106.25 

The Sally Lewis Fund, - - - 2,294.64 

$12,400.89 



54 

These funds are exclusive of the building. The interest of these " 
funds is applied to the payment of teachers. The Academy year is 
divided into three terms of fourteen weeks each. The tuition is $2.50 
per term for the common English branches, and $3.50 for classics. 
There are no other charges. 82 scholars last winter. 

Sprague. No arrangements for instruction beyond the common 
English branches. 

Stafford. No Academy or High School, except a Free High 
School at Stafford Springs, through the beneficence of one individual. 
About 40 scholars. Instruction in Latin, Greek, and Mathematics 
Algebra is taught in some of the public schools. 

Suffield. The Connecticut Literary Institution, began 1833, 
with about 30 students. The next year the first building was erected. 
In May, 1846, a second building was occupied for a female depart- 
ment, no provision having been made previous to that time for board- 
ing young ladies. 

The school is designed to give a good English education, and to pre- 
pare students for admission into college ; and it has a regular course 
of study for young ladies who may wish to graduate, extending over a 
period of three years. 

The year is divided into three terms of 14 weeks each. In addition 
to the principal, there are employed two male, and three female teach- 
ers. The number of students during the current year has been as 
follows : in the Fall term, 139 ; Winter term, 158 ; Spring term, 109. 
The ages of the students range from 14 to 24. 

Principal, Rev. E. P. Bond. 

Tolland. Higher instruction in the Senior Department of the 
centre district. Algebra and Trigonometry taught in about half of 
the districts. 

Torrington. A graded school in Wolcottville. 

Trdmbull. No arrangement for instruction beyond English 
branches. In most of the district sphools the instruction is thorough. 

Union. No public school of higher rank. 

West Hartford. An academical institution with a school-house 
in which a High School is maintained part of each year. Algebra 
taught in many districts. A High school lately established in the 
Centre district. 

Weston. No institution where higher studies are pursued. 

Windsor. An endowed Academy. Fund $2,080. 30 to 40 
scholars. 

Windsor Locks. No arrangements for higher education. 

Wolcott. No Academy or High School. 

Woodbridge. No provision for higher education. 

Woodstock. No endowed Academy of much or any account. 
Common schools go beyond the rudiments to limited extent. No in- 
struction beyond the English branches. 



55 



V. THE NOKMAL SCHOOL. 



The past year has been an eventful and critical period in 
the history of the Normal School. Until the close of the 
summer term in July, 1865, the affairs of the institution were 
managed by the Board of Trustees, as constituted at the 
foundation of the institution. The new educational statute, 
passed by the last Legislature, transferred this grave respon- 
sibility to the Board of Education of the State, and the latter 
body took charge of the school in August last. No changes 
were then made in the corps of teachers. Near the close of 
the winter term in March, 1866, the resignations of Mr. Camp, 
the Principal of the school, and of his assistants, Mr. Hoi- 
combe and Miss Marshall, were presented to the Board of 
Education. The resignation of Mr. Holcombe was accepted. 
Prof. Camp, in accordance as it was supposed with his own 
preferences, was invited to remain until the close of the school 
year in July ; but the state of his health was such that he 
felt compelled to withdraw from the school at once, and the 
scholars were dispersed at the close of the winter term with- 
out the opportunity of receiving any information from the 
Board in respect to the future of the school. Miss Marshall 
was also requested to remain through the year, but she 
preferred to accept a situation elsewhere. In this emergency 
an apprehension was felt by some of the friends of the school 
that no one could be found at liberty to take the place of Mr. 
Camp, but fortunately the Board were able to secure the 
temporary services of an experienced and successful teacher, 
Mr. Isaac X. Carleton, recently of Lexington and formerly of 
Andover, Mass., who had made other plans for the autumn 
but was willing during the summer term to enter the Normal 
School. This arrangement has given the board ample time 
to select a teacher for the permanent direction of the institu- 
tion, and to mature their plans for the future. Mr. Bartlett 
has remained in his position through the year, and is still in 
the service of the Board. 



56 

In regard to the progress of the school during the summer 
of 1865, the following statements have been made by Hon. 
Francis Gillette, President of the Trustees, a gentleman who 
has served the state in this position with great fidelity and 
earnestness, since the foundation of the school in 1849. 

Statement of Hon. F. Gillette. 

"From the Normal School appropriation, there was drawn 
the sum of $2,088.10 to defray the expenses of the school 
and the trustees expenses, (including all arrearages) during 
the summer term. Of this sum, $1,303.33 were for salaries ; 
$241.42 for Trustees expenses ; $108.23 for repairs ; $169.12 
for library and apparatus, and the balance for the various 
miscellaneous items which are incident to the conducting of 
the school. 

The number of pupils who had completed the full course of 
Normal School studies, and who received the diploma of the 
institution at the last anniversary, was twelve. 

The graduating class exhibited remarkable maturity of 
thought and thorough preparation for their work as teachers 
in the public schools of the state. The school in its public 
examination and anniversary exercises had never appeared to 
better advantage or more efficient in the accomplishment of 
its legitimate work." 

Hartford, April 20, 1866. 



The number of pupils in the school has been as follows : 

Male. Female. Total. 

Summer term, ending July, 1865, 12 74 86 

Autumn term, ending December, 1865, 15 70 85 

Winter term, ending March, 1866, 12 58 # 70 

It will be seen that the number of young ladies greatly 
preponderates over the number of young men who desire to 
avail themselves of the privileges of the school. This has 



57 

led to the serious inquiry whether the interests of the school 
would not be promoted by increasing the number of female 
teachers, and lessening the number of male teachers. 

The Legislature in their enactment of last spring authorized 
the Board of Education to examine the candidates who applied 
for admission to the school, and reject such as were found 
unfitted to proceed with the course of studies. This power 
of rejection had never before been conferred upon the author- 
ities of the school, and they have consequently had occasion 
•to complain that they could not make good scholars or 
teachers out of those who entered the school unprepared to 
profit by its instructions. At the opening of the school year 
in September, 1865, 37 candidates appeared, three of whom 
were rejected, and six of whom were admitted conditionally, 
that is with the requirement that their deficiencies should be 
made up at an early day. At the beginning of the spring 
term in 1866, 13 candidates appeared, all of whom were 
admitted. 

The examination was not a severe one. It included the 
rudiments of Geography, Grammar, Spelling, United States 
History, and Arithmetic. General satisfaction has been 
expressed at this change. The Board made the following 
announcement upon this subject : 

" Henceforward, in accordance with the recent law, all candidates 
for admission to the school will he examined in the common branches 
of an English education, — Arithmetic, Grammar, Geography, Spell- 
ing and United States History. This examination will be conducted 
at New Britain, by the Principal of the school, under the direction of 
the Board, and all candidates not found qualified in these respects, 
will be rejected. To prevent disappointment, it will therefore be 
advisable for school visitors to give their certificates to none who are 
not reasonably certain to pass this test. By this check on the admis- 
sion of unworthy or ill-prepared scholars, it is believed that the 
instruction of the school will be elevated, and that the teachers sent 
out from the Normal School will be more than heretofore, a credit to 
the institution. It is a matter of congratulation that the Legislature 
has consented to approve this measure, — so essential to a well ordered 
school." 

An association of the Alumni of the Normal School was 
formed in 1853. At the meeting in July last, a report was 



58 

presented by the Secretary, Mrs. Jane A. Porter, (formerly 
Miss Bartholomew, one of the teachers of the school,) which 
gives the following interesting particulars, in respect to the 
graduates. Of the whole number, (226,) eleven have died. 
Of the remaining two hundred and fifteen, one hundred and 
twenty-three are teaching — ninety-nine in Connecticut, and 
the rest in different states of the union. A list of the names 
and residences of the graduates is also published annually by 
the association. As it seems to me that the friends of Normal 
instruction should manifest a particular interest in the prog- 
ress of those who have received the diploma of the school at 
New Britain, after completing its course of training, I shall 
append to this report the list of those still teaching in the 
state, that school officers who desire it, may learn where the 
graduates are teaching. 

In consequence of the discussions which have taken place 
in the Legislature respecting the Normal School, and impelled 
by the desire to secure for the State the best possible agencies 
for the training of teachers, the Board have made a thorough 
investigation of the subject within the past year. Repeated 
interviews and conferences have been held with gentlemen 
conversant with the history of Teachers' seminaries ; a circu- 
lar, asking for information, has been addressed to other 
persons ; and a committee of the Board, in connection with 
the Secretary has visited Massachusetts for the purpose of 
observing what is there approved. In making these last 
investigations, the committee were greatly assisted by the 
kindness of Rev. B. G. Northrop, agent of the Massachusetts 
Board of Education, who went with ijs in person to the 
schools in Framingham and North Bridgewater, and by the 
various instructors of the institutions which were visited. 
Acknowledgments are also due in this connection to Hon. 
Joseph White, Secretary of the Massachusetts Board, Hon. J. 
D. Philbrick, Superintendent of the schools of Boston, and 
Prof. Alpheus Crosby, late Principal of the Normal School at 
' Salem, for the interest they have manifested in the schools of 
Connecticut and the readiness with which they have responded 
to the repeated inquiries which have been addressed to them. 



59 

The general principles which seem most essential to the 
adoption of wise plans in the future may thus he briefly 
stated. 

1. The importance of maintaining a first rate school for the 
training of teachers was never more obvious than it is at 
present. The testimony of the local school officers, the 
experience of other states, and the investigations of the Board 
all indicate that if we are to have good common schools, we 
must provide good opportunities for what is called the profes- 
sional education of teachers. 

2. There are clearly two sorts of common schools to be 
supplied with teachers, — and for these two sorts of candidates 
continually present themselves. 

There are first the country district schools generally taught 
by teachers who live in or near the town in which their school 
is taught ; who do not expect to make teaching a business 
and who have not the money or the disposition to fit them- 
selves for the more desirable positions. Many of these 
teachers would be greatly benefited by a short course in the 
Normal School, — or by a long Teachers' Institute, held in 
their own county, — or by some special instruction for teachers 
to be given in connection with a High School or Academy. 

3. There are secondly in most of our large towns and 
manufacturing villages, thoroughly graded schools including 
High Schools and Academies, for which superior teachers are 
always in demand, the supply being far from adequate to the 
wants of the state. These schools require for their manage- 
ment, persons who are carefully trained in the higher branches 
of knowledge, (whether they are called upon to teach them 
or not,) and who in addition to their intellectual culture, 
have acquired by experience, observation, and study, the art 
of awakening the minds of the young and a ready acquaint- 
ance with the most approved modes of discipline and instruc- 
tion. Such teachers are not numerous, but there is an 
increasing demand for their services and an increasing readi- 
ness to pay them well. For training instructors of this higher 
sort, a course of hard study, extending through two or three 
years, should be maintained by the state. 



60 

4. Two sorts of certificates, or more, should be given by 
the authorities of the school. The higher should be given 
only to those who have faithfully pursued a thorough course 
of training, have passed a final examination, and can be 
thoroughly recommended as far as intellectual culture is 
concerned, for the position of teachers. The lower certificate 
should state just what the attainments of the candidate are, 
and the length of time that he or she has been connected 
with the school. By an unfortunate misapprehension, it is 
common through the state to consider as " Normal scholars," 
all who have ever been connected with the institution, 
however imperfect their scholarship or brief their stay. This 
has occasioned some prejudices against the school. The 
remedy is to give everybody who is worthy a true certificate, 
and to urge upon the local visitors and committees, the 
importance of asking to see the certificate whenever a teacher 
claims " to hare been at the Normal School." Only those 
who have had the higher certificate should be called gradu- 
ates — and this certificate might be made by the legislature 
a substitute for the examination and certificate of the acting 
visitor. 

5. The relation of the Normal School to the public schools 
of New Britain has not been wholly satisfactory to the 
authorities on either side. There can be no question I think 
that it is well for those who are preparing to teach, to have 
frequent opportunities for observing model schools and model 
teachers. It seems to me equally clear that schools in which 
prospective teachers are to practice are not likely to be model 
schools, — and that the children in these schools will suffer 
from the inexperience and the changes of their instructors, 
while the normal scholars may be too soon diverted from 
their proper studies. A change is here called for. 

6. It is a great evil at the present moment that accommo- 
dations for the board of the pupils at New Britain are secured 
with such difficulty. A boarding-house, under the superin- 
tendence or oversight of the principal, in which young ladies 
might be sure of finding a good home, would be a beneficial 
establishment. A committee of New Britain citizens has 



61 

been appointed to consider what can be done in this matter. 
Such a home would greatly facilitate the promotion of good 
discipline. 

7. The precise course of study must be worked out (with 
the approval and supervision of the Board) by a principal 
who studies continually the capacity of his scholars and the 
necessities of the state, never forgetting that thoroughness of 
scholarship and aptness for the teacher's work are both 
requisite in a good teacher. 

In illustration of some of the views here presented, reference 
is made to certain letters which are given in the appendix. 

71 THE SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

The law by which the national grant for the promotion of 
scientific education was bestowed on the Sheffield School at 
New Haven, provides that the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, 
three senior Senators, and Secretary of the Board of Educa- 
tion should be the visitors of the school on the part of the 
State. One year having passed since the school began to 
participate in the provisions of this act, the first report of the 
Visitors will be presented to the Legislature at their coming 
session. A historical sketch of the origin of the school and 
a full statement of the courses of study will be given in that 
document. 

It seems important to mention here for the sake of diffusing 
the information through all the school districts of the state, 
that in consequence of the public grant, forty free scholar- 
ships are endowed in the Sheffield School, open to young men, 
citizens of Connecticut, who desire to pursue a course of 
study in Agriculture, the Mechanic Arts, Chemistry, Civil 
Engineering, Mining, Natural History, and other branches of 
science which are taught in the school. Full information in 
respect to the terms of admission, the plan of study, &c, can 
be obtained by any candidate on application to the Secretary 
of the school, Prof. George J. Brush, New Haven. 

The liberality of Joseph E. Sheffield, Esq., of New Haven, 
in adding within the past year, to his former munificent gifts, 
a donation of more than forty thousand dollars, deserves the 
grateful acknowledgments of the people of the state. 



62 

The number of scholars in the school during the year has 
been 92, of whom 31 are residents of this state. 

VII. COLLEGES AND PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS. 

It forms no part of the duty of a Secretary of the Board of 
Education to inquire into the condition of the colleges and 
professional schools which have been chartered by the state ; 
but it seems to me very desirable to cultivate the sentiment 
that all our educational establishments are kindred in their 
objects, and that the teachers and friends of the highest semi- 
naries are interested in and are ready to labor for the improve- 
ment of our common schools and the promotion of the intelli- 
gence and enterprise of the community. It gives me pleasure 
to say that within the year the Presidents (Dr. Woolsey, Dr. 
Kerfoot and Dr. Cummings,) and other instructors in our 
three colleges have shown their readiness to co-operate with 
the administrators of the public schools. Some of the gentle- 
men thus referred to have spent a great deal of time and labor 
in this direction. I believe the day is not distant when the 
unity of all educational efforts will be much more apparent 
than it has been hitherto, and when all who love the interests 
of the State will be aroused to active participation in the 
support of public instruction. 

The number of students in the colleges and professional 
schools of the state is as follows, according to the latest cata- 
logues : 

COLLEGES. 



Yale Cullcge, (Academic,) 
Trinity College, 
Wesleyan University, - 


Students. 

490 

46 

121 


PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS. 




Yale Theological Seminary, 
Theological Institute of Connecticut, - 
Berkeley Divinity School, - 


24 

- 16 

18 


Yale Law School, - 
Yale Medical School, - 
Sheffield Scientific School, 


35 

- 41 

92 



Total, 



68 



Table showing the Residences of Students note connected with 


Connecticut College s- 


-not including Professional Schools. 


Btates. 


Total. Yale Coll. Trinity. 


Weslev. 


Connecticut, 


168 130 17 


21 


New York, 


180 137 9 


34 


Massachusetts, 


73 50 4 


19 


Pennsylvania, 


37 31 3 


3 


Ohio, 


27 25 1 


1 


New Jersey, 


23 12 1 


10 


Illinois, 


22 19 1 


2 


Vermont, 


17 8 1 


8 


Maine, 


16 6 


10 


Maryland, 


13 7 6 





Missouri, 


11 10 


1 


New Hampshire, 


10 2 1 


7 


Rhode Island, 


10 8 1 


1 


Michigan, 


8 8 





Wisconsin, 


7 7 





Tennessee, 


6 6 





Kentucky, 


4 4 





Delaware, 


4 4 





District of Columbia, 


4 4 





California, 


3 10 


2 


Indiana, 


2 2 





Iowa, 


110 





Louisiana, 


110 





Minnesota, 


110 





Virginia, 


1 1 





West Virginia, 


10 


1 


Other Countries. 






India, 


2 2 





Chili, 


110 





England, 


1 1 





France, 


110 





Nova Scotia, 


10 


1 


West Indies, 


110 






Total, 657 490 46 121 



64 

It is a curious fact that about three-fourths of the young 
men now training in Connecticut colleges come from other 
States. New York contributes many more students than Con- 
necticut. Twenty-six of the States in the Union are repre- 
sented in our oldest college, eleven States are represented in 
Trinity, and fourteen at Middletown. 

On the other hand the number of young men who go away 
from' the state for a college education is very small. After 
consulting the catalogues of the colleges most likely to attract 
our young men I can gather the names of only thirty-two 
students who have thus left the state. 

It is apparent that the relative number of Connecticut young 
men pursuing a college education is diminishing. Massachu- 
setts with its usual enterprise has devised a method of favoring 
deserving young men, by a system of State Scholarships, which 
is worthy the attention of our own enlightened citizens. 

Vin, SUPPLEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

A complete exhibition of the public provision for education 
requires some reference to the charitable and reformatory 
schools, in which the State is interested. But as these insti- 
tutions make their special reports to the Legislature no ex- 
tended comments are here called for. 

The American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, with its 
accomplished corps of instructors, under the guidance of Rev. 
Collins Stone, is an honor, not only to the State but to the 
nation. Its value can not be too highly estimated. 

The Home for Imbecile and Idiotic Youth at Lakevillc, which 
owes its existence to the philanthropy and zeal of Dr. H. M. 
Knight, is efficiently maintained under his fostering care. Its 
pecuniary resources are now limited, but the good which it ac- 
complishes for a most unfortunate class, and the skill with 
which the feeble powers of the mind are invigorated and de- 
veloped by means of its discipline, entitle the establishment to 
a support far more generous and extended. 

The power of Dr. Hatch in administering the Reform School 
at Meriden has been generally acknowledged during the years 
in which he has been devoted to it. In a visit which I lately 
made to the schools and shops, I was impressed with the indus- 



65 

try, the good discipline, the kind feelings, the vigorous health, 
and the bright minds of the boys here brought together. 

The State has made no appropriation for the care of orphan 
and destitute children who are not criminal. The Reform 
School is intended only for boys, and a violation of the law is 
the passport for admission to its privileges. In Hartford and 
Xew Haven there are public orphan asylums dependent on 
private liberality, which are performing a praiseworthy work, 
and are deserving of much enlarged endowments. Benevolent 
sisters of the Roman Catholic Church maintain in New Haven 
(and probably elsewhere) a like establishment for the protec- 
tion of orphans. Within the past year the agent of the Con- 
necticut Soldiers' Orphan Home, (Rev. E. B. Huntington, of 
Stamford,) has been urging on the people of the State the 
necessity of making more general provision for neglected 
children. He has collected much important and even appall- 
ing information respecting the destitute youth who are growing 
up almost like castaways in the poor-houses of the various 
towns. He has also obtained in substantial promises and in 
money nearly $5,000 for the establishment of a State Asylum. 
It now appears that the number of soldiers' orphans who will 
need such a home is small, and it will probably diminish rap- 
idly. But the need of a school and refuge for children who 
by the misfortunes, the death, the vice, or the criminal neglect 
of their parents are exposed to temptation and suffering was 
never more apparent. With the changes going forward in 
this State from agricultural to manufacturing pursuits, the 
number of such children will increase. Such youth will be- 
come the dangerous classes in our towns and villages. They 
demand protection before they shall have violated the law. 

But suitable homes or asylums can not be maintained in 
every town. It seems to me therefore desirable that the soci- 
ety just named should be encouraged to go forward and awaken 
the interest of the community in establishing more than one 
such home in different parts of the State, not for soldiers' or- 
phans only, but for all forlorn and deserted children not crim- 
inal. Eight or ten of the largest towns not already 'provided 
with a suitable refuge or asylum, perhaps one town in every 
5 



66 

county, might be led to open such a home in a modest and in- 
expensive way, securing as far as possible the inlluences of a 
family in its administration. These homes should be open to 
children from all the neighboring towns, and cither by a direct 
appropriation to all from the State treasury, or by requiring 
every town to make a contribution to the support of one such 
school, private enterprise should be encouraged by the pecu- 
niary assistance of the public. 

IX GENERAL EDUCATIONAL INILUENOES. 
teachers' institutes. 

During the eight months which have passed since my official 
duties commenced, Teachers' Institutes have been held in six 
of the eight counties of the State. Arrangements for these 
had been already commenced by my predecessor in office, and 
I earnestly endeavored to carry out his plans in an efficient 
manner. The information which was gathered during the 
progress of these meetings awakened serious questions whether 
the kind of institutes which have been held of late can not be 
modified advantageously. On inquiry I ascertained from Pro- 
fessor Camp that he was inclined to regard a change as desir- 
able. I am not yet prepared to suggest all those modifications 
which may increase the value of Teachers' Institutes; but it 
may be well to request at once an alteration of the law requir- 
ing- one Institute to be held annually in every county, so as to 
allow the Board of Education or the Secretary to exercise some 
discretion in respect to the frequency of these appointments. 

The Institutes of the last few months have been held as 
follows : 

Middlesex County, Portland, August 29th — September 1st. 
Litchfield County, Sharon, September 4th — 8th. 
New London County, Old Lyme, October 10th — 13th. 
Fairfield County, Stamford, October 18th, 19th, and 20th. 
Tolland County, Mansfield, October 24th, 25th, and 26th. 
Hartford County, Windsor, November 7th and 8th. 

The first two of these Institutes were directed by Prof. Camp ; 
the remainder were under the charge of the undersigned. 



Circulars, and advertisements through the newspapers, gave 
notice of these appointments ; but the number of teachers 
who appeared for instruction was very small. At Old Lyme, 
Rev. Mr. Brainerd and Mr. Noyes ; at Stamford, Messrs. 
John Day Ferguson, Z. Nichols, Rev. E. B. Huntington ; at 
Windsor, Rev. Mr. Tattle and Hon. H. S. Hayden ; at Mans- 
field, Rev. Mr. Ayer, R. P. Barrows, the venerable Zalmon 
Storrs, — are among the number who rendered important help 
in promoting the interests of the meetings and the accommo- 
dation of visitors. At these Institutes, except that at Sharon, 
the Board of Education was represented by Prof. Thacher 
and the Secretary, both of whom took an active part in the 
exercises. The other lecturers and teachers were as follows : 
Prof. W. P. Atkinson of Cambridge, Mass., Prof. M. Bailey 
of New Haven, Hon. Henry Barnard of Hartford, F. F. Bar- 
rows, Esq., Principal of the Centre School in Hartford, Rev. 
S. C. Brace of New Haven, Rev. C. L. Brace of New York r 
Prof. W. H. Brewer, late of the California Geological Survey,. 
Prof. Arnold Guyot of Princeton, Rev. E. B. Huntington of 
Stamford, John G. Lewis, Esq., Principal of the WebsterSchool 
in New Haven, Rev. H. Loomis of North Manchester, ProL 
Niles of Trinity College, Profs. Newton and Porter of Yale 
College, Ariel Parish, Esq., Superintendent of Schools in New 
Haven, Prof. W. D. Whitney of New Haven. Several other 
gentlemen were invited. 

Most of the public lectures were well attended, and so 
were some of the exercises designed expressly for teachers ; 
but the number of teachers present, as members of the Insti- 
tutes, was very small. At Lyme there were not more than 
half a dozen teachers present; all the exercises but the 
public lectures, and a conference of school officers, were 
given up. At Windsor there were about twenty teachers r 
and at Stamford and Mansfield each, about forty. I have 
taken some pains to inquire into the estimate which teachers 
of the State place upon the Institutes, as they are familiar 
with them ; and I am forced to conclude that an agency, 
which rightly managed, may be among the most useful, has 



6$ 

suffered in this State a serious decline. It certainly needs 
re-organization. 

OTHER EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCES. 

At Lyme and Stamford, meetings were held of the school 
officers of the neighborhood. Other conferences of a more 
or less public character, have been held in other towns. 
Large public meetings in Thompsonville and Meriden, were 
addressed by Governor Buckingham and the Secretary ; the 
first mentioned, also by Prof. Thacher. The manifestation 
of personal interest in public education on the part of the 
Chief Magistrate, evinced in many different ways, has con- 
tributed very much to the encouragement of all who are in- 
terested in the promotion of school reforms. 

STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The 13th annual meeting of the Teachers' Association of 
the State, was held at Willimantic, October 26th and 27th, 
under the presidency of J. N. Bartlett, Esq., of the Normal 
School. On behalf of the Board of Education, Prof. Thacher 
attended this meeting, and expressed the good-will of the 
State authorities, and their desire to cooperate with the 
teachers in their useful and honorable work. The opening- 
address on " Horace Mann and the Educational Revival " was 
given by the Secretary of the Board, and other papers were 
read by Dr. II. M. Knight, and by Messrs. H. E. Sawyer of 
Middlctown, J. W. Allen of Norwich, and E. B. Jennings of 
New London. 

PERIODICALS. 

Connecticut Common School Journal. — This periodical, 
which is sent by law to every Acting School Visitor of the 
State, has been published the past year, as heretofore, by 
the State Teachers' Association, under the editorial care of 
Mr. Northend, up to December, 18G5, and of Prof. Camp 
since that time. 

The American Journal of Education, edited by Hon. Henry 
Barnard, a repository of papers on all departments of educa- 
tion, continues to be published quarterly, in Hartford, and 
deserves to be included among the books of every library. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OP INSTRUCTION. 

The annual meeting of this Association was held in New 
Haven in August last. Rev. B. G. Northrop, Agent of the 
Massachusetts Board of Education, presided, and a large 
numher of distinguished men took part in the discussions. 
Among the number were Presidents Day, Cummings, Haven 
and Woolsey, Rt. Rev. Bishop Smith, Governors Washburre 
and Andrew, Dr. S. H. Taylor, and Hon. Joseph White. 

STATE APPROPRIATION FOR SCHOOL LIBRARIES. 

The number of school districts which have within the year 
drawn their first appropriation for school libraries, is 27, and 
the number which have drawn a subsequent appropriation is 
54. It seems to me that it would be well to modify the 
law granting this appropriation, so that the districts should 
purchase with the State money only such works as are ap. 
proved by the Board of Education. The draft of a bill for 
simplifying the mode of paying, matured on consultation 
with the Comptroller of Public Accounts, will be submitted 
to the Legislature. 



The law makes it a part of the duty of the Board of Educa- 
tion and of the Secretary not only to render a report on the 
progress of education, but also to offer suggestions and recom- 
mendations tending to the improvement of public instruction. 
Three topics, among others, seem to me to demand, just at 
this time, the careful consideration of the legislature and of 
the people of the State ; namely , first, the best mode of securing 
a good school administration, by consolidation of all or of a 
portion of the school districts in a town ; second, the best mode 
of bringing into schools a larger number of children, especially 
of those who are employed in factories, and of those in our 
cities who are growing up in ignorance and vice, — in other 
words the best mode of rendering the public schools more 
influential among the people ; and third, the influence of 



70 

High schools upon schools of lower grade. Upon each of 
these topics I propose to offer a few remarks. 

X. THE LOCAL MANAGEMENT OP COMMON SCHOOLS. 

DISCUSSION OF THE DISTRICT SYSTEM. 

After extended observation and inquiry I am led to the 
belief, in which I think a majority of the friends of education 
will concur, that the number of school districts in the State 
is a great obstacle to progress. These districts vary in num- 
ber in the several towns from two to twenty-two. In all 
there are over sixteen hundred of these little republics, each 
independent in some respects of all others, each capable of 
opposing progress and thwarting by neglect, if not by literal 
violations, the enactments of the State. On an average there 
are ten districts to every town, ten separate bodies which 
must be consulted, and enlightened or guided before any wise 
measure can be carried for their improvement. This increases 
tenfold the labors of the friends of public education. If the 
people of the town can be brought together, or at any rate if the 
p3ople of a common central village can be brought together for 
discussion and deliberation, there is some hope of accomplishing 
good results, but to go over and over again the same subject in 
ten or twenty places within the same township requires more 
energy, more time and more pay than our board of school visitors 
are expected to command. If all the districts were composed 
chiefly of intelligent and thinking men the evil would be les- 
sened ; but it is well known that many of them are so desti- 
tute of life that it is almost impossible to get a suitable person 
to manage the public business. In most of the districts, I pre- 
sume, new committees are chosen annually. The law defining 
their functions is not very clear; their zeal is not always 
awakened ; their knowledge of what a good school may be, 
even in a country district, is not always definite. The best 
men often refuse to take the office. There is no pay for ser- 
vice rendered to the public; in many cases there are constant 
complaints. The committee of one district has nothing to do 
with the affairs of other districts. He learns but little from 
their experience. He has no voice in the board of school 
visitors. Even if he has the best of intentions his powers for 



71 

good are very limited. He has no official relations with the 
State authorities. There is but little in his position to interest 
him in schools outside of the district in which he resides. It 
is true that many excellent men hold this office, and I would 
speak with praise of the fidelity of many with whom I am ac- 
quainted. I honor them for their constant, laborious and 
patient endeavors under difficulties, but most such men, I am 
sure, perceive their own embarrassments and long for some 
change. 

One of the first things to be considered therefore is the local 
management of schools. Is it what it should be, economical, 
harmonious, and productive of the best results ? Is the ad- 
ministration of school matters generally regarded as a weighty 
responsibility ? Are the best men uniformly or generally 
charged with this trust? Do they act according to law? If 
not who holds them to accountability ? These or many kin- 
dred questions suggest themselves at once to those who begin 
to examine the workings of our present system. 

Xow in theory the responsibility of maintaining good com- 
mon schools in Connecticut rests chiefly with the several 
towns. In this respect, as in so many other political func- 
tions, they are almost supreme. The State can do a great 
deal to encourage wise action ; but that action must still be 
determined in the town. The Superintendent of Common 
Schools, the Board of Education of the State, even the Legis- 
lature can accomplish almost nothing without the spirited, 
persistent and intelligent co-operation of the local school au- 
thorities. To provoke the towns to efficiency, the school fund 
of the State has been of late years very skillfully employed. 
It may be made still more efficacious. The diffusion of right 
sentiments and the awakening of right desires may be accom- 
plished by the State Board. Wise legislation may also greatly 
contribute to the improvement of the school system. They 
can alter, dissolve or establish school districts at pleasure. 
But after all the towns must act themselves. 

As illustrations of the imperfection of the system now com- 
monly in vogue, I cite two extracts from private letters, con- 
cealing the authors' names and the names of places, because 



72 

as my present object is to correct a general evil rather than to 
stigmatize specific violations of the law. 

One of the most efficient of the acting school visitors writes 
as follows : — 

"In this town, although I have tried so hard to give information, 
both publicly and privately, yet in one district a school was kept all 
winter entirely without my knowledge. The committee and teacher 
called on me yesterday to get a certificate for next term. I asked the 
committee how he expected to get the public money? He answered 
'I have got some of it now.' This of course was for last year, but he 
will find a hitch next fall, and will go to the legislature through the 
representatives and have it all set right. * * * * I asked the 
above mentioned teacher why she did not get a certificate, and she 

naively answered. ' When I taught in the school visitor 

came to the school after I had commenced and examined me there, and 
I did not know but you would do the same way.' The same tiling 
has been attempted several times. Schools have been commenced, 
and I have been sent for to visit them. I have just told them I knew 
nothing about the school, or should not till the teacher had been ex- 
amined and had received a certificate. Can not something be done 
in this direction? 

There is another thing. I do not believe that one district in ten, if 
one in twenty, elects the committee by ballot, as the law specifies. 
Again, they almost entirely disregard the law respecting rate-bills, 
making them out for the days attended, and not, as the law requires, 
for the whole term, except in cases of four weeks' sickness. 

And yet, such is the stolidity, or the indifference, or the ignorance, 
or all together, of the committee, that they make out their annual state- 
ment and go before a justice and make a solemn oath that their schools 
'have been kept in all respects according to law.' It is perfectly aw- 
ful to think of the gross amount of false swearing that is practiced 
yearly in regard to our schools!" 

Another School Visitor writes as follows: 

"I heard to-day of a district committee in the town of who 

employed his own daughter as teacher the past winter, paid her good 
wages, boarded her at home, and charged the district, and the school 
had dwindled down till there were no scholars remaining except two 
or three younger brothers and sisters of the teacher, who went to 
school when they chose. And yet the father thinks it best to continue 
his daughter in the school for another term." 

This evil is not peculiar to Connecticut. In Massachusetts 
"the district system" has been for many years an occasion for 
loud complaints. The authorities are united in desiring its 
removal. I quote the following excellent summary of opinions 
from the Report of the Massachusetts Board of Education for 
1865, just published. 



"It is earnestly hoped that when this vote comes to be taken, it will 
result in the total abolition of this cumbrous and unwieldy district sys- 
tem, which has so long clogged the progress of educational improve- 
ment in the towns where it has been suffered to remain. Reason and 
fact alike condemn it as a fruitful source of inconveniences and evils. 
It perpetuates poor school-houses, inefficient teachers, and neighborhood 
feuds and jealousies. It prevents the equalization of school advantages, 
and stands in the way of a proper classification of pupils. As com- 
pared with the town system, it is at once expensive and inefficient. 
For these and other reasons, the highest authorities in educational 
economy agree in pronouncing an emphatic verdict against it. Horace 
Mann, at the close of his long term of service as Secretary, said of it: 
'I consider the law of 1789, authorizing towns to divide themselves 
into districts, the most unfortunate law on the subject of common 
schools ever enacted in the State.' His successors have been no less 
decided in pronouncing it a deleterious element in the system. Dr. 
Sears, who devoted the greater part of an able report to the exposi- 
tion of its evils, said: 'The division of towns into independent districts 
is a great sacrifice of economy, for which no equivalent is received.' 
Mr. Boutwell, with great earnestness, on all proper occasions urged its 
discontinuance, and in his last report he said: 'I trust that the day 
will again and speedily be seen when every town will, in its municipal 
capacity, manage its schools, and equalize the expenses of education.' 
The present Secretary has demonstrated by the most convincing proof 
the necessity of doing away with it. After years of experience and 
observation as pupil, teacher, a member of the school committee in 
city and country, and as Secretary of the Board, he says: 'I honestly 
and most firmly believe that the subdivision of the towns into numer- 
ous, and in the majority of the cases, small districts, presents the most 
formidable obstacle to any considerable improvement in their schools.' 
Thus, reason has arraigned it, fact has given evidence against it, ar- 
gument has convicted it, experience has pronounced judgment upon it, 
and it only remains for the intelligent citizens, at the time appointed, 
by their votes, to put an end to its existence." 

Having learned that this whole subject was under discussion 
through the State, and was likely to be brought before the 
Legislature at its coming session, I addressed a circular note 
of inquiry to the authorities of every town. More than half 
the towns have replied. I subjoin a few extracts from the let- 
ters thus received, which may show the interest with which 
this matter is regarded. I withhold as before the indications 
of locality. 

LEGALIZED ABUSE OF THE DISTRICT SYSTEM. "THE LETTER OF 
THE LAW KILLETH." 

'•We have two contiguous districts which are very conveniently sit- 
uated for consolidation, and which ought to be united at once. Some 



circumstances are highly favorable for it. One of these districts has 
had no school-house for several years, and in consequence of the pe- 
culiar character of our school laws it is found impossible to build anew 
one. If our sapient legislators had set themselves, of purpose, to de- 
vise a way 'how not to do it,' they could not have achieved a more 
complete success. 

"The two districts contain something over one hundred children, 
and the sites of their respective school-houses are only a few rods from 
each other. Tliey are admirably situated for a graded school, but 
while one district is in favor of consolidation, the other is opposed to 
it. These districts are both situated in the centre of the village, and 
are the wealthiest in the town, with the exception of one. While the 
school laws remain as they are, there appears to be no remedy, and 
we can hope for no improvement. Education must remain at a low 
ebb, and the public money must be worse than squandered. If ever 
there was a case demanding legislative or official interference, I think 
this is one. In the ' East,' or larger district, there has been no school- 
house for several years, because the legal voters in it who have no 
children, and feel no permanent interest in the matter, being in the 
majority, systematically vote down all propositions for building a new 
one. If the public money is withheld, as according to law it should 
be, it would inflict an injury on those who are in favor of building, 
while it would have no direct effect on those who are opposed. It is 
a matter of perfect indifference with them whether a school is kept up 
or not. In regard to this point I believe our school laws to be all 
wrong in their practical working, and the sooner they are swept from 
the statute book the better. Unless we are relieved from the difficulty 
with which we are now environed, either by legislative enactment, or 
official interference, \ do not see how the educational interests of this 
community are to be saved from total wreck; at least, while the pres- 
ent generation is on the stage." 

EFFICIENT MEASURES TO PROMOTE CONSOLIDATION. 

" The question of the consolidation of all the districts of the town 
has received much attention. The 'joint committee' [on consolida- 
tion] appointed by the town had several pleasant meetings, and were 
all agreed. I have been into half the districts in the town with one 
or more of the committee, and have had a full attendance, and dis- 
cussed the matter very freely. The roads became so bad that it put 
a stop to our meetings, which were held in the evening. I was in- 
tending to continue, and had made arrangements to do so, when I was 
very unexpectedly called to change my residence. Of the present 
state of the question I can only say that the opinion favorable to free 
schools is fast becoming popular. I fully believe if we could finish our 
visits and talks with the people, we should have a most decided ma- 
jority in favor of consolidation, or free schools. 

Not a single valid objection has been urged, except dollars and 
cents, and that has been put forward hesitatingly. The largest tax- 
payer in the town has publicly declared in favor, and is willing to do 
any thing to carry out the free school system. 



I am sorry things have changed so that I can not push the matter to 
the successful end, for I am fearful no one else will take the same in- 
terest, i. e. do the work. The subject is being well ventilated. In- 
formation is the want of the people. My plan was to talk over the 
matter fully in all the districts in town, then have an informal town 
meeting, or public meeting, at which I hoped to have had you or 
Gov. Buckingham to talk, and to answer any questions, and make 
any explanations that might be needed. 

I hope some one will take up the matter where I have left it, and 
urge it through. I think it the most important movement that has 
ever been started in respect to our schools. I do not believe that they 
will ever be efficient, or the money properly expended until the free 
system is universally adopted." 

IMPORTANCE OF RETUNING TO TOWN ACTION IN SCHOOL MATTERS. 

" The question of consolidation has been mooted, but needs a new 
impulse from some direction. There are two districts that would 
probably be the gainer, perhaps four, if united with larger districts. 
There would be cases of individual hardship resulting from such 
changes, but the majority would gain. At the same time it is a ques- 
tion how far it is safe to remove the school house from the homes of 
the children. The majority of the children taught in the common 
schools in the country districts are not certain of opportunity to go to 
school after they have attained the age of twelve years. The practical 
question is, do the persons who come into the State from Rhode Isl- 
and, Ireland, or elsewhere, and purchase farms on the outskirts of the 
town, prize the education of their children sufficiently to send them 
four months in a year, (while between the ages of six and twelve,) 
from one to three miles, even to a good school? I confess to some 
doubts. But will the gain to the town as a whole compensate for the 
increased number who will, if the schools are centralized, grow up un- 
able to read and write ? Perhaps so ; I have no facts either way to 
aid a decision. 

My impression is that if the education of the children were com- 
mitted entirely to the towns, making the whole town responsible for 
school houses, teachers, books, apparatus, &c, it would be an import- 
ant step in advance, and less likely to increase home barbarism, than 
any method I think of, while it would, at the same time, supply new 
vigor to the school system of the State." 

CONSOLIDATION NOW UNDER DISCUSSION. 

" There has been for two or three years considerable private talk 
about an effort to unite our two centre districts, and have three or four 
graded schools instead of the two which we have had for twelve or 
thirteen years. As our village is increasing more than usual this 
year, and our school houses will not accommodate the population next 
winter, I intend to have a public meeting called in the course of three 
weeks to deliberate and act on the subject of uniting these two dis- 
tricts, and attaching to the united district the one nearest to the vil- 



76 

lage, with a view to the improvement and gradation of the schools. 
I think the proposed plan for advancing the interests of education in 
the town can be easily effected." 

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN A THRIVING TOWN. 

"The question of the consolidation of the three 'village districts' has 
been mooted, but although I am firmly convinced that such a course 
would be of great advantage to each and all, I fear there is little 
chance of its present adoption. The difficulty lies — 

First, in the fact that the district has a new and expensive school 

house to build, the cost of which the other districts do not wish to 
share. 

Second, in the peculiar position of the district, which has a large 

Irish population, whose share of the public money very nearly supports 
the district school, while their children are sent to a school connected 
with the Roman Catholic Church. Thus a large and rich district gets 
a tolerable school for those children who attend almost for nothing. 

Finally, our school is free, and neither of the other districts believes 
in the principle, and each has a holy horror of 'school tax,' quite dis- 
proportioned to its probable burden. 

We hope, however, to be able to build our new school house with 
reference to a future union, and the sentiment of the district seems to 
be favorable to this plan." 

THE INTELLIGENT AND WEALTHY verSUS THE IGNORANT. 

"Consolidation has been tried here to a very limited degree, owing 
to the need of a proper school edifice, and has been abandoned through 
the prejudices of those, generally, who take little or no interest in the 
schools, but yet have a controlling power. These persons, generally, 
having the largest experience in common schools, the largest taxes to 
pay, and the least number of children to educate, favored at the time, 
and do now favor, the consolidation system, believing it, as I do, the 
true system to be adopted, especially when the inhabitants are as com- 
pactly situated as they are in this town. We have but two districts, 
one with two schools, the other with four. These schools are of two 
grades only. Two of them are composed of the children of Roman 
Catholic parents, and have Roman Catholic teachers, but are under 
the general supervision of the district committee, and the board of 
education. The result has been to improve the schools of Protestant 
children, partly or chiefly because of the smaller number of scholars. 
The other two schools I think have not made equal progress. This 
arrangement having been tried but one term, it remains to be seen 
whether on the whole it will prove advantageous to all parties." 

NEED OF FURTHER LEGISLATION. 

"The subject of consolidation has been talked of, but no definite 
idea prevails. My own opinion is that the Legislature could pass 
such an act as would enable a few districts to unite and act as one on 



all questions touching the interests of High schools, such as providing 
school houses, teachers, regulating instruction, &c, &c. Of course to 
draw up such an act requires the thought and study of able and expe- 
rienced gentlemen." 

CONSOLIDATION ADVOCATED. 

"The school houses in our three village districts are within the dis- 
tance of one mile, and a radius of one mile from the center district 
school house would embrace about nineteen-tvventieths of the children 
in these three districts. The natural inference is that these districts 
should unite and form a graded school. Many strong efforts have been 
made to effect this, as there is sufficient wealth in this village to carry 
the project into execution, but if attempted it would be opposed by 
some men of wealth, as it has been heretofore. Yet I can but hope 
that our schools will be united, and when done, it will not be regretted. 
There are no special efforts at present before the public for the uniting 
of our schools, but the subject has a strong hold upon the thoughts of 
some individuals, especially the pastors of the two churches, both of 
whom are members of the Board of School Visitors." 

NECESSITY OF FRESH ACTION. 

"The attempt was made ten years ago to unite the two districts at 

, so as to have one school with three departments, but it was 

defeated by the prejudices of the two halves of the village. They 
have two school houses, each with two departments. If all the chil- 
dren attended who ought to do so, both houses would be overrun. 
Something must be done soon, and if a town High school is not to be 
established in this village, there is a fair prospect that the two districts 
may be so far consolidated as to support one school of higher grade 
in addition to those which they already have. 

Our opinion is that the district system ought to be abolished, but 
truth requires us to say that many would regard this as a very griev- 
ous abridgment of their liberty." 

ONE DISTRICT FAVORS; THE OTHERS OPFOSE. 

"We (the 'South District,') have tried for some years to effect 
consolidation, but being unable to get a vote of the other three dis- 
tricts, we have decided to build our own house as a district, and to 
admit advanced scholars from the other districts, obliging them to pay 
a reasonable sum lor it. My own opinion is decidedly in favor of 
consolidation, where the population is not too scattering to make it 
practicable." 

CONSOLIDATION URGENTLY ADVOCATED. 

'• Five school districts mi<dit unite with the greatest possible advan- 
tage in the establishment of a graded school, and such an arrangement 
could not fail to tell wonderfully on the interest of education in the 
town. I sincerely hope and pray that the "Board of Education" 



will have the nerve and the success to prevail on the Legislature to 
put an end to this dribbling out of the public money to so many dis- 
tricts. To do so seems to paralyze every manly effort in the matter 
of education. The fewest number of the districts pay out for that 
purpose a single dime beyond what the state gives them. Take away 
their money, — consolidate the" districts, and another spirit would be 
manifest at once." 

PARTIAL CONSOLIDATION EFFECTED BY LEGISLATIVE ASSISTANCE. 

"We held four town meetings in the winter of 1865 to take into 
consideration the consolidating of all the districts in ihe town, but the 

friends of education were defeated. In the district a meeting 

was held in which a resolution was passed to build a new school house, 
appropriating $3,500 for that purpose. Soon after a town meeting 
was held for the purpose of dividing said district, and by a vote of the 
town it was divided. A petition was then brought before the Legisla- 
ture, asking that the two districts thus formed be consolidated; also a 

portion from the district to be consolidated with the said new 

district. These petitions were granted by the Legislature, and the 
district thus constructed numbers 326 scholars. 

I am of the opinion that the schools in our State should be free, that 
is, that the property of each individual should be taxed for the support 
of schools. I think also that the Legislature should appoint a Board 
of Education in each town, to have the entire management of schools, 
hiring teachers, providing fuel, and doing all that is necessary to be 
done; and that district officers should be discontinued." 

To conclude, the disadvantages of the present district sys- 
tem may be thus enumerated. Two separate bodies, the 
School Visitors and the District Committee, are concerned in 
the same business without any official unity of purpose or 
action. They are sometimes antagonistic. The measures of 
one Board are often misunderstood and even opposed by the 
other. One body could work more efficiently than two. 

Any attempt on the part of School Visitors to secure a 
good school system is liable to be thwarted by an unenlight- 
ened district. For example : The visitors object to a building 
— the district refuses to repair or rebuild. The visitors insist 
\ipon uniform text-books, — the district refuses to buy them. 
The visitors determine to give certificates only to competent 
teachers, — the district refuses to pay such wages as competent 
teachers demand. 

In many districts it is impossible to find the right sort of 
men willing and able take the offices of district committee 



and clerk. Sometimes the office goes a begging. No one 
can be found competent and at leisure to assume its duties. 
Tins is especially true in some of the thinly peopled districts 
of the country. 

The general intelligence, enterprise and wealth of a town 
can not be brought to bear on the several districts. 

Two remedies for the acknowedged defects of the district 
system are feasible. 

The towns may annul all existing districts and assume the 
entire control of the schools. This is in some respects the 
simplest and best way of reaching a good result. We have 
taken one step in this direction by abolishing school societies. 
Only one step more and the work is done. Each town may 
do this for itself, or the Legislature may act for all. In a 
part of the school business the towns now act as towns, — a 
very slight modification of the law would adjust the new 
machinery so as to have the towns direct the whole school 
system. 

Or, if it be preferred, the districts contiguous to an im- 
portant center may be consolidated into one district, thus 
securing for the central village, borough or city, — unity and 
system. The present process of effecting this change is cum- 
bersome; and I earnestly hope that some modification of it 
maybe devised. 

One caution should be impressed on the friends of such a 
change. Many persons suppose that the "consolidation of 
districts " means the " abolition of school houses." This is not 
true by any means. The new union district may maintain as 
many separate schools as the separate districts did before. It 
may maintain twice as many if it chooses. The consolidated 
district or the town can still do just what seems best in regard 
to the size, position and number of school houses. 

On the other hand the advantages of coi s Nidation may be 
thus summed up. The local school system becomes import- 
ant enough to secure the thoughts and labors of the most 
intelligent men, good officers are more readily secured and 
suitably paid, a uniformity of school privileges is secured to 
all the children of the place, the taxes are more easily and 



80 

economically collected, gradation or classification of schools is 
greatly facilitated, and the establishment of a High school is 
hastened. 

Fortunately these remarks are not mere " theory." They 
are based upon an intimate acquaintance with a plan which 
has worked well for several years. It deserves to be here 
brought out as an illustration of what may be done. 

In the city of New Haven, a few years ago, all the districts 
were united into one known as the City School District. Its 
limits coincide with the limits of the city. Its affairs are 
managed by a "Board of Education" consisting of nine men, 
three of them chosen annually, — not at the usual election of 
city officers, but at a special school meeting held in the month 
of September, when the annual report on school matters is 
presented, and the annual tax is voted. The educational 
business is thus kept away from ordinary political influences. 
The Board of Education meets every fortnight, has a public 
office, and a salaried clerk and Superintendent of Schools, the 
duties of the former including the care of the buildings and 
the protection of the financial interests of the district, — the 
duties of the latter having reference to the inspection of the 
schools and the promotion of good instruction. The district 
employs about ninety teachers, who arc distributed in differ- 
ent buildings. Six of the schools are situated in central 
positions and are large and well graded. The remainder are 
smaller schools, situated in neighborhoods remote from the 
center, or else designed for the special wants of special classes 
of children. There is also a High school. 

The consequence of these arrangements is that the books 
are uniform throughout the city, the course of study is laid 
down with definiteness, the same regulations arc observed in 
all the schools, promotions occur on a regular plan, leading up 
to the High school, and in short there is a well established 
system, at once popular, economical and efficient. The credit 
of bringing about so good a state of things is chiefly due to 
Hon. James F. Babcock, who was for many years the acting 
school visitor of the town, and a member of one of the district 
committees, and who also as a member of the General Asscm- 



81 

bly had the opportunity of securing certain important changes 
in the school law, which facilitated this arrangement. The 
main features of the plan have worked admirably and appear 
to me well adapted to the cities, boroughs, and large villages 
of the State. In a few other places similar arrangements are 
established, but no where with so much completeness as in 
New Haven. 

I trust that this subject, which is obviously so interesting 
and important to the people of the State, may receive from 
the Legislature, in the approaching session, the attention 
which it deserves. "Without knowing how far it is at present 
possible to go, it seems to me that the following considerations, 
if borne in mind, will lead the General Assembly to wise con- 
clusions. 

1. The defects of the existing district system are felt so 
seriously that some modification of its features is imperatively 
called for. 

2. The defects are most felt in those communities which are 
most dense in population, especially in a part of the cities and 
in crowded manufacturing villages where a graded system of 
schools is desirable. 

3. The existing laws permit, but do not encourage, either 
the consolidation of school districts, or the return to the old 
fashioned mode of administering school affairs town-wise. 

4. The \inion of districts has worked well where it has been 
accomplished, as for example in the cities of New Haven and 
Middletown, Norwich central district, &c. 

5. Some special advantages bestowed on union districts by 
the Legislature, as for example the power of administering 
school affairs by one body instead of by two bodies, — that is, 
by a single Board of Education instead of, as now, by a district 
committee subject to the supervision of a town board of visit- 
ors, — would undoubtedly encourage consolidation. 

XI. NEGLECTED AND TRUANT OHILDEEN-OHTLDEEN EMPLOYED 
IN FACTORIES. 
How can the benefits of education be extended most effect- 
ually to the destitute and neglected ? How can the State, for 
6 



82 

its own protection, compel the vicious and indolent to send 
their children to school? How can a school system be so 
managed that none shall grow up in ignorance and idleness ? 
What can be done for the forlorn and careless to prevent them 
from becoming perpetual curses to themselves and to the 
community ? These problems must force themselves on the 
minds of all who are solicitous for the welfare of society, either 
as legislators, students of political economy, philanthropists or 
teachers. At one of the earliest meetings of the Board of 
Education, Judge Carpenter called the attention of the Secre- 
tary to this subject, and especially to the wants of children 
growing iip in ignorance in factory villages. Frequent let- 
ters from various parts of the State have brought out many 
complaints touching the same evil. 

There are two classes of neglected children whose welfare 
we are bound to protect, — the idle and the busy; those who 
waste their time in the streets and fields plotting mischief, and 
possibly gaining their livelihood by theft or other crime ; and 
those who spend their time in factories so many hours a day, 
and days in the year, that they have no disposition or oppor- 
tunity to acquire the elements of useful knowledge. 

In the rural districts, there are not many instances of chil- 
dren growing up in entire neglect, and the care and reforma- 
tion of such may perhaps be safely left to the Christian pbilan- 
thropy of benevolent individuals ; but in cities, etc., the case is 
different. Here, the law must help the citizen who seeks to 
rescue these dangerous and endangered youth. Both classes 
of the ignorant require looking after, on the part of the magis- 
trates and of the school visitors. 

With reference to factory labor, a statute was passed in 
1842, forbidding, (under a penalty of twenty-five dollars for 
each violation of the law,) the employment of children under 
fifteen years of age unless they have been instructed in school 
at least three months of the twelve preceding the time of their 
employment. But it has been found very difficult to enforce 
this law. In many cases the proprietors or agents of manu- 
facturing establishments would willingly see the provisions of 
the statute sustained, but they are well aware that the law is 



83 

not obeyed through the State, and are apprehensive that they 
shall lose both parents and children as operatives, if they re- 
fuse the latter work. Indeed when parents and children are 
clamorous for work, and when labor is in great demand, it is 
not difficult to understand how the law may be neglected. 
In one instance which has come to my knowledge, the excel- 
lent agent of a manufacturing company, impressed with this 
evil, maintained at his own cost, an evening school for the 
benefit of young factory operatives. I am confident that if a 
law can be devised which public opinion will sustain and which 
the magistrates and school visitors, throughout the State, will 
be likely to enforce, the large manufacturing corporations will 
co-operate in insisting that every child employed should come 
under good instruction for a part of the year. It may be said 
that the present law is good enough. But it is not enforced ; 
it is not likely to be. Nobody assumes the responsibility of 
seeing that its requirements are obeyed. If no better law can 
be devised, then public opinion must by some other means be 
aroused to stop the evil. 

I need not expatiate on the injury which the State is receiv- 
ing by training up a large number of ignorant citizens. Their 
health, morals, and permanent prosperity are all sacrificed for 
temporary gain. Their birthright as freemen is sold for a 
mess of pottage. 

Our native citizens for the most part value the schools. It 
is chiefly the foreigners who neglect their privileges. The 
Irish and Germans are more likely to send to school than other 
foreigners ; and of all, the Canadian French, and the English, 
according to the reports, are the most indifferent and stolid. 

The embarrassments of this question are not confined to 
Connecticut. The recent report of the Massachusetts Board 
of Education calls attention to a similar neglect of the law. 
"The unprecedented demand for and the insufficient supply 
of adult laborers" says Mr. White, "in every department of 
industry and more especially in the mechanical and manufac- 
turing departments, the rapid multiplication of machinery 
adapted to the use of children, the enormous profits realized 
on the products of manufacturing and mechanical establish- 



84 

ments. have undoubtedly led to a relaxation on the part of 
these owners and managers of the rules which arc prescribed 
by law respecting the employment of children, and which 
under less pressing circumstances would be cheerfully obeyed. 

On the other hand, the enhanced cost of living, the high 
prices of food, clothing and rent, have pressed heavily in the 
same direction. Many parents, especially of the class whose 
estimate of the value of a good education is by no means 
high, are pushing their children, even at the most tender age, 
into every occupation where their earnings may contribute to 
the support of the family. 

Now however strong this pressure, however much the labor 
of the young may contribute to the comfort of parents, or to 
the general wealth, still the question remains whether the law 
is not founded in a higher reason than any such considera- 
tions; whether these children, if kept in the schools, will 
not become, in the long run, not only better contributors, by 
more intelligent industry, to the general wealth, but also more 
useful members of society, and safer depositaries of the 
power of the State." 

As examples of the present condition of factory villages, 
the following letters are cited. Every letter was written by a 
responsible person, acquainted with the facts and able to estab- 
lish what he says ; but for obvious reasons, I do not think it 
best in this connection to give any indication of the localities 
referred to. 

FROM A GENTLEMAN WELL ACQUAINTED WITH OUR SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

" I intended before this to fufill my promise of statistics of our two 
factory villages. I have them from one of these villages, but my can- 
vasser for the other brought me so muddy an account that I determined 
to do the work myself as soon as I had time ; but I find that you have 
issued a general circular, and so my special statistics will be unneces- 
sary. However, I send such as I have. 

I started a night school here about the first of January, with vol- 
unteer teachers, twice a week, and continued it till the beginning of 
April. The average attendance was nearly sixty, and there was good 
interest and progress to the close. I gathered a few facts from some 
of the pupils which I find it almost impossible to classify, and so I 
send you an abstract of them. The mass of the pupils work in the 
mill, and as you will see thirty of them have not been in school for 



twelve months, so that our company are liable to a fine of $750, (30 
X $25,) for employing them. Oin* agent here has furnished money 
for the books, coal, lights, &c, for the school, but the owners are not 
resident, and I have not seen them about it. 

The account from the village first alluded to is far more favorable, 
and it seems incredible by the side of our facts. I am inclined to 
think that this matter of employing children who have no schooling 
during the year, in violation of the law, must receive more attention 
and that some of the present eight-hour law zeal might be profitably 
turned in this direction. 

In the first mentioned village, children between four and sixteen, 
eight hundred and forty one. In private schools, eighteen; out of 
town at school, six : out of school and at work, one hundred and thirty- 
nine, or nearly seventeen per cent; out of school too young to attend 
school, fifty-six, or nearly seven per cent. All except those too young 
to attend school are believed to attend at least three months in the year. 

In the other village the following facts were ascertained respecting 
some of the scholars in the night school. (The letters of the alphabet 
are here employed for designating the persons, as their names can not 
properly be given.) 

1. Boys. 

A, 16 years old, 2 years in America, never in school. B, 14 years, 
not in school for three years. C, 9 years, went last summer. D, 15 
years, seven months in America, not in school for 5 years. E, 14 
years, not in school for two years. F, 15 years, not in school for 4 
years. G, 14 years, 3 years in America, never in school. H, I, K 
and L, each eight years old. M, 1 1 years, in school two weeks in 2 
years. N, 11 years, 2 1-2 years in America, never in school here. 
O, 16 years, not in school for 2 years. P, 13 years, not in school for 

1 year. Q, 14 years, not in school two weeks in three years. R, 10 
years, not in school in a year. S, 13 years, 2 years in America, not 
in school since 9 years old. T, 10 years, 1 in this village, never in 
school. U, 12 years, not in school for 1 year. V, 10 years, not in 
school for one year. 

2. Girls. 

A, 11 years old, 2 years in this village, never at school here. B, 8 
years, 3 years in this village, not in school for 2 years. C, 14 years, 

2 years in this village, left school at 9 years of age. D, 12 years, not 
in school for two years. E, 11 years, 6 years in this village, not in 
school for 4 years. F, 16 years, 14 years in this village, not in school 
for 2 years. G, 17 years, left school at 12. H, 12 years left school 
2 years ago. I, 15 years, left school at 11. K, 13 years, left school 
at 10. L, 15 years, left school at 12. M, 13 years, left school at 11. 
N, 1 1 years, left school at 9." 

FROM A SCHOOL VISITOR OF MANY YEARS. 

"In all our factory school districts there is a great evil from truancy 
and absenteeism. The reports of our local visitors for several years 



86 

have spoken quite at length upon this topic. Take for one example 

the school in district of this town. There are 250 children 

between 4 and 16 years of age, but the number attending school will 
not equal 125. I think not less than 100 children of school age in 
this one district are habitually absent from school. A similar state of 

things exists in and districts. I do not believe that 

one-half of the children between 4 and 16 in these factory districts 
attend school, unless it be for a very short time. We have no means 
of knowing the exact list of different pupils that attend during the 
year, as a portion go only a single term, or part of a term. 

Would it not be well to have manufacturers required [by law"] to 
make return to the School Visitors of the names of all children under 
fifteen years of age in their employment? A requisition of this kind 
would put the visitors in possession of important information now dif- 
ficult to obtain. It should be enforced under a sufficient penalty for 
fraudulent or inadequate returns — for instance, the forfeiture of from 
10 to 25 dollars to the School Fund for each offense, such forfeiture to 
accrue to the advantage of the town in which the offense is committed, 
exclusive of the district in which it is committed." 

FROM ANOTHER SCHOOL VISITOR. 

"I should estimate the number of children growing up neglected 
and ignorant in this town at between 100 and 200. In most of the 
districts there are none, but in some of the manufacturing districts 
there are many Canadian French, and they rarely send their children 
to school. In one district about half are of this class. The district 
numbers about 100. These facts, if they were made known to the 
people of the town by an eloquent orator, or by the pen of a ready 
writer, would astonish them, and perhaps wake them up to action." 



FROM ANOTHER TOWN. 

"I believe there are a considerable number employed in the mills 
who are between six and sixteen years of age, but do not receive three 
months' schooling each year. I should prefer to have the public money 
for the next ten years divided according to the average attendance 
upon the schools, instead of the present system. To enforce the pres- 
ent law upon mill owners is impracticable in many towns." 



FROM A DIFFERENT PART OF THE STATE. 

"Our district, which includes most of the Canadian French 

population, numbers 389 between 4 and 16 years of age, and not 
more than 160 are in the winter schools. The district, num- 
bering 238, had not more than 150 in the district winter schools. The 
French are sending to our schools more than formerly; but the pa- 
rents put their children into the mills as soon as they can earn good 
wages, and it is difficult to apply our State law on this subject. I wish 
it were generally enforced." 



87 



FROM A DIFFERENT SOURCE. 

"The law regulating the employment of children under a certain 
age in manufacturing establishments is not regarded, I think, to any 
great extent; and where education receives so little attention as it has, 
in years past, in this town, from those who have really the deepest in- 
terests at stake, the Board of Education, especially when the whole 
duty falls upon one, as it has done here for some time past have poor 
encouragement to see that the letter of the law is complied with, for 
they have a hopeless task before them." 

FROM ANOTHER TOWN. 

" Probably more than one hundred children in this town do not at- 
tend school. * * * Perhaps a rigid enforce- 
ment of the law in regard to the employment of children in our fac- 
tories would be a sufficient remedy for this evil." 

FROM ANOTHER TOWN. 

"There are a large number of children, especially in the east part 
of the town, who are growing up in the grossest ignorance and vice. 
These are mostly of foreign parentage. Many of them are French 
from Canada. What can be done for them I do not know. They are 
mostly Roman Catholics, and from what I can learn there is no effort 
to instruct them in religion or good morals." 

ANOTHER EXTRACT FROM A VERY EFFICIENT SCHOOL VISITOR. 

"I can not speak definitely in regard to the number of children in 
the town who do not attend any school. I am confident that some are 
growing up ignorant, as only 53 per cent, of the children of this vil- 
lage were on the average in attendance, as returned by the teachers in 
their school registers. The School Visitors do not regard the law in 
reference to visiting the manufacturing establishments, except that 
one of our number is agent of the Company. Some two or more 
years he maintained a night school for the factory children out of his 
own private purse. As an individual he would prefer all to attend 
school as the law requires, but I have no idea he could be sustained 
by the Company in executing the law. 

"It seems to me some good might be done by having a law enacted 
and executed which would require all incorporated [manufacturing] 
companies to report on an oath directly to the Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Schools the whole number of children employed, their names, [and 
ages,] and the amount of schooling each has received each year. I 
am certain that he could execute such a law — but if I were to attempt 
to execute the present law, this village would be too hot to hold me." 



With reference to the prevention of idleness and truancy 
the last General Assembly passed a truant act," which if carried 
out by the several towns, will result in great good. A slight 
amendment is called for which the legislature will undoubt- 
edly grant, authorizing the authorities of a city as well as of 
a town to make all needful provisions for the prevention of 
truancy. The establishment of a truant school in every large 
town to which children might be sent by a magistrate, if found 
"wandering about the streets or public places of any city or 
town having no lawful occupation or business," would quickly 
eradicate the evil. Such a school might be so managed that 
its cost would not be heavy, and its expenses would be saved 
to the town or city many times. We need to go out into the 
highways, and compel for our own protection these "Arab" 
children to come under the elevating and refining influences 
of a well ordered school. I look with great favor on Special 
Schools for Special Cases, — schools, I mean, in which the same 
strictness in punctuality, order, neatness and scholarship is 
not required as in the regular public schools. These special 
schools may be regarded as preparatory in certain cases to 
the other schools. Children who can not or will not bear 
the uniform discipline of the ordinary classes, may be trained 
by themselves until they are disposed to avail themselves of % 
higher privileges. Schools of this kind established in New 
Haven, with the cooperation of private individuals, have done 
great good. Evening schools for boys who have become con- 
scious of their defective education and are ambitious to ac- 
quire more knowledge ought also to be encouraged. Were 
there space, interesting particulars might be given showing 
the usefulness of several recent enterprises of this character. 

The friends of public education can not be too earnest in 
their attempts to make the schools include as many as possi- 
ble of those who will, without these opportunities, be desti- 
tute of all instruction but that of the streets and woods. Public 
appropriations combined with private energy, (when this co- 
operation can be secured without infringement on the law,) 
will be found efficacious for good. 

* See Appendix, page 177. 



89 

XII. TEE HIGH SCHOOL AS AN ESSENTIAL PAKT OF A GOOD 
SYSTEM OF COMMON SCHOOLS. 

In many places in the State the question of establishing Pub- 
lic High Schools is now under discussion. In Hartford it has 
been proposed to erect a new building for the excellent insti- 
tution which has so long been the glory of the place. In New 
Haven, where a High School building has never been put up, 
the importance of maintaining and expanding the existing 
school or erecting a building for it, is urged by some of the 
friends of popular education. In Meriden there is every rea- 
son to believe that a school will be commenced at an early 
day. In Norwich a subscription is on foot to increase the en- 
dowment of the Free Academy by the sum of §30,000. In 
several other towns, this subject is agitated just now with un- 
usual zeal. It seems desirable therefore to recur to a few 
principles, which can readily be established, and which are of 
general application. 

The following statements are made in the belief that they 
can not be controverted, and that their recognition at the 
present time will be of great value to the state. 

1. Some sort of a public school for the older classes of 
scholars, in which may be taught such higher branches of 

►■knowledge as are suitable for the discipline of boys and girls 
above twelve or thirteen years of age, is regarded in almost 
every enlightened state and nation, by the friends of education 
as an essential part of a system of public instruction. 

2. Such a school was a fundamental part of the original 
system of public schools in both the Colonies which formed 
the present State. In New Haven, Ezekiel Cheever, as early 
as 1641 taught the public Latin School established by the Col- 
ony's order; and not much later, if any, every town in Con- 
necticut having a hundred families was required to maintain 
a grammar school, " the masters thereof being able to instruct 
youtbs so far as they may be fitted for the university." A 
little later (1672) it was ordered in the united Colony, that 
every county should maintain such a school. 

3. Such a school may be maintained by tuition, or by an 
endowment, or by a tax on property ; but it is very important 



90 

that the public should have some control over it, so that it 
may not be managed in the interest of the teacher merely, 
and for his personal gain, rather than for the welfare of the 
community. 

4. Experience has demonstrated that small endowments 
and tuition fees unsually furnish an inadequate basis for the 
permanent maintenance of a first rate school ; either a liberal 
endowment, yielding a good income, or a property tax is 
found needful. 

5. In Massachusetts the Public High School System rest- 
ing almost exclusively on a property tax, has rapidly grown 
in favor and has been found to work admirably in the promo- 
tion of popular education. Every town of five hundred fam- 
ilies is required by law to maintain a High School. One 
hundred and twenty towns actually do so. 

6. A Public High School, free or nearly free to all who 
desire its advantages, exerts a most powerful influence on all 
the schools of lower grade by furnishing an incentive to study, 
and by diffusing among all the children of the town an ac- 
quaintance with and an eagerness for the pursuit of useful 



7. A Public High School is the most truly democratic 
feature of the free school system, because it opens to the 
children of the poor and needy the priceless advantages of a 
superior education, advantages which would otherwise be 
limited to the wealthy few. 

8. A Public High School diffuses through the entire com- 
munity, among the parents not less than among the youth, 
an honorable love of knowledge, and an enlightened sympa- 
thy with everything which tends to. elevate the people. It 
thus becomes a blessing of inestimable value. 

9. A Public High School benefits the rich as well as the 
poor, indirectly as well as directly, by educating the laboring 
«nen, awakening Avorthy aspirations, preventing low and 
vicious tastes, and rendering the town more thrifty, orderly 
and attractive as a residence. Like all other schools, it lessens 
the expenditure for police and prisons. 

10. A Public High School rightly managed is the cheap- 



91 

est as well as the best means of providing the education which 
it furnishes. 

11. A Public High School is one of the best possible in- 
strumentalities for training teachers, especially young ladies, 
for service in the ordinary common schools. 

12. As it is obviously difficult in the smaller towns to 
maintain a High School, aud as the means of conveyance 
from one town to another are becoming more and more con- 
venient, it is desirable that every school which is established 
should be open on equitable terms to childreirfrom neighbor- 
ing places. 

The following forcible summary from a recent report of 
Hon. J. White, Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Ed- 
ucation, presents in a satisfactory way the crowning advan 
tages of the High School system. 

"Here the children of the rich and the poor, of the honored and 
the unknown, meet together on common ground. Their pursuits, 
their aims and aspirations are one. No distinctions find place, but 
such as talent and industry and good conduct create. In the compe- 
titions, the defeats and successes of the school-room, they meet each 
other as they are to meet on the broader fields of life before them ; 
they are taught to distinguish between the essential and true, and the 
factious and false, in character and condition. The children of the 
poor, animated with the hopes and courage which a successful compe- 
tition with companions more favored by fortune inevitably inspires, 
are. prepared to combat with a braver heart and stronger arm, the 
difficulties and discouragements which oppose them; while the chil- 
dren of the wealthy are taught to yield a just and cordial respect to 
talents and virtues, clothed in humble garb Thus, and only thus, 
can the rising generation be best prepared for the duties and responsi- 
bilities of citizenship in a free commonwealth. No foundations will 
be laid in our social life for the brazen walls of caste ; and our politi- 
cal life, which is but the outgrowth of the social, will pulsate in har- 
mony with it, and so be kept true to the grand idea of the fathers and 
and founders of the republic. 

As, then, we prize and cherish the free institutions which we have 
inherited, and would transmit them to future generations, let us spare 
no effort and shrink from no sacrifice, so that we may make the means 
of a broad and generous culture, no less than those of a rudimental 
education, free as the breath of heaven to all." 

In view of all these considerations, and also in view of the 
favor with which these institutions have been regarded in the 
several States where they have been generally established, I 



92 

am led to the conviction that an enactment of the Legislature 
similar to that in the Connecticut code of 1650, requiring 
towns of a certain number of inhabitants to maintain a public 
High School, would be conducive to the educational interests 
of the State, and would speedily if not immediately be es- 
teemed by the people at large as a wise and beneficial measure. 
The following is the enactment above referred to, as found 
in the Connecticut code of 1650. It appears to have been in 
force several years previous. The chief provisions of this act 
were repeated in the code of 1672 — the first which was pub- 
lished after the union of the two colonies — the principal 
change consisting in the requirement of a grammar school in 
every count/. 

SCHOOLES. 

"It being one chiefe project of that old deluder Sathan to keepe 
men from the knowledge of the Scriptures, as informer times keeping 
them in an unknowne tongue, so in these latter times by perswading 
them from the use of Tongues, so that at least (he true sence & mean- 
ing of the original] might bee clouded with false glosses of saint-seem- 
ing deceivers: & that Learning may not bee buried in the Grave of 
our Forefathers, in Church and Commonwealth, the Lord assisting 
our indeavors: 

•'It is therfore ordered by this Courte, & Authority thereof, that 
every Towneshipp within this Jurissdiction, after the Lord hath in- 
creased them to the number of fifty houshoulders, shall then forthwith 
appoint one within theire Town to teach all such children as shall re- 
sort to him to write & read, whose wages shall bee paid either by the 
parents or master.- of such children, or by the Inhabitants in genex&iH 
by way of supplye, as the major parte of those who order the pruden- 
tialls of the Towne shall appointe: provided, that those who send theire 
children bee not oppressed by more than they can have them taught 
for in other Townes. 

"And it is further ordered, that where any Towne shall increase to 
the number of one hundred families or housholders, they shall sett up 
a Grammar Schoole, the masters thereof being able to instruct youths 
so fair as they may bee fi tied for the University. And if any Towne 
neglect the performance hereof above one yeare, then every such Towne 
shall pay jive pounds per Annum to the next such schoole till they 
shall perform this order." 

The system of graded or classified schools introduced into 
this State some years ago, in place of the old fashioned ' mixed' 
schools, has worked so well that a wider acquaintance with its 
advantages and adoption of its features seems very desirable. 
This system may be said in brief to include the instruction of 



93 

the scholars of given age and attainments by themselves, 
while those who are older and more advanced, or those who 
are younger and less advanced, are taught in a separate room 
by another teacher. There are many neighborhoods where 
such an arrangement is of course impossible, because in each 
of them the whole number of children is so limited that only 
one room and one teacher can be provided. But in all cen- 
tralized places, where the number of children attending school 
is one hundred or more, gradation may be commenced. The 
primary scholars may be taught in one building and the older 
children in another — or better, the two classes may be taught 
in distinct rooms of the same building. Tbe best classification 
can be secured in places where two hundred children or more 
live so near together that one building can conveniently re- 
ceive them all. A man at the head of such a school, with 
ladies as assistant teachers in the several rooms, can manage 
a large number of scholars so that they will make rapid progress 
in their studies, and will acquire the best habits of order, punc- 
tuality, and obedience. Those who have never examined the 
working of such a plan are earnestly advised to direct their 
attention to it and study the results which are accomplished 
in the towns where it has been most efficiently maintained. 

Whenever a graded school system is established it will be 
discovered that the scholars have generally mastered what are 
called the rudimentary English branches long before they have 
passed the common school age. A majority of them by the 
time they are twelve years old will know how to read, write, 
and spell well, will understand the elements of English gram- 
mar, arithmetic probably as far as square root, and the com- 
mon "topical" geography. These scholars will demand fur- 
ther instruction, and from two to four years more may be well 
employed in giving them a higher knowledge of mathematics, 
an acquaintance with some other language beside their own, 
a knowledge of the history and constitution of this and other 
governments, an introduction to the laws of the natural world, 
and such facility in book-keeping, drawing, <£c, as may be 
deemed best. A High School thus becomes an essential part 
of a graded school system. 



94 



xin. CONCLUSION. 

There are many other topics pertaining to the common 
schools of Connecticut, on which it might be profitable to 
dwell, but I refrain from introducing them at the present time, 
in the hope that by concentrating the attention of the public 
on a few important subjects more progress may be made than 
by urging forward too many measures at once. If we can 
secure a good local administration of the schools, promote the 
establishment of Public High Schools or endowed Academics, 
and secure the instruction of children employed in factories, 
and of those who are neglected by their natural guardians, 
other reforms will quickly follow, and the State will resume 
its former leadership in public education. "We need especially 
to promote the feeling that all kinds of seminaries and all 
classes of educators are laboring for one object, and we must 
endeavor to adjust the system so that the work will be done in 
the wisest and most successful manner. 

Popular meetings in the several towns, frequent lectures, 
conventions of the friends of education, conferences of school 
visitors and committees, newspaper paragraphs, printed reports 
and pamphlets, are agencies which should be freely employed 
to awaken public opinion and secure the popular support. 
Already there are several local associations organized for the 
purpose of promoting the interests of public education. One 
of the most efficient of these — the Association of Teachers in 
Windham County — has exerted a very decided influence upon 
the schools, and the value of its operations is clearly exhibited 
in the official returns from that county, which as a whole are 
more full and more carefully prepared than those of any other 
county in the State. 

One school visitor makes the following suggestion : 

"I wish there might be a State Convention of School Visitors and 
Committees, for the purpose of discussing these great questions. Why 
not bave such a convention soon, during the session of the Legislature? 
The large villages and cities are able to do for their schools what the 
country towns can not do. I think a convention of those more di- 
rectly interested and responsible would be a grand thing. We have 
had teachers' institutes, &c; we want a convention of school visitors, 
school committees, and parents." 



95 

I hope before long to announce that the Board of Education 
has established a public office in some accessible place, (per- 
haps near the other State offices in Hartford,) where informa- 
tion on all school topics may be advantageously sought. In 
such a bureau there should be kept all the educational archives 
of the State — manuscript and printed — series of state and 
town reports ; in short, all the statistical information respecting 
schools which can now and hereafter be brought together. 
The official blanks and returns should be distributed from and 
returned to this office. Names of teachers seeking employ- 
ment, and applications for teachers, should be carefully recorded. 
The plans, working drawings, and specifications of all new 
school-houses should be deposited here for the benefit of all 
who are proposing to build. Examples of the most approved 
desks, chairs, and other furniture, should be solicited from the 
manufacturers and placed here on deposit. Maps, globes, di- 
agrams, and apparatus, would naturally be accumulated. 
There should also be sets of school books and educational 
journals, and gradually a library would be formed of books 
illustrative of the history and principles and methods of edu- 
cation. Such a bureau would receive, I am confident, gener- 
ous donations, and would at once become a popular and at- 
tractive rallying point for the friends of education all over the 
State. 

I can not close this report without acknowledging the obli- 
gations I am under to my predecessors in the office of Super- 
intendent of Schools — Mr. Barnard, Mr. Philbrick, and Mr. 
Camp — all of whom I have had repeated occasion to consult 
during the past few months ; and especially I desire to bear 
testimony to the uniform kindness of Mr. Camp in all our of- 
ficial intercourse. His laborious services in behalf of the 
State will long be remembered, and his efforts to promote 
whatever is good and useful deserve a grateful recognition. 

It is also but proper that I should mention that in the prep- 
aration of the numerous statistical tables embodied in and ap- 
pended to this report, I have been aided by Rev. John G. 
Baird, now of New Haven, who has spared no pains to secure 
the utmost accuracy. It will be seen that an attempt has been 



06 

made to calculate averages and per centages, and to institute 
comparisons, in order that the true significance of the figures 
may be readily discovered. Such tables as are here given bave 
been found in other States quickening and stimulating to the 
several towns, and it is hoped that their publication in Con- 
necticut will contribute to like results. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

DANIEL C. OILMAN. 

New Haven, April 27th, I860. 



APPENDIX. 



A. 



MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS. 

1. PAPERS DISTRIBUTED BY THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, 
DURING THE PAST YEAR. 

1. Introductory Circular, Nov. 16, 1865. 

2. Inquiries respecting the Normal School, Dec. 4, 1865. 

3. Announcement respecting School Registers, Webster's Dictiona- 
ary, School Laws, etc., Feb. 15, 1866. 

4. Inquiries respecting consolidation of Districts, High Schools, and 
Neglected Children, March 20, 1866. 

5. Blanks for the Annual returns for District Committees, (on a 
new plan.) 

6. Blanks for the annual returns of Acting School Vistors. 

7. School Register, — designed especially for use in country district 
schools. 

8. Revised School Laws. 32 pp. 8vo. (reprinted from the Revised 
Statutes of 1866.) 

The above mentioned papers may be obtained on application by 
mail or in person to the Secretary of the Board at New Haven, or to 
the Principal of the Normal School at New Britain. 

The Registers are sold at the lowest possible prices, 50 cts. per 
copy or $6.00 per dozen, — delivered in New Haven. They may be 
ordered through booksellers. 

The School Laws are distributed gratuitously to school officers. 

2. PRINTED SCHOOL REPORTS. 

It is very desirable that those towns and districts which print their 
annual school reports should exchange them with one another, and 
should send them to the Secretary of the State Board. For conven- 
ience of binding, — it is suggested that when pamphlets are printed, 
the size of the State report be adopted. 

During the past year printed reports have been received by the 
Secretary, from the following places ; 

Berlin, Hartford, Killingly, Meriden, Middletown City District, 
New Britain, New Haven City District, New London, Norwich (news- 
paper,) Preston, Vernon (newspaper,) "Waterbury (newspaper,) Wind- 
ham (newspaper,) Woodstock. 

The Secretary will be grateful to all who will call his attention to 
any printed references to the school affairs of the State. 



100 

3. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN SCHOOLS. 

The following decision, rendered by Judge E. I. Sanford of New 
Haven, in the case of Mr. Lewis, who was prosecuted for assault and 
battery in the punishment of a pupil of bis school, will be read with 
interest : 

State v. John G. Lewis, City Court, New Haven. This is a 
prosecution brought by the State against John G. Lewis, principal of 
one of the public schools in New Haven, charging him with an assault 

and battery on one H a pupil in the school, on the 21st day of 

July last. 

As reference has been made by the counsel to the law applicable 
to cases of this character, it may be well to consider for a moment 
what the legal rights and powers of a schoolmaster are, in respect to 
the infliction of punishment, when, in his judgment, the same is nec- 
essary, to prevent the repetition of an offence, on the part of the 
pupil, or for the support of good government and proper discipline 
in the school. I say in his judgment, because from the nature of the 
case the master alone can determine whether punishment is necessary. 
Says Judge Blackstone : " The master is in loco parentis, and has 
such a portion of the powers of the parent committed to his charge as 
may be necessary to answer the purposes for which he is employed." 

The right to inflict punishment, for proper causes, belongs to the 
master, the law having clothed him with that authority ; and the 
question is simply in what form, and to what extent, it may be ad- 
ministered by him. 

Judge Swift, remarking upon this subject, says; "A schoolmaster 
has a right to inflict moderate corporal punishment upon his scholars, 
for this is necessary for the support of good government in his school ; 
but he should reserve this as a last resort, when all other measures 
fail. He should avoid all unnecessary severity, or extreme cruelty. 
If all gentle and moderate measures fail, the master is vested with 
the power of inflicting corporal punishment. This should be done 
with coolness and deliberation, not in the heat of passion, and with a 
suitable instrument ; the blows should be inflicted, not on the head, 
but on those parts of the body where there is no danger of material 
injury and with a moderation or serverity proportioned to the nature of 
the offence, and the stubbornness of the offender." 1 Swift, Dig., 63. 

The Supreme Court of Massachusetts has held, that "if in inflict- 
ing punishment upon his pupils the master goes beyond the limit of 
moderate castigation, and either in the degree or mode of correction 
is guilty of any unreasonable or disproportioned violence or force, he 
is clearly liable for such excess in a criminal prosecution." 4 Gray's 
R., 36. 

In North Carolina, it has been held that " a teacher will not be 
held responsible, unless the punishment be such as to occasion per- 
manent injury to the child, or be inflicted merely to gratify his own 
evil passions." 2 Dev. and Bae., 365. 

This is the only case in which the court undertakes to define what 
excessive punishment is, namely, " such as to occasion permanent in- 



101 

jury to the child," and is not in this regard, sustained by the more 
modern authorities. I refer to but a single decision further, and I 
quote somewhat at length. In the case of Lander v. Seaver, 32 
Vermont, 124, the court used this language: " In determining what 
is a reasonable punishment, various considerations must be regarded, 
the nature of the offence, the apparent motive and disposition of the 
offender, the influence of his example and conduct upon others, and 
the sex, age, size and strength of the pupil to be punished. Among 
reasonable persons much difference prevails as to the circumstances 
which will justify the infliction of punishment, and the extent to 
which it may properly be administered. On account of this differ- 
ence of opinion, and the difficulty which exists in determining what 
is a reasonable punishment, and the advantage which the master has 
by being on the spot, to know all the circumstances, the manner, look, 
tone, gestures, and language of the offender, (which are not always 
easily described.) and thus to form a correct opinion as to the neces- 
' sity and extent of the punishment, considerable allowance should be 
made to the teacher by way of protecting him in the exercise of his 
discretion. Especially should he have this indulgence when he ap- 
pears to have acted from good motives, and not from anger or malice. 
Hence the teacher is not to be held liable on the ground of excess of 
punishment, unless the punishment is clearly excessive, and would be 
held so in the general judgment of reasonable men. If the punish- 
ment is thus clearly excessive, then the master should be held liable 
for such excess, though he acted from good motives in inflicting the 
punishment, and in his own judgment considered it necessary and not 
excessive. But if there is any reasonable doubt whether the punish- 
ment was excessive, the master should have the benefit of the doubt." 
I think, therefore, the following may safely be adopted as the rule: 
that while the master, to a certain extent, and for certain purposes, 
stands in loco parentis, and has for sufficient cause, the right to inflict 
reasonable corporal punishment, while the pupil is under his charge, 
he must exercise a reasonable judgment and sound discretion in de- 
termining when to punish, and to what extent, but the punishment 
must not be excessive or cruel, nor inflicted for the purpose of grati- 
fying private malice or his own evil passions. 

Punishments may be severe, yet entirely reasonable ; and on the 
other hand, even moderate punishments may, under certain circum- 
stances, be unreasonable ; but excessive and cruel punishments are not 
only unreasonable, but unlawful, and for their infliction the master 
may be held criminally responsible. Whether the punishment is ex- 
cessive or cruel is a question of fact to be determined in each particu- 
lar case that may arise. In the case now under consideration if I 

could find from the evidence that the injuries upon H were caused 

by the accused in the manner and under the circumstances detailed 
by the boy himself, I should have no hesitation in saying that the 
punishment was excessive and cruel, and that the master had made 
himself criminally liable. 

But what are the facts as established by the testimony ? On the 
21st of July last, and during the regular school hours, Mr. Lewis, as 



102 

a punishment for some supposed misdemeanor on the part of young 

H directed him to take his book and go into the recitation room. 

The order was reluctantly obeyed. At the closing of the school, but 
before the pupils had retired, he came out of the room without per- 
mission, and was immediately ordered back by the teacher. The or- 
der was several times repeated, and II — r- repeatedly refused to 
obey. Seizing two or three brushes, which were lying near by, with 
oaths and language most foul, and threats of violence if the teacher 
approached him, lie dared him to come on and all this in the presence 

of a large number of the scholars. H is a boy of fourteen years 

of age, of fair size for his years, and it would seem possessed of more 
than ordinary strength. It is clear, that under all the circumstances, 
there was but one course for the teacher to pursue. It was necessary 
for the good of the school, as well as of the boy himself, that he should 
learn obedience and submission to that authority. For the milder of- 
fence a mild punishment had been inflicted by sending him to the rec- 
itation room to study by himself. For the more serious offences, the 
insults to the teacher, the refusal to obey a proper command, the vulgar 
and profane language, the threats to kill the teacher if he should at- 
tempt to whip him, it was manifestly fitting and proper that he should 
receive a severe punishment. Mr. Lewis now approached the boy, 
who endeavored to strike him with the brushes. A struggle ensued, in 
which the teacher, nothwithstanding the violent resistance of the pupil, 
succeeded in pushing him into the recitation room ; but I do not find 
that he used more force than was necessary to accomplish this object. 
It was during this struggle that the boy received the injuries about the 
head and face, though I have no reason to believe that they were the 
result of blows directly inflicted by the accused. However this may 
be, the teacher was in the performance of his duty, the boy was mak- 
ing unlawful resistance; and I apprehend the law to be, that if the 
pupil receive an injury while making unlawful resistance to the mas- 
ter, who is using no more force than is necessary to enforce obedience 
to a lawful command, or to accomplish a lawful purpose, the injury 
thus received is not the punishment for the excess or cruelty of which 
the master may be held criminally liable. 

The boy testifies that he was struck on the head with the butt end 
of a horsewhip. The fact is, no such instrument was used. He 
swears, too, that he was knocked down, and afterwards lifted by his 
feet, and his head thrown against the iron support of a chair. This 
story is not only improbable, but its falsity is abundantly established 
by the testimony of other witnesses, teachers as well as pupils. He 
states that he made use of no improper language. On the contrary 
it appears that he was exceedingly profane and indecent in his re- 
marks ; and on other material points he is so clearly in error, that I 
am compelled to take his whole statement with much allowance. 

The boy was whipped by Mr. Lewis, after getting him into the rec- 
itation room, but I do not find that the whipping was either cruel or 
excessive, and though severe, taking into consideration all the circum- 
stances under which it was inflicted, it was not in my judgment un- 
reasonable, but entirely justifiable. 

The accused is therefore discharged. 



103 



4. DECIMAL SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

The General Assembly in June, 1864, recommended to the school 
officers of the State that what is known as the "Decimal System of 
Weights and Measures," should be taught in the common schools. 

The increasing importance of this system may be seen from the 
following statement, prepared by Professor Newton of New Haven, 
who has taken a deep interest in diffusing information on the subject. 

1. The Metrical system of Weights and Measures is in exclusive 
use in France, Holland, and Belgium. Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, 
Mexico, and most, if not all, of the South American States, have 
adopted it. In some of these countries, however, its use by the people 
is not compulsory. Parliament has legalised its use in the United 
Kingdom. Austria, Prussia, and the other German States have 
signed a convention agreeing to adopt systems of which the metre is 
the base. There is reason to believe that Russia, Sweden, and Den- 
mark will follow the example of the other European States. 

2. In almost every department of science these weights and meas- 
ures are sometimes employed, while in some departments all others 
are obsolete. 

3. The terms of the system are gradually becoming more common, 
and will doubless at no distant day be met with in popular journals. 

4. Preliminary steps have been taken by two different branches of 
the United States Government looking to the possible adoption in this 
country of this, or a similar system, in place of the incongruous weights 
and measures in use. In case of such an adoption by the Government, 
the necessary inconvenience attending the change by the people will 
be very largely diminished, if the Metrical system shall have been 
previously taught in the schools. 

These tables, it is hoped, will soon be found in all our arithmetics. 
Meanwhile any teacher desirous of teaching the system, can receive 
on application to the Secretary of the Board of Education, a few 
printed pages in which the principles, the tables and a few illustrative 
examples are given. 



P. S. (May 21, 1866.) The lower House in Congress has already 
passed a bill making it lawful throughout the United States to employ 
the weights and measures of the metric system. The bill has yet to 
pass the Senate before it will become a law. 



104 



5. TEACHERS' INSTITUTES AT PORTLAND AND SHARON. 
The following Report was received from Prof. Camp after the main 
portion of this document had gone to press. 

To Prof. D. C. Gilman, Sec. Board of Education : 

Dear Sir, — The Institutes for Middlesex and Litchfield Counties 
were under my immediate supervision, and were held in accordance 
with the direction of the Board of Education. 

That for Middlesex County was held in Portland the last week in 
August. This was evidently too early to secure a general attendance 
but the Institute was appointed at that time in hopes of meeting the 
wants of a class of teachers engaged in yearly schools, whose services 
would be required in their own schools early in September. There 
were several of this class present not only from Middlesex county, but 
also from Hartford and New Haven counties, but the aggregate at- 
tendance was less than usual in this county, about thirty in all. Prof. 
J. N. Bartlett of New Britain, Prof. Hibbard of Hartford, and Mr. 
H. E. Sawyer, Principal of the High School, Middletown, rendered 
valuable assistance in the exercises of the Institute. Lectures or ad- 
dresses were given by J. Cummings, D. D., President of Wesleyan 
University, by Prof. Thacher of the Board of Education, by the Sec- 
retary of the Board, by Dr. E. W. Hatch, Superintendent of the 
Reform School, and by several of the gentlemen engaged in the daily 
instruction. 

The Institute for Litchfield Co. was held the first week in Septem- 
ber at Sharon. This place is in the extreme western part of the 
county and not easily accessible by public conveyance from the eastern 
part of the county. There was however a good number of teachers 
present, and the Institute was also attended by a large number of cit- 
izens who appeared to be interested in the questions discussed and in 
the general and special exercises of the day sessions. 

Prof. Bartlett, Prof. Holcomb, and Chas. Northend, Esq., of New 
Britain, Prof. Hibbard of Hartford, and N. A. Calkins, Esq., one of 
the Assistant Superintendents of Schools, New York City, rendered 
efficient service by their various lessons and lectures. The presence 
of gentlemen interested in education in other States also contributed 
to the interest and value of this Institute. 

DAVID N. CAMP. 



105 



6. SCHOOL LIBRARIES. 



The following towns report the annexed amounts as contributed fo 
school libraries during the year ending August 31st, 1865. 



Berlin, - 


- $10.00 


Milford, - ' - 


- $20.00 


Bethany, - 


20.00 


Morris, - 


- 34.25 


Bridgeport, - 


- 25.00 


New Hartford, - 


54.80 


Brooklyn, - 


10.50 


New London, 


- 28.22 


Canton, 


- 6.00 


New Milford, 


30.00 


Cheshire, - 


28.00 


North Haven, 


- 30.00 


Colebrook, - 


- 9.61 


Norwich, - 


21.02 


Danbury, - 


5.00 


Plymouth, 


- 15.00 


Derby, - 


- 33.65 


Seymour, - 


46.87 


East Haven, 


21.32 


Sprague, 


- 20.00 


East Lyme, - 


- 76.00 


Stafford, - 


19.00 


East Windsor, - 


25.00 


Stamford, 


- 20.00 


Farmington, - 


- 19.28 


Suffield, - 


20.00 


Glastenbury, 


5.00 


Torrington, - 


- 35.00 


Hamden, 


- 10.00 


Vernon, 


- 101.50 


Huntington, 


10:00 


Wallingford, - 


- 10.00 


Killingworth, 


- 51.00 


Wethersfield, 


55.00 


Litchfield, - 


30.00 


Windham, 


- 79.62 


Manchester, - 


- 16.50 







Meriden, - 


- 165.00 


Total, 


- $1,242.14 


Middletown, - 


- 25.00 







Library certificates have been issued as follows for the year between 
March 31st, 1865, and March 31st, 1866. 



First Installment, $10. 



Town. 
Avon, 
Berlin, 
Cheshire, 
Cromwell, 
Danbury, 
East Hartford, 
East Windsor, 
Enfield, 
Franklin, 
Killingworth, 
Middletown, 
New Canaan, 
New Hartford, 
Putnam, 
Simsbury, 
Southington, 
Waterford, 



District. 

1st & 4th. 

6th. 

8th & 11th. 

South. 

Mill Plain. 

Hockanum. 

5th. 

2d, 6th & 9th. 

3d. 

South West. 

South Farms. 

3d. 

Pine Meadow. 

7th. 

Tariffville. 

8th. 

11th. 



Town. District. 

Wethersfield, 2d, 4th & 6th. 

Willington, 2d & 8th. 

Windsor Locks, North. 

27 districts. 

Second Installment, $5. 



Avon, 

Barkhamsted, 

Berlin, 

Bethany, 

Bristol, 

Danbury, 

East Hartford, 

Derby, 

Naugatuck, 

Portland, 

Southington, 

Waterbury, 



2d & 3d. 

Pleasant Valley. 

3d & 4th. 

Beacon FalU. 

3d. 

Boggs. 

North. 

2d. 

Union City. 

3d. 

2d. 

Hopeville. 



106 



Town. 


District. 


Town. 


District. 


Windham, 


2d. 


Sixth Installment, $5. 


Windsor Locks, 


South. 


East Haven, 


4th. 


16 districts. 


Enfield, 


13th. 






Madison, 


3d. 


Third Installment, $5. 


Morris, 


3d. 


Bristol, 


3d. 


New Britain, 


4th. 


Danbury, 


Great Plain. 


New Hartford, 


Town Hill. 


Farmington, 


Middle. 


North Haven, 


2d. 


Meriden, 


Railroad. 


Simsbury, 


East Weatogue. 


New Milford, 


10th. 


Vernon, 


Rockville East. 


Sprague, 


3d. 


9 districts. 


*Tolland, 


7th & 9th. 







Torrington, (Torringford,) 

■■■■■■ North, Centre, and South. 
Wethersfield, 3d. 

Windsor, 2d. 

12 districts. 

Fourth Installment, $5. 
Clinton, Cow Hill. 

Farmington, Unionville. 

Hamden, 10th 

Meriden, Hanover, North Centre, 
Norwich, Central. 

Wallingford, 2d. 

7 districts. 

Fifth Installment, $5. 

Cheshire, 1st. 

Coventry, 9th. 

Hartford, West Middle. 

3 districts. 



Seventh Installment, $5. 
Waterbury, Centre. 

Eighth Installment, $5. 
Hamden, 8th. 

New London, 2d. 

2 districts. 

Ninth Installment, $5. 
Hartland, (West,) Centre. 

Madison, 4th. 

Suffield, South East. 

3 districts. 

Tenth Installment, $5. 
Bridgeport, Bridgeport. 



7th and 9th united as one district. 



107 



7. SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL AT NEW HAVEN. 

As the State has made provision for the gratuitous instruction of a 
number of young men in the Sheffield Scientific School, the following 
announcement is made respecting the terms of admission: 

I. By appropriating to the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College 
the income of certain funds derived from the sale of United States 
lands, the State of Connecticut has provided for the gratuitous instruc- 
tion of a number of pupils in the various departments of the school. 

II. The persons to receive this free tuition are to be selected from 
the candidates who offer themselves, by an Appointing Board, consist- 
ing of the Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor, the three senior Sena- 
tors, the Superintendent of Common Schools, and the Secretary of the 
Sheffield Scientific School. 

III. This privilege of free instruction must be assigned in accord- 
ance with the following principles, viz.: 

1. The candidates for appointment must be citizens of this State. 

2. Preference will be given to such as are "fitting themselves for 
agricultural and mechanical or manufacturing occupations, who are or 
shall become orphans through the death of a parent in the naval or 
military service of the United States, and next to them to such as are 
most in need of pecuniary assistance." 

3. The appointments must be distributed as far as practicable among 
the several counties of the State in proportion to their population. 

IV. Candidates nominated by the Appointing Board are to be ad- 
mitted to the school "upon the same terms and are to be subject to the 
same rules and discipline as the other pupils of the school, with the 
single exception that they shall not pay any thing for their instruction." 

V. The Appointing Board will meet in New Haven on Tuesday, 
July 24th, 18G6, and also on Wednesday, September 12th, 18C6. 
Persons desiring to avail themselves of the bounty of the State may 
apply in writing, previous to the meeting of the Board, to the Secretary, 
who will furnish a printed form of application, to be filled up by each 
candidate, and will present all applications to the Board for their 
decision. 

Further information respecting the course of study, the opening of 
the terms, etc., may be obtained on application by letter or otherwise 
to the Secretary of the school, Professor George J. Brush, New 
Haven. 



108 
CONNECTICUT NORMAL SCHOOL AT NEW BRITAIN. 

The Normal School at New Britain is under the direction of the 
Board of Education of the State, and is designed to prepare young 
men and young women to be teachers in the common schools of Con- 
necticut. 

Terms of Admission. 
The law prescribes the following formalities for admission : 

The number of pupils shall not exceed two hundred and twenty. 
The secretary of the board of education shall request the board of 
school visitors, in each town, to forward to him, annually, the name9 
of four persons, two of each sex, for admission to said school, whom 
said board after examination, can recommend as suitable persons, by 
their age, character, talents, and attainments, to be received as pupils 
in said school. Said board shall forward to said secretary the names 
of such applicants, as they shall find possessed of the qualifications, 
required of teachers of common schools, and such as they shall rec- 
ommend for admission to said normal school, after first having received 
from said applicants a written declaration, signed with their own hands, 
that their object in seeking admission to the school is, to become qual- 
ified to teach in common schools, and that it is their intention to en- 
gage in that employment in this state. 

Said board shall select, by lot, from the whole number of applicants 
from each county, the proportion of pupils to which such county is 
entitled by its population, of each sex an equal number; but not more 
than one pupil shall be admitted from any town, until each town, from 
which an application is made, shall have a pupil in the school. Said 
board may make all needful regulations for the examination of all 
candidates for admission to said school, and may approve, or reject, 
such persons, as may have been recommended by the school visitors 
in their respective towns. The secretary of the board shall forward 
to each pupil, appointed by the board, a certificate of such appoint- 
ment, and shall return a list of the pupils, so appointed, to the princi- 
pal of the school. If there shall not be a sufficient number of appli- 
cants, from a county, to fill the number of appointments allowed to 
such county, said board shall fill the vaeancy, by lot, from the whole 
number of remaining applicants. To all pupils so admitted to the 
school, the tuition, and all the privileges of the school, shall be gra- 
tuitous. 

It has been found that the number of pupils does not come up to the 
number allowed by law, and consequently there has been no difficulty 
in admitting more than one scholar from a town. 



109 

Scholars are received only at the beginning of a term, and on pre- 
senting themselves at the school as candidates for admission, are ex- 
amined in Arithmetic, English Grammar, Geography, Reading, and 
Spelling. 

Terms and Vacations. 

There are three Terms in each year. The first, or Autumn Term, 
commences on the third Tuesday of September, and continues till the 
last school-day before the 25th of December. 

The second, or Winter Term, commences on the second day of Jan- 
uary, and continues till the last Thursday in March. 

The third, or Spring Term, commences on the third Tuesday in 
April, and continues till the last Thursday but one in July. 

The anniversary exercises at the close of the school year will take 
place at New Britain, Thursday, July 19, 1866. The examinations, 
etc., will be held on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday previous. 

During the summer term of 1866, the School will be under the 
charge of Isaac N. Carlton, M. A., and John N. Bartlett. In the 
autumn term, the School will be under the direction of Charles 0. 
Thompson, M. A., now of West Cambridge, Mass. 



110 



1. HISTORICAL TABLES. 



As the Board of Trustees has now given place to the State Board 
of Education, the following particulars in respect to the past work of 
the school should he placed on record for the convenience of future 
reference. The services of all the gentlemen who have heen Trustees 
have been rendered gratuitously. The President of the Board, Hon. 
Francis Gillette, and those who have been for a long period associated 
with him, have labored arduously, efficiently, and unselfishly, to pro- 
mote the education of the State, and their services are deserving of 
lasting remembrance. Besides Mr. Gillette, each of the following 
gentlemen has served the State in this capacity for more than ten 
years, viz.: Hon. R. Averill, Hon. H. P. Haven, Hon. J. F. Babcock, 
Dr. J. G. Beckwith, Hon. A. Hall, Rev. H. S. Ramsdell, and Hon. 
John S. Yeomans. 



Trustees of the Normal School from 1849 to 1865. 



Name. 


County. 


Residence. 


Ap. 


Ret 


How Retired. 


Francis Gillette, 


Hartford, 


1 BloomfiemV 
\ Hartford, | 1849 
North Haven,1849 


1865 


Term expired. 


Oswin II. Doolittle, 


New Haven, 


1851 


Died in office. 


Asn Fish, 


New London, 


Stonington, '1849 


Is 50 


Term expired. 


Eli T. Hoyt, 


Fairfield, 


Dan bury, 


1849 


1850 


Term expired. 


John D. Baldwin, 


Windham, 


Killingly, 
Litchfield, 


1849 


1 850 Kemov'd & resign M. 


Francis Bacon, 


Litchfield, 


1849 


1849 Died in office. 


Ezra S. Williams, 


Middlesex, 


Deep River, 


ism 


1852 


Term expired. 


Loren P. Waldo, 


Tolland, 


Tolland, 


1 Si'.l 


18.V! 


Term expired. 


Charles Osgood, 


New London, 


Norwich, 


1850 


18.-) 2 


Resigned. 


Roger Averill, 


Fairfield, 


Danbury, 


1850 


1858 


Term expired. 




" 


" 


1862 


1865 


Board discontinued. 


He/.ekiah S Ramsdell, 


Windham, 


Thompson, 


1850 


1862 


Term expired. 


Seth P. Beers, 


Litchfield, 


Litchfield, 


1850 


1853 


Term expired. 


E. B. Huntington, 


New Haven, 


Waterbury, 


1852 


is;,", 


Remov'd & resign'd. 


William I). Shipman, 


Middlesex, 


East Haddam 1852 


1854 


Resigned. 


Henry P. Haven, 


New London, 


New London, 1852 


1802 


Term expired. 




" " 


" " 


1 si;:; 


1865 


Board discontinued. 


Josiah G. Beckwith, 


Litchfield, 


Litchfield, 


18! 53 


1 805 


Term expired. 


John S. Yeomans, 


Tolland, 


Columbia, 


1853 


1865 


Board discontinued. 


Alfred Hall, 


Middlesex, 


Portland, 


1 S5 t 


18G4 


Term expirW. 


James F. Babcock, 


New Haven, 


New Haven, 1855 


1865 


Board di<continued. 


William T. Minor, 


Fairfield, 


Stamford, 


ls;,s 


1862 


Term expired. 


Stiles Stanton, 


New London, 


Stonington, 


1862 


1862 


Declined to serve. 


Lewis Williams, 


Windham, 


I'omfret, 


1862 


1865 


Board discontinued. 


William 0. Fowler, 


Mi dlesex, 


Durham, 


1864 


IS65 


Board discontinued. 


*Elislu Carpenter, 


[artfbrd, 


Wethersfield, 


1865 


1865 


Board discontinued. 


*Georrre M Woodruff, 


Litchfield, 


Litchfield, 


ISf,.-| ISO.") 


Board discontinued. 




* The two lust 


Darned did not t 


en a 







Ill 









President. 




Appointed 


Resigned. 




1849. 


Francis Gillette, 1865. 
Secretaries. 




1850. 


Henry Barnard, 1855. 




1855. 


John D. Philbrick, 1857. 




1857. 


David N. Camp, 1865. 
Principals. 




1849. 


Henry Barnard, 1855. 




1855. 


John D. Philbrick, 1857. 




1857. 


David N. Camp, 1866. 
Associate Principals. 


Begun ' 


Name. 


Left. 


Branches taught. 


April, 




Nov. 30th, 




1850, 


r. D. P. Stone, 


1852, 




Dec, 




Jan., 




1852, 


John D. Philbrick, 


1855, 




Jan., 




Jan., 




1855, 


David N. Camp, 


1857, 


Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Moral 


Jan., 




August, 


Philosophy, and Geography. 


1857, 


Charles F. Dowd, 


1858, 


Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and 


Aug., 




August, 


Moral Philosophy. 
Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and 


1858, 


Henry B. Buckham, 


1864, 


An-., 






Moral Philosophy. 


1864, 


John N. Bartlett, 




English Language and Literature, aft Nat- 
ural Philosophy. 


Assistant Teachers. 


Begun 


Name. 


Left. 


Branches taught, etc. 


1850, 


John A. Guion, 




1850, 


(Transferred to High School.) 


1850, 


David N. Camp, 
Jane A. Bartholome 




1855, 


(Appointed Associate Principal.) 


1852, 


w, 


1864, 


Geography and History, etc. 


1850, 


Nelson A. Moore, 




1852, 


Drawing. 


1852, 


A. Julius Busch, 




1857, 


Drawing. 


1853, 


B. N. Comings, 




1866, 


Physiology, Chemistry, Natural History. 


1854, 


M. Josephine Wood 




1855, 


Instrumental Music. 


1855, 


J. M. Potter, 




1859, 


Vocal Music. 


1855, 


Cordelia T. Hough, 




1857, 


Instrumental Music. 


1855, 


Levi W. Hart, 




1856, 


Latin, Arithmetic, and History. 


1856, 


George Sherman, 




1856, 


( Latin, Arithmetic, and History, afterwards 


1856, 


Henry B. Buckham 




1858, I Ancient and Modern Languages, Rhet- 
| ( oric, etc., (became Associate Principal.) 


1857, 


Louis Bail, 






Drawing. 


1857, 


Elizabeth M. Wrigl 


t, 


1859, 


Instrumental Music. 


1858, 


! Samuel H. Lee, 




1860, 


Latin, Arithmetic, and Reading. 


1859, 


,C S W. Huntington, 






Instrumental and Vocal Music. 


1861, 


Erastus Ripley, 
Ralph G. Hibbard, 




1865, 


Latin, Arithmetic, and Reading. 


1861, 




1865, 


Reading. 


1861, 


W. B. Thompson, 




1864, 


Vocal Music. 


1864, 


Harriet N. Marshal 


, 


1866, 


Geography and History. 


1865, 


C. Holcomb, 




1866, 


Mathematics and Latin. 



112 



Prof. Camp's Letter of Resignation. 

To the State Board of Education : 

Gentlemen, — I hereby tender to you my resignation of the office 
of Principal of the State Normal School, — to take effect four weeks 
from date, or sooner if agreeable to the Board. 

In dissolving my connection with an institution with which I have 
been identified for sixteen years, I can not well forget the hopes and 
trials I have had in it, nor the kindly sympathy I have received from 
its friends. I assure you that I shall ever take a deep interest in the 
Connecticut Normal School, and I hope that it may ever be prosper- 
ous under your watchful care and guidance. 

I take this opportunity to thank the members of the Board for the 
kindness I have received from their hands, and for the sympathy and 
cooperation which I had from some of them in other relations, before 
the present organization. 

DAVID N. CAMP. 

New Britain, March 19th, 1866. 



113 



Number of Pupils and Graduates of the Connecticut Normal 
School from its establishment to 1865. 

The following figures have been collected from the printed 
Catalogues of the institution and from the report of the 
Alumni association. 



Years. 


Senior. 
M. F. 


&<J£LUJb 

Middle. 
M. F. 


Junior. 
M. F. 




Total. 


Total since 
1850. 


1850-51, 
















154 


154 


1851—2, 


















336 


1852—3, 


















519 


1853—4, 
















238 




1854—5, 


13 


36 


31 


56 


50 


108 




294 


867 


1855—6, 


20 


36 


44 


80 


60 


119 




359 


1,132 


1856—7, 


22 


25 


40 


49 


60 


91 




287 


1,274 


1857—8, 


17 


20 


19 


70 


41 


102 




269 


1,442 


1858—9, 


19 


13 


16 


51 


58 


109 




266 


1,628 


1859-60, 


14 


27 


20 


35 


39 


93 




228 


1,745 


1860-61, 


16 


21 


18 


35 


15 


59 




164 


1,848 


1861—2, 


13 


14 


23 


33 


32 


60 




175 


1,941 


1862—3, 


12 


19 


12 


35 


17 


73 




168 


2,035 


1863—4, 


10 


29 


10 


39 


4 


98 




190 


2,145 


1864—5, 


5 


26 


9 


43 


4 


52 




139 


2,218 








GRADUATES. 










Tears. Males. 


Females 


i. Total. 


Years. 


Males 


. Females. Total. 


1851, 


3 


2 


5 




1859, 




6 


11 


17 


1852, 


2 





2 




1860, 




6 


13 


19 


1853, 


8 


7 


15 




1861, 




5 


7 


12 


1854, 


3 


16 


19 




1862, 




6 


5 


11 


1855, 


10 


19 


29 




1863, 




6 


13 


19 


1856, 


12 


12 


24 




1864, 




2 


13 


15 


1857, 


7 


10 


17 




1865, 




3 


9 


12 


1858, 


7 


3 


10 















SUMMARY, JULY, 1865. 

Whole number of scholars, 

Number of graduates, Males, 



Females, 140- 



Grrfduates deceased, ... 

" reported teaching in Connecticut, 
" " " elsewhere, 

- 8 



2,218 

226 
11 
99 
24 



114 

THE YEAR 1865. 

[This list is taken from a Catalogue of the school, recently prepared 
by Mrs. Jane A. Porter, Secretary of the "Association of A umm of 
the State Normal School." Many other pupi s (not *■£*">« 
teaching in Connecticut, and many of the graduates ™ **»*J 
other States. The places mentioned are the towns m which the grad 
uates were engaged last year.] 

Class of 1851. 
Leverett L. Camp, New Haven. 
Jane S. Olmsted, East Hartford.— 2. 

Class of 1853. 
Maria E. Bassette, Watertown. 
Mary J. Camp, Durham Center. — 2. 

Class of 1854. 
Emeline Harrison, New Haven. 
Elizabeth R. Havens, Wethersfield. 
Ellen M. Sprague, Andover. 
Emily A. Thayer, New Milford.— 4. 

Class of 1855. 
John F. Peck, West Winsted. 
Thomas K. Peck, Lord's Bridge. 
Martha M. Baird, Stamford. 
Jane D. Baldwin, New Britain. 
Abby E. Henry, Hartford. 
Harriet N. Marshall, New Britain. 
Sara A. Morse, New Haven. 
Emeline E. Rose, West Suffield. 
Maria L. Sanford, New Haven.— 9. 

Class of 1856. 

George Fillow, Hartford. 
John G. Lewis, New Haven. 
John H. Peck, New Britain. 
Asa Perkins, Groton. 
Marcus L. Tryon, Tolland. 
Amos A. White, Westford. 
Edwin Whitney, North Mansfield. 
Charles H. Wright, Birmingham. 
Betsey C Blakeman, New Haven. 
Esther Henry, Hartford. 
Marietta W. Hull, Clinton. 
Almira Lovell, Stamford. 
N. Louise Wakelee, Hartford.— id. 



115 

Class of 1857. 
Lewi* A. Camp. Morris. 
Frederic B. Smith, New London. 

Maria A. Butler. (Mrs. "William L. Bixby,) Greenwich. 
Phebe Selleck, Bedding.— 4. 

Class of 1858. 
Anna A. Carter, Bridgewater. 
Sarah H. Chamberlin, New Haven. — 2. 

•Class of 1859. 
Elizabeth Baldwin, Milford. 
Mary H. Clements, New Britain. 
Mrs. Electa M. Herrick, Fair Haven. 
C. Elizabeth Jones, Deep River. 
M. Virginia Smith, Ansonia. — 5. 

Class of 1860. 
Charles S. Dudley, Westville. 
John S. Gaffney, Bridgeport. 
Calvin B. McLean, Bridgeport. 
Sarah F. Aiken, Winnipauk. 
Anna A. Baird, Milford. 
Harriet N. Bartholomew, Granby. 
Mary L. Catlin, Harwinton. 
Julia A. Clarke, Hartford. 
Esther C. Perry, Hartford. 
Ellen E. Southworth, Mansfield Center. — 10 

Class of 1861. 
William Henry Dyer, Naugatuck. 
Horace W. Hubbard, Cromwell. 
Edwin B. Paddock, Wolcottville. 
Elias F. Sanford, Portland. 
Augusta L. Curtis, Hartford. 
Laura G. Lovell, New Britain. — 6. 

Class of 1862. 
Huber Clarke, Middletown. 
Charles F. Holt, Berlin. 
Simeon H. Jennings, Easton. 
Smith S. Ventres, East Haddam. 
Alice Norton, Kensington. 
Lucy A. Tracy, New Britain. 
Ellen J. Welles, Hartford.— 7. 

Class of 1863. 
Samuel M. Hotchkiss, Kensington. 
James L. Johnson, Jewett City. 
Henry B. Moore, Windsor. 
Lyman Payne, Portland. 
Theresa B. Bartholomew, Hartford. 



116 

Kate Butts, New Haven. 
Annie L. Cowles, New Haven. 
Isabel L. Ely, Hamburg. 
Hannah H. Grosvenor, Canterbury. 
Margaret M. Mann, West Meriden. 
Ellen M. Paddock, New Haven. 
Georgiana Sanford, Bridgeport. — 12. 

Class of 1864. 
Henry S. Chittenden, North Guilford. 
Daniel W. Rossiter, North Haven. 
Kathleen Brockway, Hadlyme. 
Prudence M. Butler, Fair Haven. 
Addie P. Campbell, Waterbury. 
Carrie T. Carey, New Britain. 
Mary J. Corbin, West Meriden. 
Carrie F. Dayton, (Mrs. C. B. McLean,) Bridgeport. 
Sarah D. Hartson, Meriden. 
Julia E. Steele, New Britain. 
Susan A. Steele, New Hartford. 
Laura Stone, Danielsonville. 
Celia I. Stuart, Fair Haven. — 13. 

Class of 1865. 
Clarence W. Colton, New Milford. . 
Amos F. Palmer, Greeneville. 
John 0. Smith, Jewett City. 
Jennie Brown, Fair Haven. 
Helen W. Christy, Greenwich. 
Mary L. Lee, New Haven. 
Helen P. Porter, Greeneville. 
M. Louise Studwell, Greenwich. 
Maria L. Turner, Fair Haven. 
Carrie E. Williams, Greenwich— 10. Total, 99. 



Ill 



EEPLIES TO THE CIRCULAR OP THE BOARD. 
The following letter was addressed in December last to a few gen- 
tlemen in this and other States, who were supposed to be familiar 
with the Normal School question. 

Office of the Connecticut Board of Education,) 
New Haven, December 4, 1865. ) 

Sir: 

The newly organized Board of Education of the State of Connec- 
ticut have directed me to inquire of a few judicious and well known 
friends of Common Schools, in different parts of the State, their opin- 
ion and advice in respect to the management of the State Normal 
School. You are aware that for some years the attention of the Leg- 
islature has b#en especially directed to this institution, and various 
modifications of its plan have been proposed. The importance of 
training teachers for their appropriate work is acknowledged by the 
wisest friends of education in this and other States, but the best mode 
of securing such professional training is by no means determined. 
Any advice or suggestions which you may be disposed to make on 
this subject will be gladly received by the Board. To facilitate 
replies, a few specific questions are appended, but it is hoped that 
your comments will not be restricted to these topics. 
Yours with respect, 

DANIEL C. GILMAN, Secretary. 



1. Do you regard the maintenance of a school for the training of 
teachers as an essential or important part of a State system of Com- 
mon Schools ? 

2. Will you give your opinion regarding the success of the school 
now estabbshed in this State, as exhibited in the qualifications of the 
teachers it has trained ? 

3. If you have thought of any practicable alterations in the plan of 
the School at New Britain, which will improve its character, will you 
state them freely and fully ? 

4. Will you give your impressions regarding the value of Teach- 
ers' Institutes, as a means of training teachers for their work, and 
suggest any practicable improvements in their management ? 

The following communications received in reply, contain sugges- 
tions which may be of permanent value. 



*} 



118 



From Ariel Parish, Esq., lately member of theJMass. Board of 
Education, and now Superintendent of schools in New Haven. 

Office of the City Board of Education, 
New Haven, Conn., Jan. 13, 186G. 
To the Secretary of the State Board of Education. 

Sir : — In reply to your inquiry, in behalf of the Board of Educa- 
tion, whether "a school for the training of teachers is an essential part 
of a State System of Schools," I venture the following remarks. 

There are two theories in relation to the teacher's vocation which 
require consideration, preliminary to an intelligent answer to the ques- 
tion proposed : 

1. That the teacher, like the poet, "is bom not made." 
Accepting this as true, we only need an Institution in which some 

suitable test can be applied, to determine who are teachers by birth- 
right into whose hands the responsible work of instructing the rising 
generation, with perfect assurance of complete success, may be com- 
mitted. But, even if this could be done, a fatal objection seems to 
arise in the possibility that the number of true born teachers, like 
that of real poets, might be so limited, that Ignorance, with her dusky 
wing, might still overshadow the land, "because the laborers are few." 
Dismissing this beautiful theory as simply impracticable, we proceed 
to consider, 

2. That the faculties of teachers are susceptible of cultivation ; 
that their vocation requires the adaptation of means to obtain desired 
results, like every other pursuit, in life ; that a knowledge of means 
and methods used by those who have been eminently successful, may 
be communicated to the inexperienced, whereby they may be enabled 
to avoid innumerable abortive experiments, and attain more certain 
and immediate success. 

Since the educational reformation commenced .by Gallaudet and 
Barnard in Connecticut, and Horace Mann in Massachusets, the one 
great and absorbing thought has been uppermost in the minds of edu- 
cators everywhere, "how can teachers be best prepared for the work 
of instruction and training of children placed Under their charge?" 
Most appropriately is this the great question, indeed the greatest of 
all questions pertaining to the system of public school instruction. 
It is the "sine qua non;" literally and emphatically, "nothing without 
which." The most elaborate architecture and ample conveniences in 
school edifices, the most princely appropriations, the wisest, most de- 
voted and talented Board of Education avail nothing, in default of 
this. "As is the teacher, so is the school," and the school is '-the 
leaven which shall leaven the whole" community where it is estab- 
lished. 

The Normal School is the prominent agency developed for the im- 
provement of teachers. It is the grand result from the combined 
wisdom, the counsel and skill of men who have devoted their best in- 
tellectual efforts to the cause of education. In the future, something 



119 

may be devised greatly superior to the Normal School for the accom- 
plishment of the object for which this has been created ; but, thus far, 
we must accept this as the most efficient agency yet found. It may be 
defective, in its operation ; it may fail to produce the results desired. 
Shall we throw it by, as useless, or consider how its defects may be 
remedied? The former we can not afford to do, until some substitute 
is provided. The latter would seem to be the only alternative. 

The crowning excellence of a Normal School, like that of every 
other School, is to be sought for in the capability of its teachers. In 
it, the grand object should be to teach (those who resort to it for in- 
struction,) the best methods of teaching, the most approved modes of 
government ; how to cultivate in children those habits and elements 
of character which shall transform every pupil into an intelligent, 
pure-minded, honest and honorable citizen of a great Republic. 

The elements necessary for the full success of a Normal School 
may be comprised, mainly, in a few particulars. 

1. The special business of those who have charge of instruction is 
Id teach their pupils how to teach. The manner of imparting instruc- 
tion and the various methods of conducting school exercises, should be 
the leading objects to be attained, in such an institution, both on the 
part of the teacher and the taught. Modes and principles pertaining 
to school government must of course receive attention. The learner 
should be made acquainted with school laws and legislative acts per- 
taining to the whole subject of education. In short, he should become 
familiar with the "theory and practice" of teaching, and be able to 
comprehend the influence of education in the formation of individual 
character whereby the highest interests of the nation and the human 
race may be promoted. 

2. Another element of success will be found in the thorough prep- 
aration of pupils to receive the instruction which the Normal School 
is designed to impart. Such a schoool is not to be merely an Acade- 
my or High School. It should begin where these end. Thorough 
instruction in the latter will furnish precisely the material with which 
the former can produce its legitimate results. The one can never do 
the work of the other. Doubtless it is thiough misapprehension, in 
this particular, that formal Schools have been crippled in their efforts 
and limited in their results. They have been compelled to do the 
work of Academies and Common Schools before they were able to 
begin their own. 

3. As success in teaching requires a natural aptitude and great 
skill, so those who propose to be teachers of teachers, very obviously, 
should possess all the qualities of good teachers, together with a fa- 
miliar acquaintance with, and a readiness to impart to the learner, all 
that a teacher should know or practice. In other words, those who 
have charge of Normal Schools must have great capability, much 
knowledge, large experience and an intimate knowledge of human 
nature. 

i. Still another element of success will be found in an enlightened 
and appreciative community. Parents who are anxious and earnest 
to have their children well educated, will be likely to employ intelli- 



120 

gent men to act in their behalf in the management of their Schools. 
Such men as School Committees will not be likely to send ignorant, 
unpromising candidates for admission to the Normal School. The 
people everwhere need to be enlightened in this whole matter of ed- 
ucation, its processes and results. In fact, is not the chief obstacle to 
success, in the apathy and ignorance of the people in regard to the 
true value of education ? 

From the foregoing remarks you will infer what is my opinion of 
the importance of a Normal School in a State system of common 
school instruction. 

In regard to the second and third questions in your circular, my 
limited acquaintance with the character of the school forbids an ex- 
pression of opinion by me. • 

In regard to the value of '' Teachers' Institutes," my belief is that 
they may be made important auxiliaries in preparing teachers for 
their work. Their success or failure will depend entirely upon their 
mode of management. Mere lectures on general educational topics 
amount to little, except possibly to stir up the mind of the individual 
to desire to do something. The great want of every teacher is, \o 
know a better way to do whatever he may be required to do, than that 
which he has been accustomed to practice. It is not theory nor ad- 
vice the teacher of limited experience wants ; but the " quod erat de- 
monstrandum," how has the thing been successfully done by others ? 

Hence the experience of others; the practical methods of others 
will always be listened to with eager interest. Therefore it is my 
opinion that Teachers' Institutes may be made interesting and profi- 
table by rendering them very practical in their character. Hints 
and suggestions can be given, even in the brief space of three or four 
days, which the inexperienced teacher can carry immediately into 
school, which will prove beneficial to all the children who are placed 
in charge of that teacher for instruction. 

Like the Normal School, it is not an institution that will "go alone." 
It must have a head; it must have system; it must be conducted 
with care, adaptation and skill, like any other institution ; and thus 
conducted it cannot fail of being a "paying institution." 

With diffidence these nastily written pages are submitted for your 
consideration, by 

Yours Respectfully, and 

Very truly, 

A. PARISH. 



121 



From H. E. Sawter, Esq., Principal of the High School in Micl- 
dletown. 

Middletcwn, January 13, 1866. 

Dear Sir : — I have received a copy of your " Circular No. 2," 
•with reference to the Normal School, and take this opportunity to 
reply. 

A school for the training of teachers I have always considered an 
important if not an essential part of a complete system of public in- 
struction for a State. This conviction, however, is not the result of 
experience in such schools, of any considerable positive knowledge of 
their good works ; for my life has been mostly passed in New Hamp- 
shire, where no such institution has existed. But, working upon gen- 
eral principles, and from the experience of others, earnest laborers in 
the cause of education, have, for years, been striving to secure the 
establishment of a Normal School or its equivalent, in that State. 

The second and third questions proposed in the circular I cannot 
answer, as I have never visited the school at New Britain, am not 
familiar with its results, or its plan of operations ; and have only a 
very pleasant personal acquaintance with Profs. Camp and Bartlett. 

Teachers' Institutes I believe to be of great value in securing and 
maintaining a high standard of excellence among teachers ; — more 
however by awakening thought, stimulating effort, and exciting ambi- 
tion, than by the positive communication of instruction. 

It is of course evident that both Normal Schools and Institutes 
depend for their value on the way in which they are administered. 
Without reference to the conduct of the Normal School or the Insti- 
tutes in this State, of which I am not competent to speak, I will so 
far trespass on your patience as to express some opinions which I have 
been led to hold on this subject. 

The Institute is not to be regarded as a school for instruction in 
Grammar, Arithmetic, etc., for this would require that it be protract- 
ed, or turned into a permanent school. Hence its members should 
have a sufficient familiarity with the branches taught in the schools 
"to pass an examination," and sufficient age to justify them in aspiring 
within no long time, to the teacher's position. Younger and less cul- 
tured persons may be welcome to attend its sessions, but the exercises 
will not be arranged with reference to such. On the other hand the 
Institute is not to furnish a course of literary lectures for the pleasure 
of a miscellaneous audience. 

In planning the work of an Institute for a single week, I would 
have regardHo two classes of persons, whom I should hope to find in 
attendance ; namely, experienced teachers and persons just entering 
on the business. The former class are to be stimulated and quickened 
to new energy as well as to be furnished with hints and suggestions 
about improved methods and processes ; the latter to be instructed in 
their new work. These, as already said, are supposed to be qualified 
to teach, so far as knowledge of the subjects to be taught is concerned. 
They need instruction and examples in organizing, controlling and 



122 

teaching schools ; in methods of keeping school-records, and conduct- 
ing general exercises, object lessons, and gymnastic drill ; in the rudi- 
ments of mental philosophy, morals, and the legal rights and duties 
of teachers. The class exercises should be models, showing how to 
teach in accordance with the laws of mental development, stating, 
illustrating and enforcing those laws, and given with contagious vivac- 
ity and enthusiasm. 

I would have a Normal School strictly a professional seminary, where 
one, two, or three courses of lectures should be given to those who by 
education were already qualified to teach ; who should be admitted upon 
examination, and graduated only when they had earned a diploma which 
should be a valid certificate anywhere. I would have man the great 
subject of study : — the problem how shall the infant be most harmoniusly, 
safely, and rapidly developed, asa physical, intellectual, social, immortal 
being. The students should not make the knowledge of language, 
mathematics, etc., the principal object, but should study to use all 
knowledge, surroundings, and opportunities in working out the grand 
problem of educating those who may be their pupils. I fear that 
some teachers, perhaps some Normal Schools, make the grave mis- 
take of considering the knowledge the most important, and so regard- 
ing their pupils as machines for grinding the viciously voluminous and 
multitudinous text-books, with which the country is flooded ; and con- 
sequently estimating most highly that teacher who so " runs these 
machines," as to make them grind the most of the chaffy grist in a 
given time. To train, develope, inform, — this is the teacher's work. To 
show and teach how to do this, is, therefore, the appropriate office of 
the Normal School. Hence Physiology, Mental Philosophy, and 
Ethics, — not pure but applied, — will first claim attention. The moral 
and legal relations of teachers to the State, to pupils and parents, 
should also be fully discussed : — that is, there should be a department 
somewhat corresponding to that of jurisprudence in the Medical 
Schools. 

School organization, discipline, records, registration, classification, 
in a word, everything pertaining to school-economy, may next come 
in. 

From the chair of Didactics the students might learn how, most 
advantageously to use their knowledge in communicating instruction 
to others. If mathematics, languages, and sciences were studied at all, 
I would perhaps class them under one head, as " Materia Sc/tolaslica." 

The whole institution should know that books are only reservoirs, 
not fountains of knowledge, and no one should be graduated who could 
not teach chilren to use their senses, to reflect and compare, and to 
read, write, and cipher, and to understand something of Grammar, 
Geography, business and nature, before they had studied books a 
single hour. 

Then I would have every graduate taught how to institute and 
maintain steady, persistent, unflinching drill, adapted of course, to the 
strength and capacity of his pupils, and how to inspire his classes with 
enthusiasm by the contagion of his own example. 

Excuse me for speaking so positively ; I have adopted this style for 



123 

the sake of condensation, and even now I have taken far too much of 
your time. 

I am, Very Truly Yours, 

HENRY E. SAWYER. 



From Prof. H. B. Buckham, of Vassar College, lately Associated 

Principal of the Connecticut Normal School. 
Dear Sir: 

In answer to your inquiries in reference to the Normal School, I 
suggest the considerations which follow as important in the organiza- 
tion and management of any such school. 

1. A very high grade of scholarship in the principal teachers ; such 
a grade as the growing young teachers of the State can look back to 
and up to with unwavering respect, and such as teachers not educa- 
ted in the school can honor. A thorough and hearty sympathy with 
liberal culture on the part of their teachers, and a high estimation of 
the exceeding value of such culture to all who are to have the care 
of the young, would do much towards winning the favor of educated 
men, and with their favor, their countenance and support. 

2. A longer attendance at the school by the pupils. Your school has 
suffered greatly by reason of those who have attended for a single 
term. 

3. A definite purpose of teaching on the part of the pupils of the 
school. I mean much more than a loose notion of friends that a per- 
son may teach, or that in preparation for any future misfortune it may 
be as well to be prepared to teach. A gentleman, whom I will call 
Smith, once called on me to ask the terms of admission to the school. 
On reading to him the law on that point and the accompanying pledge, 
he said, " I guess my daughter has Smith enough in her to sign such 
a pledge;" and she did "sign" and came to the school. 

4. Close and constant attention to methods of teaching, and a just 
conception of the value of methods, as being not formal rules but in- 
forming principles. It is a pity that pupils should in any way get 
the notion that a knack of teaching, or some little artifice or trick, is 
worth more than thorough intelligence ; or that anything, as a basis 
of a good method of teaching, can be substituted for a clear and 
strong proof of the thing to be taught, and for a clear understanding 
of the value it is to have for the child when acquired by him. 

5. It has often occurred to me that two grades of diplomas, such as 
are given by the Board of Education of the city of New York, would 
be a good thing ; one for mixed schools and for the lower rooms of 
graded schools, and the other for the higher grades. 

6. Much instruction in the art — if, indeed, it be an art — of govern- 
ing schools, direct, practical, positive instruction, such as the teacher 
can draw upon in almost any emergency. 

7. The fostering of a true professional spirit ; not that which shows 
itself in mere whims, or in blind attachment to trivial and questionable 
peculiarities of methods; but that which, springing from sincere love 



124 

of the work, is strengthened by loyalty to the school which has educa- 
ted the teacher and which begets a confidence in the inherent noble- 
ness of his work so abiding as to make him secure against strong 
temptations to abandon it. How many young men have been teach- 
ing in the schools of Connecticut ever since they graduated at your 
Normal School? 

8. A good Common School Journal is a powerful auxiliary in the 
work of training teachers- 
Tours very truly, 

HENRY B. BUCKHAM. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., January, 1866. 



From Bev. J. E. Barnes, Acting School Visitor in Darien. 

Darien, April 10, 1866. 

I have had little opportunity of judging in regard to the qualifica- 
tions of the teachers trained at the New Britain Normal School. Not 
more than two or three of them have been employed in the schools of 
this town, during my connection with them as Acting Visitor. These, 
however, have certainly been better qualified for their work, and more 
successful, than the generality of our teachers. One of them was a 
young man from my own congregation, of excellent natural abilities, 
who had taught successfully before going to the Normal School. He 
spoke highly of the benefits which he derived from the course of in- 
struction at the school, and he appeared to me to have improved much in 
general culture, as well as in his knowledge of the proper methods of 
teaching and discipline. Probably he was rather more than an 
"average specimen." He died soon after graduating, two years ago. 

My knowledge of the school at New Britain is hardly sufficient to 
justify any suggestions, on my part, for the improvement of its plan 
of operations. With the chairs of instruction filled by men of broad 
scholarship, and large experience, 1 should think it would be safe to 
leave the details of sj'stem in a great measure to the good sense and 
ingenuity of the faculty. It seems to me that a teacher of teachers 
should by all means possess breadth of mind and facility of instruc- 
tion, together with large stores of accurate knowledge ; and being 
neither a martinet, nor a mere pedagogue, should be allowed consid- 
erable latitude in his methods. 

I should veiy much like, if it were practicable, some legislation 
which would put our Teachers' Institutes on a footing analagous to 
that of our annual military musters and encampments ; — requiring 
the attendance of all teachers within certain districts, at convenient 
points, for a specified number of days, there to be instructed and drilled 
by the members of the Board of Education, the professors in the 
Normal School, and other competent persons, providing also for the 
necessary expenses of the teachers while so engaged. The general 
plan of these Institutes, as at present conducted, seems to me good. 
It doubtless admits of improvement in details. 



125 



SCHOOL VISITOES IN THE SEVERAL TOWNS. 

1865-6. 
For the sake of promoting correspondence and cooperation among 
the local school officers, the following list is given of School Visitors 
in the several towns. It is intended to give the names of the "Acting 
School Visitors," — but as these have not in every case been officially 
reported, the names first given on the official lists are in some instances 
stated instead. 

Andover, Augustus K. White. 

Ashford, Rev. Thomas Dutton. 

Avon, Rev. Oswald L. Woodford. 

Barkhamsted, James Pettibone, Abner S. Hart. 

Berlin, Rev. Asahel C. Washburne. 

Bethany, William C. White. 

Bethel, Rev. John S. Breckenridge, Rev. G. L. Foster. 

Bethlehem, G. C. Stone, David Osborn. 

Bloomfield, William G. Case. 

Bolton, Rev. William Turkington, QuarryviUe. 

Bozrah, John W. Haughton. 

Bradford, John J. Bartholomew. 

Bridgeport, Dr. H. L. W. Bui-ritt. 

Bridgewater, John H. Bowers. 

Bristol, Rev. Leverett Griggs, N. J. Seeley. 

Brookfield, Rev. Frederick Munson. 

Brooklyn, Rev. Charles N. Seymour. 

Burlington, Rev. Henry B. Smith. 

Canaan, C. B. Maltbie, Daniel Brewster, Falls Village. 

Canterbury, Rev. Charles P. Grosvenor. 

Canton, Rev. Charles N. Lyman, Canton Centre. 

Chaplin, Rev. Francis Williams, A. M. Griggs. 

Chatham, A. N. Niles. 

Cheshire, Rev. Julius H. Ward. 

Chester, Dr. Sylvester W. Turner. 

Clinton, Hon. William H. Buell. 

Colchester, Julius Emmons, Westchester. 

Colebrook, J. Marcus Grant. 

Columbia, Hon. John S. Yeomans. 

Cornwall, John T. Andrew, A. B. Palmer. 

Coventry, Rev. William J. Jennings. 

Cromwell, Rev. William A. Stickney. 

Danbury, Rev. Dr. F. J. Hawley, Rev. Henry Powers. - 

Darien, Rev. Jonathan E. Barnes, Barien Depot. 

Derby, Rev. C. H. W. Stocking, Ansonia. 

Durham, N. H. Parsons, Ransom Prout. 

Eastford, Rev. Charles Chamberlain. 



126 



East Granby, Samuel A. Clark. 
East Haddam, Rev. Silas W. Robbins. 

East Hartford, Rev. Dr. Samuel Spring, Joseph O. Hurlburt. 
East Haven, Hon. James F. Babcock, Rev. D. William Havens. 
East Lyme, Enoch L. Beckwith. 
Eastox, Dimon Bradley. 
East Windsor, S. Terry Wells, J. S. Allen. 
Ellington, Rev. Charles Hyde. 

Enfield, Rev. Charles A. G. Brigham, Dr. L. H. Pease. 
Essex, Dr. Charles H. Hubbard. § 

Fairfield, Rev. Thomas B. Sturges, Rev. Levi B. Stimson. 
FARMiNGTON,Rev.Dr. Noah Porter, Rev. Moses Smith, Julius Gay. 
Franklin, Rev. Franklin C. Jones. 

Glastenbury, Rev. S. G. W. Rankin, Wm. H. H. Miller, Henry 
H. Hunt. 

Goshen, Henry Norton. 

Granby, Anson Cooley, Rev. Charles H. Webster. 

Greenwich, George T. Hobby, Dr. James II. Hoyt. 

Griswold, B. C. Keigwin, Rev. Bennett F. Northrop. 
Groton, Rev. Jared R. Avery, William. H. Potter, Rev. Asa C. 
Bronson, Mystic Bridge. 

Guilford, Henry B. Starr, John R. Rossiter. 
Haddam, Rev. James Noyes. 

Hamden, Rev. Austin Putnam, Rev. David H. Thayer. 

Hampton, Rev. George Soule, Hon. David Greesnlit. 

Hartford, Rev. Moses L. Scudder, Flavius A. Brown. 

Hartland, Rev. Charles G. Goddard, Orson C. Gates. 

Harwtnton, Emerson M. Hayes. 

Hebron, David F. Brigham, Turnerville. . 

Huntington, Christopher N. Shelton, Reuben W. Linsley. 

Kent, Rev. Evarts Scudder, Ashbel Fuller. 

Killingly, George W. Pike, Rev. William W. Davenport. 

Killingworth, E. H. Parmelee, Francis Turner. 

Lebanon, Rev. Orlo D. Hine. 

Ledyard, George Fanning. 

Lisbon, Sanford Bromley, Henry Lyon. 

Litchfield, Dr. Josiah G. Beckwith, Edward W. Seymour, 
George M. Woodruff. 

Lyme, Rev. William A. Hyde, M. S. Parker. 

Madison, Francis A. Kelsey. 

Manchester, Hon. David S. Calhoun, North Manchester. 

Mansfield, Leonard R. Dunham. 

Marlborough, Rev. Alpheus J. Pike, Sherman C Lord. 

Meriden, William E. Benham, West Meriden. 

Middlebuky, Benjamin Stone, Rev. Clinton Clark. 

Middletown, George W. Burke, Alfred Hubbard, etc. 
City, Prof. John M. Van Vleck. 

Milford, Rev. Thomas E. Pattison, N. C. Smith, John W. Fowler. 

Monroe, Charles B. Clarke. 

Montville, Augustus A. Parker, Hiram Walden. 



127 

Morris, William B. Ames, Samuel M. Ensign. 
Naugatuck, Rev. William T. Fitch, Franklin B. Tuttle. 
New Britain, Dr. B. N. Comings, Rev. C. L. Goodell, C. North- 
nd, etc. 
New Canaan, Marvin W. Fox. 
New Fairfield, Hendrick H. Wildraan. 

New Hartford, Rev. Edwin Hall, Jr., Rev. James B. Cleveland. 
New Haven, City, Lucian W. Sperry, Ch'n, Ariel Parish, Supt. 
" Fair Haven, Curtis S. Bushnell. 

" Westville, William C. Whipple. 

New London, Rev. S. B. Grant, Joshua C. Learned. 
New Milford, A. N. Baldwin, C. A. Todd, E. F. Morehouse. 
Newtown, Hon. Zerah Fairman, Charles H. Peck. 
Norfolk, Rev. Dr. Joseph Eldridge, M. P. Bell, Riley Stillman. 
North Branford, Rev. Asa C. Pierce, Charles Page. 
North Canaan, George Adams. 
North Haven, S. B. Thorpe, Ezra Stiles. 
North Stonington, Samuel A. Babcock, Van R. Gray. 
Norwalk, Rev. O. W. Gates. 
Norwich, John W. Crary. 

" Central District, Rev. S. Graves. 

. " Town Street, Rev. Dr. Hiram P. Arms. 

" West Chelsea, F. J. Champlin. 

Old Lyme, Rev. Davis S. Brainard. 

Old Saybrook, Rev. Salmon McCall, Rev. P. L. Shepard. 
Orange, Rev. George A. Bryan, Rev. Henry T. Staats. 
Oxford, Nathan J. Wilcoxson. 

Plainfield, Rev. iucian Burleigh, Elkanah C. Eaton. 
Plymouth, A. P. Fenn, Rev. R. T. Searle, Dr. S. T. Salisbury. 
Pomfret, Rev. George H. Morss, Dr. Lewis Williams. 
Portland, Samuel M. Emery, Hon. Alfred Hall. 
Preston, Alexander Yerrington, Asahel Tanner. 
Prospect, B. B. Brown, H. D. Russell. 
Putnam, Rev. George J. Tillotson. 
Redding, Burton Bradley, Edward P. Shaw. 
Ridgefield, Rev. Samuel G. Coe, Henry Smith. 
Rocky Hill, A. D. Griswold, Talcott A. Arnold. 
Roxbury, Minott L. Beardsley. 
Salem, R. A. Williams. 

Salisbury, Rev. Dr. J. A. Wainwright, Dr. Henry M. Knight. 
Saybrook, Joseph H. Mather, Rev. H. Wickes, Rev. John N. 
Chase. 

Scotland, Henry Lincoln, Rev. Luther H. Barber, Dr. Calvin 
B. Bromley. 
Seymour, Rev. O. Evans Shannon, John Chatfield. 
Sharon, H. C. Rowley. 
Sherman, J. N. Woodruff. 

Simsbury, Dudley B. McLean, G. L. Bartlett, R. H. Ensign. 
Somers, Rev. George A. Oviatt, Wm. B. Woods, Rev. Erastus 
Ripley. 



12* 



South Windsor, John N. King. 
Sprague, Edwin Rose. 

g™—> «£• F p L s ?* h f z! B. NicM, . 

Stamford, Rev. r. o. £.van&, l.- >-> 

Sterling, Henry D. Dixon. 

Stonington, S. S. Gnswold. 

Stratford Albert W^oxson ^ 

Trumbull, LeGrand G. Beers, S. G. Beaidsley. 

s=;s"Ar«:i»'| sag »■» 

Westbrook, Dr. Horace Burr. 

West Hartford, Dr. Edward Brace 

Weston, Jeremiah R. Nichols David F Cole. 

Westport, Myron L. M-n, Edward ££**■* Ato 

Wethersfield, Rev. Willi* b. <-°" on ' ™ 

Willington, Albert Sharp, Dr. John M Browne. 

Wilton, Rev. W. Nye^^B- BeM- c> 

roorRiD^Marl^BaSwin, Rev. Sylvanus P. Marvin. 
Woodbury, Philo M. Trowbridge. 
Woodstock, Oscar Fisher, L. J. weiis. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 

FOR THE SCHOOL TEAR ENDING AUGUST 31 ST, 1865, 

Compiled from the Returns of the Acting School Visitors in the several 
Towns in the State. 

PRELIMINARY NOTE. 

The following figures can not be taken as absolutely correct, but 
great pains have been exerted to make them as nearly so as possible, 
and on the whole they are regarded as giving a just and true view of 
the condition of common schools. The tables are based upon the re- 
ports which the law requires the school visitors of every town to sub- 
mit to the Secretary of the State Board of Education. The school 
visitors receive their information to a considerable extent from the 
district committees, and they again from the- teachers whom they em- 
ploy. The new School Register, which has been appointed for the 
use of the schools of the state in accordance with the law, is intended 
to facilitate the annual collection of these returns, and its general use 
is urgently recommended. Copies may be obtained on application to 
the Secretary of the Board of Education. 

EXPLANATIONS OF THE STATISTICAL TABLES. 

The column No. 1 contains the names of the towns in the state ar- 
ranged alphabetically by counties, county towns being placed first. la 
three towns — New Haven, Norwich, and Middletown — there are 
school districts which make independent reports, and these reports are 
separately given. 

Column No. 2 contains the population of each town according to 
the United States Census of 1860. These figures are taken from the 
official . report published at Washington under the direction of the 
Secretary of the Interior. 

No. 3 gives the Grand List of each town according to the valuation 
taken in October, 1864. These figures are taken from the report of 
the State Treasurer to the General Assembly in May, 1865. 

No. 4 contains the number of school districts in each town. 



130 

No. 6 gives the number of school-houses reported. 

No. 6 gives the number of departments in the schools, counting 
each school-room of a graded school as one department. 

Nos. 7 and 8 give the average length in weeks of the schools in 
winter and summer respectively. 

No. 9 gives the number of children between four and sixteen years 
of age enumerated in January, 1865; the basis for distributing the 
revenue of the School Fund. 

Nos. 10 and 11 give the number of scholars registered as attending 
school in winter and summer respectively. 

No. 12 contains the per centage registered in the winter of 1864-5 
as compared with the number enumerated in January, 1865. Thus 
in Hartford, enumerated 6,965, registered in winter 4,125, or 59 per 
cent. Enfield, enumerated 1,522, registered in winter 1,292, or 85 
per cent. 

Nos. 13 and 14 show the average attendance in winter and summer 
respectively. 

No. 15 gives the per centage of attendance in winter as compared 
with the number registered in winter. Thus in East Hartford, regis- 
tered in winter 536, average attendance 429, or 80 per cent. 

No. 16 shows how many of those registered were over sixteen years 
of age. 

Nos. 17, 18, 19, and 20, give the number of male teachers and fe- 
male teachers employed in winter and summer respectively. 

Nos. 21 and 22 give the average wages per month of male and fe- 
male teachers, including cost of board when that is supplied by the 
district. 

No. 23 shows how many teachers have continued in the same school 
two or more successive terms. 

No. 24 gives the number of teachers who were teaching for the 
first time. 

No. 25 shows how many are reported to have attended, not neces- 
sarily graduated at, some Normal School. 

Nos. 26 and 27 show how much money each town received from 
the School Fund of the state, and from the Town Deposit Fund. In 
a few instances the receipts from tbis latter source are not distinguished 
from the receipts from town tax. 

No. 28 gives the amount reported as raised by taxation by each town 
as such, that is, not including district taxes, for the support of schools. 
The law of the state requires this tax to be at least three-tenths of 
a mill on each dollar of the Grand List. 

No. 29 contains the amount reported as raised by taxes levied by 
the districts upon the property within their several limits. In the 



131 

reports of many towns and districts the distinction between this way 
of raising money and that indicated in No. 30 is not carefully regarded. 

No. 30 shows how much is reported as raised by tuition, or rate 
bills. This should never be reported as a tax on property. 

No. 31 shows the receipts from other sources than those previously 
mentioned, as from local funds, from special donations, or from towns 
in lieu of school taxes abated. 

No. 32 gives the amount of receipts from all sources. 

No. 33 gives the amount raised from all sources for each child be- 
tween the ages of four and sixteen as enumerated in January, 1865, 
the money raised for new school-houses and that received from sale of 
property not included. 

Nos. 34, 35, 36, 37, and 38, require no explanation. 

In order to print the statistics for each county on two pages, the 
cents were omitted from Nos. 36 and 37. Because of these omissions 
some of the totals of these columns and some of the totals in No. 38 
may seem to be incorrect, as no changes were made in those totals to 
make them correspond with the omissions. 



132 




133 





51,700.00 

893.30 

1,988.01 

7,905.39 
1,626.00 
3,409.37 
4,408.00 

660.00 
2,514.74 
9,795.35 
3,951.99 
7,307.12 
1,451 61 

791.02 
2,822.64 

537.00 
7,579.41 
1,150.00 
12,653.71 
3,275.82 
1,855.93 
3,319.37 
3,055.02 
2,004.07 
2,114.80 
3,148.48 


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63.81 

40.75 

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4,289.00 
1,875.00 
2,044.83 
10,782.60 
2,483.27 
2,635.39 
2,681.07 
1,899.28 
9,722.00 

497.00 
1,856.00 
3,418.30 

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1,710.00 
1,470.99 
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1,961.00 

210.25 

15,306.29 

20.00 

' 85.83 
2,291.05 
118.28 
200.62 
155.00 
300.00 
1,196.00 

120.00 
733.50 

53.19 
206.00 

64.65 

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238.76 

430.19 

4,045.30 

175.86 

77.12 

25,830.14 


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2,904.75 
1,400.00 
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1,169.00 
1,868.00 
1,563.00 
7,377.89 
2,307.25 
1,828.27 
2,485.00 
1,584.92 
5,761.00 

472.00 
1,736.00 
2,672 00 

800.00 
1,450.00 
1,367.35 
1,336.00 

432.00 
1,770.00 

822.00 
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10,573.59 

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100,591.59 






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4.14 
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3.69 
2.78 
4.92 
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4.77 
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12,398.37 
2,505.76 
2,134.66 
2,997.63 
2,067.31 
9,056.97 

461.35 
1,773.84 
3,384.03 
1,053.37 
1,626.89 
1,358.90 

766.14 

811.76 
1,724.83 
1,058.23 
2,487.21 
15,250.97 

835.46 
1,027.17 

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^ : 


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22.00 
43.00 

4.96 

85.00 
34.80 
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120.00 
12.06 
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1,269.90 

12.14 

4.37 

9.50 

418.21 

325.49 

794.44 

4.22 

293.78 
206.00 
136.00 
181.54 

89.00 
478.39 


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128.13 

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686.55 

257. 06 
880.84 

2,500.00 
84.25 
263.00 

1,746.79 

191.63 
60.00 

118.98 
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142.00 

502.12 
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322.63 
347.49 

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553.91 
453.35 
432.00 
262.89 

4,120.94 
105.78 
300.00 
328.11 
160.15 
208.64 
336.64 
175.00 
60.00 
826.74 
267.06 
517.15 

1,780.22 
82.78 
175.00 


cr. 

CM 




— 


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100.75 
37.70 

T.288.57 
166.58 
190.00 
246.45 

2,419.10 
196.00 
360.95 
256.37 
330.87 
399 13 
123.20 
347.64 
87.66 
159.83 
196.76 
192.34 
200.00 
155.00 
110.10 
208.42 
350.20 
214.80 
107.98 
148.18 


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593.40 
747.50 
532.45 

1,892.90 
143.75 
733.70 
79i.20 
325.45 
392.15 
586.50 
308.20 
184.00 
529.00 
304.75 
883.20 

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135.70 
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22.00 
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19.00 
18.77 
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14.00 
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19.86 
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38.57 
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37.75 
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141 



a 

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3 
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1,822.17 

1,014.50 

1,367.50 

972.89 

314.74 

2,573.08 

2,782.26 

3,244.14 

1,186.17 

1,765.57 

797.00 

703.00 

2,834.94 

857.58 

29,258.62 

2,930.13 


■* 

CM 


hi 


'tOO'fl^OOIN'- CM** O) DJ in C5 
CO — c -t CM KIOfh --to CO CM 
(M • • 00 H 


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1,900 

21,605 
700 


o 

■*" 
CM 


1 


133.57 
100.00 
179.00 
125.00 
8.70 

253.82 
1,022.80 
101.76 
86.92 
21.00 

152.36 

6.32 

3,654.62 

62.8b 


00 

o 


1 


1,685.00 

884.50 

1,178.50 

602.89 

285.50 

664.73 

2,476.85 

2,170.54 

1,072.00 

1,674.70 

77600 

703.00 

1,813.77 

849.26 

; 3,864.00 

i 2,138.25 


<* 
as 

CO 




■- 
■- 

5 




3.55 

2.71 
3.12 
3.55 
2.30 
3.01 
2.45 
2.41 
3.06 
2.36 
3.75 
2.30 
3.35 
2.37 
*8.86 
2.17 


I 


o 


1,656.06 
892.72 

1,237.35 
652.83 
684.64 
677.23 

2,811.40 

2,120.54 
991.99 

1,615.67 
599.76 
712.81 

2,590.06 

783.28 

30,312.08 

1,708,57 


5 
to 
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<— 1 o 


70.84 

170.72 

45.00 

59.28 
57.25 

•14.56 
50 00 
33.35 
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32.92 
17 89 
22,343.00 
32.43 


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42.50 
194.62 

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63.36 

334.26 

55.55 

17.00 

3.05 

' 37.45 




¥• 


314.27 
95.10 

200.17 

33.70 

160.00 
291.41 

154.87 

198.38 

90.00 

1,031.07 

7.37 

5,378.38 


1 

g 

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293.70 
152.93 
208.61 
90.16 
101.88 
130.65 
504.32 
407.40 
311.33 
351 78 
117.65 
120.92 
480.00 
177.57 
1,000 00 
357.89 


1 1 


223.59 
219.24 
208.00 
124.30 
196.36 
165.19 
461.82 
365.68 
277.65 
273.02 
66.38 
191.08 
157.12 
200.95 
294.00 
410.90 






$518 65 
382.95 
455.40 
193.20 
342.70 
258.75 

1,293.75 

1,000.50 
371.45 
786.00 
184.00 
307.05 
888.95 
379.50 

1,259.25 
907.35 






OS 

o 

H 


Brooklyn, 

Ashford, 

Canterbury, 

Chaplin, 

Eastford, 

Hampton, 

Killingly, 

Plaintield, 

Pomfret, 

Putnam, 

Scotland, 

Sterling, 

Thompson, 

Voluutown, 

Windham, 

Woodstock, 





142 



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20.25 

17.00 
16.00 
13.00 
23.80 
18.43 
20.00 
17.00 
15.00 
23.40 
19.00 
21.00 
20.88 
18.00 
23.00 
25.00 
17.00 
19.16 
20.44 
19.60 
18.66 
20.08 
19.00 
17.00 
17.00 


°5 
ci 

7. 


is d 

41 


31.32 
20.00 
28.00 
25.00 
35.67 
26.00 
35.00 
29.00 
25.00 
37.33 
29.00 
38.00 
33.22 
38.00 
38.00 
52.50 
25.00 
35.60 
35.85 
33.00 
31.00 
26.17 
29.00 
53.00 
30.00 


9! 

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B 


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■* o 
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c-i d 

BO FH 


11,435.94 
1,569.00 

778.45 
1,477.55 
1,891.09 
1,042.00 
2,095.00 
1,645.07 
2,072.05 

940.00 

824.00 
2,027.15 

654.82 
1 ,084.00 


- 
-- 

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CM 


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& 

3 












749.51 
1,322.65 

2,072.1(1 
27.00 
20.00 
1 1 2.39 
144.75 
180.00 
60.00 
273.03 
21.55 
151.00 

32.00 
147.82 

96.00 


I 


oi c 
■* m" 

eo^ira 


9,059.12 

1,482.00 

G75.00 

1,362.00 

1,670.25 

862.00 

1,950.00 

1,255.50 

1,989.00 

789.00 

804.00 

1,925.50 

438.00 

970.00 


I" 






k| 


4.48 
4.43 
4.45 
3.31 

3.13 
3.29 
4.03 
3.11 
3.04 
3.81 
3.68 
4.23 
2.79 
4.06 
5.09 
2.65 


S 
0) 

-- 


"5 
1 


4,327.52 
6,304.01 
10,63 1.53 
1,524.98 

744.28 
1,477.47 
1,808.54 

830.05 
2,265.96 
1,367.95 
1,749.30 

838 v 19 

754.0(1 
4,070.16 
1,287.33 

634.21 


q 

CO 


3 g 
°1 


135.84 

160.70 
29(1.54 

"V.29 
53.58 
25.85 

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8.68 

20.87 


en 

ei 

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1,058.79 

1,058.79 
200.00 
139.01 
661.84 
953.07 
205.00 
260.00 
7.26 
108.65 

224.00 

281.68 

3.00 


5 ^ 
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4,157.04 

276.00 
81.85 

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444.03 
318.78 
315.00 

150.00 

1,918.82 

402.45 

.... 


in 


B * 


905.04 
555.80 
1,460.84 
266.70 
112.43 
184.65 
170.51 
168.00 
368.59 
293.78 
261.81 
103.88 
182.40 
537.87 
163.51 
167.18 


- 


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— 
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- a 


$1,110,901 567.86 
1,635. 30 844.26 

2,7411.20 912.12 

530.15' 252.13 
273.70, 130.00 
395.60! 181.80 
516.35 142.76 
307.05; 150.00 
856.75 401.62 
412.85 210.08 
547.40 482.81 
227.70 188.31 
310.50 102.48 
1,158.45 236.02 
290.95 127.87 
274.85 189.18 


so 

O 

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" complete, 
Chatham, 
Chester, 
Clinton, 
Cromwell, 
Durham, 
East Haddam, 
Essex, 
Haddam, 
Killingworth, 
Old Saybrook, 
Portland, 
Saybrook, 
Westbrook, 





11 



146 



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15.30 
17.00 
19.00 
17.86 
21.50 
17.33 
20.00 
14.33 
20.00 
23.37 
19.00 
24.56 
17.00 


— 

IS 


1 


42.00 
26.00 
36.50 
40.71 
35.00 
30.00 
25.50 
28.00 
33.00 
31.00 
54.11 
27.50 


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OS 

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147 




148 



SUMMARY. 



1. Population; Property, Number and Length op Schools. 



1 


_' 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


COUNTIES. 


Population, 
; ,860. 


Grand List, 
1864. 


ii 


11 

£2 


Is 

9- ~ 
Q £ 


At. 
Length. 




W. 


s. 


Hartford, 


89,962 


$60,477,461 


253 


2M 


336 


18 


16 


New Haven, 


97,345 


57,447,117 


212 


229 


324 


19 


18 


New London, 


61,741 


33,855,440 


214 


224 


293 


18 


15 


Fairfield, 


77,476 


43,292,818 


243 


243 


283 


20 


20 


Windham, 


34,747 


14,361,083 


166 


167 


179 


16 


12 


Litchfield, 


47,318 


25,063,811 


290 


285 


302 


15 


18 


Middlesex, 


30,859 


14,739,668 


121 


127 


139 


18 


16 


Tolland, 


20,709 


8,986,011 


124 


12.3 


136 


14 


14 


Total, 


460,157 


$258,223,409 


1,623 


1,662 


1,991 


is 


17 



2. Scholars ; Number and Attendance. 





9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


COUNTIES. 


En urn. 
Jan. '65. 


Registered. 


Per 

Cent. 


Av. Attendance. 


Per o £> 




W. 


S. 


W. 


s. 


Cent£» 


Hartford, 


22,593 


15,334 


14,604 


68 


11,335 


10,553 


74 


517 


New Haven, 


24,197 


15,064 


14,537 


62 


11,448 


11,157 


76 


270 


New London, 


15,423 


11,870 


10,372 


77 


8,536 


7,411 


72 


450 


Fairfield, 


19,595 


11,812 


11,079 


60 


8,136 


7,553 


69 


268 


Windharn, 


8,350 


6,331 


4,976 


76 


4,474 


3,537 


71 


332 


Litchfield, 


11,909 


8,398 


7,719 


71 


6,028 


5,335 


72 


371 


Middlesex, 


7,690 


5,249 


% 4,836 


68 


3,964 


3,586 


76 


124 


Tolland, 


5,070 


4,091 


3,480 


81 


3,210 


2,619 


78 212 


Total, 


114,827 


78,149 


71,603 


68 


57,131 


51,751 


7:1 :>.->44 



149 



SUMMARY .-Continued. 

3. Teachers ; Number and Wages. 





17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


COUNTIES. 


Male. 


Female. 


Av. Wages. 


Two 

Sue. 

Terms 


Be- 
gin- 
ner?. 


Nor- 




W. 


S. 


\V. 


S. 


Male. 


Female. 


mals 


Hartford, 


86 


24 


287 


343 


$54.22 


$23.35 


216 


94 


103 


New Haven, 


62 


19 


297 


338 


62.50 


27.62 


244 


70 


113 


New London, 


115 


22 


190 


278 


39.80 


21.29 


160 


87 


36 


Fairfield, 


100 


31 


198 


267 


40.75 


23.28 


172 


64 


43 


Windham, 


87 


3 


92 


169 


34.82 


18.82 


62 


60 


22 


Litchfield, 


96 


6 


206 


290 


33.39 


19.98 


114 


103 


43 


Middlesex, 


52 


6 


96 


140 


44.54 


20.90 


64 


33 


22 


Tolland, 


57 


2 


82 


134 


33.93 


19.59 


42 


47 


9 


Total, 


655 


113 


1,448 


1,959 


$49.00 


$22.61 


1,074 


558 


391 



4. Receipts from all Sources. 





26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


COUN- 
TIES. 


School 
Fund. 


Town 
Deposit. 


Town 
Tax. 


District 
Tax. 


Tuition. 


Other 
sources. 


Total. 




Hartford 


$26,004.95 


8,136.45 


22,317.56 


54,914.32 


7,041.93 


3,249.88 


121,665 


5.38 


N. Haven 


27,650.60 


8,456.13 


21,894.69 


65,482.02 


7,321.15 


2,639.72 


133,444 


5.51 


N. Lend. 


17,736.45 


6,596.64 


12,642,51 


39,278.22 


5,858.40 


2,791.22 


84,904 


5.50 


Fairfield 


22,489.40 


8,870.22 


14,968.31 


11,285.08 


14,248.36 


4,796.57 


76,658 


3.91 


Wind'm 


9,529.45 


3,835.28 


4,806.79 


7,954.72 


992.80 


22,927.95 


50,047 


3.41 


Litehfi'ld 


13,633.25 


5,859.09 


7,805.61 


5,710.19 


8,799.03 


1,023.25 


42,830 


3.60 


Mid'sex 


8,843.50 


3,707.18 


4,442.10 


8,415.97 


4,102.30 


472.96 


29,984 


3.90 


Tolland 


5,839.70 


2,617.93 


2,402.74 


8,025,« 


1,620.28 


1,881.24 


22,388 


4.23 


Total, 


$131,727.40 


48,078.92 


91,280.31 


201,066.38'49,984. 25 39,782.79 


561,920 


4.89 



150 



SUMMARY.-Continued. 



5. Expenses for all Objects. 



Teachers. Fuel, etc. 



B'ld'gs. i pairs. 



Total. 



Hartford, .... 


$91,357.33 


24,9a0.03 


15,316.27 


10,264.52 


*141,918.15 


New Haven, . 


J 100,591.59 


25,830.14 


14,336.34 


5,569.38 


146,327.45 


New London, 


56,296.52 


9,198.18 


1,000.00 


3,350.27 


69,844.97 


Fairfield, 


.65,788.41 


8,879.89 


5,021.25 


3,486.02 


t 83,175.57 


Windham, .... 


22,839.49 


5,908.75 


24,205.00 


1,471.05 


54,424.29 


Litchfield, 


40,832.50 


4,864.88 


1,524.64 


1,486.46 


48,708.48 


Middlesex, 


25,237.37 


3,337.70 




961.05 


29,536.12 


Tolland, 


18,194.71 


1,465.33 


950.00 


2,927.12 


23,537.16 


Total, .... 


$421,137.9284,464.90 62,353. 51) 29,51 5. 87 597,472.19 



* Hartford County- 
t Fairfield County- 



-No returns of expenses from Bloomfield. 
-No returns of expenses from New Fairfield. 



KF™ For an explanation of the abbreviations in the foregoing summary, anfl of the 
principles on which the tables have been compiled, the reader is especially requested- 
to consult pages 129-31. 



PUBLIC ACTS NOW IN FORCE 



RELATING TO 



COMMON SCHOOLS. 



FROM THE REVISED STATUTES OF 1866. 



REVISED STATUTES, (1866,) TITLE XYL 



CHAPTER III.* 
OF COMMON SCHOOLS. 

1. — BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Sections. Sections. 

25. Board of education, how constituted ; Ten- 29. His compensation. 

ute of office ; vacancies how supplied. 30. Incidental expenses of the board, how paid. 

26. Powers and duties of board. 32. Teachers' conventions, manner of holding. 

27. Secretary of board, how appointed. 33. Notice of such conventions to be given. 
27, 28, and 31. His duties. 

Sect. 25. There shall be appointed, by the general assembly, four 
persons, to be selected one from each congressional district in the state, 
who, together with the governor and lieutenant-governor, shall consti- 
tute and be denominated the " Board of Education," and the persons 
so appointed shall hold their offices for the term of four years ; but 
the first person named in said board shall go out of office at the end 
of one year, the next named at the end of two years, and so of the 
remaining members, one retiring each year in the order in which they 
are named, till the whole board be changed, and the governor and 
lieutenant-governor may fill, till the next session of the general assem- 
bly, all vacancies in said board which may occur from death, resigna- 
tion, or otherwise. 

Sect. 26. The board of education shall have general supervision 
and control of the educational interests of the state; it shall have 
power to direct what books shall be used in all the schools of the state; 
shall prescribe the form of registers to be kept in the schools, and the 
form of blanks and inquiries for the returns to be made by the school 
committees ; shall annually, on or before the third Wednesday in May, 
lay before the general assembly a report, containing a printed abstract 
of said returns, and a detailed report of all the doings of the board, 
with such observations upon the condition and efficiency of the system 
of popular education, and such suggestions, as to the best means of 
improving it, as the experience and reflection of the board may dictate. 

Sect. 27. The board may appoint its own secretary, who, under 
its direction, shall make the abstracts required by the preceding sec- 
tion ; he shall also suggest to the board, and to the general assembly, 
improvements in the system of public schools, and in the management 
of the normal school; shall visit, as often as his other duties will per- 
mit, different parts of the state, for the purpose of awakening and 
guiding public sentiment in relation to the practical interests of edu- 
cation ; shall collect, in his office, such school-books, apparatus, maps, 



12 



154 

and charts, as can be obtained without expense to the state; receive 
and arrange, in his office, the reporis, and returns of the school com- 
mittees, and receive, preserve, or distribute, the state documents in re- 
lation to the public schools. 

Sect. 28. He shall, under the direction of the board, give suffi- 
cient notice of such meetings of teachers of public schools, members 
of school committees of the several towns, and friends of education, 
generally, in any county, as may voluntarily assemble at such time and 
place as may be designated by the board, and shall at such meetings 
collect information as to the public schools of the county, of the fulfill- 
ment of the duties of their office by members of school committees, 
and school visitors, and of the circumstances of the school districts in 
regard to pupils, teachers, books, apparatus, and methods of education, 
to enable him to furnish all information desired for the report of the 
board of education; he shall send the blank forms of inquiry, the 
school registers, the annual report of the board, and his own annual 
reports, to the clerks of the several towns and cities, as soon as they 
are ready for distribution. 

Sect. 29. He shall receive from the treasury an annual salary of 
eighteen hundred dollars, and his necessary traveling expenses incurred 
in the performance of his official duties, after they shall have been 
audited and approved by the board, and all postages, and other neces- 
sary expenses, arising in his office, shall be paid from the treasury, in 
the same manner as those of the other departments of the government. 

Sect. 30. The incidental expenses of the board, and the expenses 
of the members thereof, incurred in the discharge of their official du- 
ties, shall be paid out of the treasury, after their accounts shall have 
been audited and allowed. 

Sect. 31. The secretary of the board of education shall exercise 
a general supervision over the common schools of the state; shall col- 
lect information from school visitors in the manner provided in the one 
hundred and fifth section of this act, and from other sources; shall 
prepare and submit an annual report to the general assembly, con- 
taining a statement of the condition of the common schools of the 
state, plans and suggestions for the improvement and better organiza- 
tion of the common school system, and all such matters relating to his 
office, and to the interests of education, as he shall deem expedient to 
communicate. 

Sect. 32. He is hereby authorized and directed to hold, at one 
convenient place in each county of the state, schools or conventions 
of teachers, for the purpose of instructing in the best modes of gov- 
erning and teaching common schools; and for the purpose of defraying 
the expenses of each school or convention so held, the said secretary 
may draw upon the comptroller for a sum not exceeding one hundred 
and twenty dollars, to be paid from the civil list funds of the state. 

Sect, 33. The said secretary shall give seasonable notice to each 
town of the times and places of holding such schools or conventions, 
and such other notice to teachers as he may deem expedient. 



155 



2. PROPERTY OF SCHOOL SOCIETIES TRANSFERRED TO TOWNS. 

Sections. Sectiohs. 

34. Towns to provide for support of common 41. Funds, buildings, &c. of such school socie- 
Bchools, toassume liabilities of former school ties to remain as heretofore. 

societies. 42. Board of education in such district have 

35. School districts confirmed. powers and duties of school visitors. 

36. Records of school societies to be preferred 43. Returns to be made to this board. 

with records of towns. 44. They may appoint an acting school visitor. 

37. Towns to hold local funds ; funds to be di- 45. Authority of towns; board of visitors re- 
vided in certain cases. stricted in such towns. 

3?. Manner of such division. 46. Comptroller to draw orders for public money 

39. School societies formed under act of 1855 to for such district, on application of board of 
become scl.ool districts: to choose board of education. 

education ; powers and duties of such board. 

40. Any school society may avail itself of same 
privileges. 

Sect. 34. The several towns within this state shall provide for the 
support of common schools within their respective limits, and all debts, 
legal obligations, or pecuniary trusts, of any school society heretofore 
existing, which pertains to schools, shall remain in full force against 
the town or towns within which such school society was situated. 

Sect. 35. The school districts established by law shall remain 
school districts of the towns within which they are situated, subject to 
certain limitations and exceptions hereinafter mentioned. 

Sect. 36. The records of school societies shall be deposited and 
for ever kept with the records of the towns in which such school soci- 
eties were situated ; and where any school society lies within the limits 
of two or more towns, the records of such society shall be deposited 
and kept with the records of the town within which the greater part 
of the territory of such society lies. And said records, whether they 
appear to have been made at a meeting, held in pursuance of a warn- 
ing, or otherwise, or whether informal or otherwise, provided the same 
can be clearly understood, are hereby validated and confirmed. 

Sect. 37. All the funds, buildings, and property of every kind, 
heretofore held for school purposes by the school societies, shall vest 
in the towns within which such school societies are situated, to be held 
by such towns for the purposes for which the same were held by the 
societies. Where there were two or more school societies within the 
limits of any one town, and any of such school societies had a perma- 
nent fund for the support of schools, such fund shall be held in trust 
by said town for the support of schools for the inhabitants of the ter- 
ritory, formerly embraced within such school society; and where any 
school society lay within the limits of two or more towns, and was 
possessed of any permanent fund, such fund shall be divided between, 
or among, such towns, and the portions so distributed shall be held by 
such towns, in trust, for the support of schools for the inhabitants of 
that portion of such school society, lying within said town ; and where 
any such school society was indebted, such indebtedness shall, in the 
same manner, be divided between or among said towns. 

Sect. 38. When it shall be necessary to distribute any fund, or 
divide any indebtedness, between or among different towns, in the 
manner provided by the preceding section, such distribution or division 
shall be made by the selectmen of said towns ; and if they can not 



156 

agree, then, upon application of the selectmen of either town, by a 
committee of three disinterested persons, to be appointed by the supe- 
rior court within the county, in which either of such towns shall be 
situated, who shall make report to said court, which report, when ac- 
cepted by said court, shall be final in the premises; and the report of 
such committee, or the agreement of the selectmen, shall be recorded 
at length upon the records of each of said towns. 

Sect. 39. School societies, heretofore organized under the act of 
1855, entitled "an act in addition to and in alteration of an act con- 
cerning education," which are not co-extensive with the towns within 
which they are situated, shall become school districts of said towns, 
with all the powers and duties of school districts, as specified in this 
act, with the following exceptions, viz: such school districts shall an- 
nually choose, on the third Monday of September in each year, instead 
of a district committee, a board of education, consisting of three, six, 
or nine persons, in the manner prescribed in this act, for the election 
of school visitors ; and said board of education shall have all the pow- 
ers and be subject to all the duties imposed on the district committees; 
and, in addition thereto, shall have the general charge and superin- 
tendence of the common schools within their district, and the care and 
the management of the property and funds of the district ; they shall lodge 
all bonds, leases, notes, and other securities, with the treasurer of said 
district, unless the same have been intrusted to others by the donors, 
or grantors, or by the general assembly; they shall pay into the treas- 
ury of the district all moneys which they may receive for the support 
of schools; they shall determine the number and qualifications of the 
scholars to be admitted into each school; shall supply the requisite 
number of qualified teachers; shall, annually, during the first two 
weeks of the month of September, ascertain the expense of supporting 
and maintaining the schools under their superintendence, during the 
year ending the thirty-first day of the previous August, and report the 
same, together with the amount of moneys received towards the pay- 
ment thereof, to the district at a meeting to be held on the third Mon- 
day in September in each year; and shall, at the same time, make a 
full report of their doings, and the condition of the schools under their 
superintendence, and all important matters concerning the same, to the 
district, and shall perform all lawful acts which may be required of 
them by the district, and which may be necessary to carry into effect 
the powers and duties granted by this act. 

Sect. 40. All existing school societies, in which school districts 
have been abolished, may avail themselves of the privileges specified 
in the preceding sections. 

Sect. 41. The funds, buildings, and all other property of the 
school societies, specified in the two preceding sections, shall not be 
affected by this act. but shall remain, as heretofore, under the care and 
management of said school societies. 

Sect. 42. The board of education, appointed by any school dis- 
trict, organized under the thirty-ninth and fortieth sections of this act, 
shall possess all the powers, and be subject to all the duties within said 
district, which are possessed by the board of school visitors in the sev- 



157 

m 

eral towns, and shall make their annual report to the secretary of the 
board of education, and their returns and certificates directly to the 
comptroller. 

Sect. 43. All the returns, by law required to be made by the dis- 
trict committee or clerk of such district, shall be made to said board of 
education. 

Sect. 44. Said board of education shall have full power to appoint 
an acting school visitor in said district, who shall possess, within said 
district, all the powers, and be subject to all the duties by law pos- 
sessed by, and imposed upon, similar officers appointed by the board 
of school visitors of the several towns. 

Sect. 45. The authority of the board of school visitors of the 
town, in which said district is situated, shall extend only to the re- 
maining portion of said town, and their returns and certificates shall 
include only the children in such remaining portion. 

Sect. 46. The comptroller of public accounts, on the application 
of the board of education of such district, shall draw an order in favor 
of such district, on the treasurer, for the proportionate amount, to 
which such district may be entitled, of all moneys appropriated by 
law for the benefit, support, and encouragement of common schools, as 
is provided in respect to towns ; and the town in which said district is 
situated shall be entitled to receive only its proportionate amount of 
such public money, for the children in the remaining portion of said 
town. 

3. DUTIES OF TOWNS. 

Sections. Sections. 

47. School visitors, how appointed. 56. Towns forfeit public money, unless returns 

48. Vacancies, how filled. are made. 

49. Towns having permanent fund, to elect 57. Towns to lay tax for support of schools, 
school fund treasurer. 58. Forfeiture for neglect to tax. 

50. Powers of towns. 59. Towns may take land for school-houses. 

51. Towns to transact school business in town 60. School visitors to draw on town treasurer- 
meetings, for public money. 

52. Duties of selectmen respecting schools. 61. School districts may be consolidated. 

63. Higher schools to be regulated by school 62. Town to appoint committee for consolida- 

visitors. ted districts. 

54. Towns may choose committee for higher 63. When district may appeal from action of 
schools. town. 

55. When town fails to appoint such commit- 64. When appeal may be taken, 
tee, school visitors shall appoint it. 65. Appeal, how disposed of. 

66. Lines, how to be altered. 

Sect. 47. Every town shall elect by ballot a board of school vis- 
itors, which shall consist of three, six, or nine members, each of 
whom shall hold his office for three years, and until another is chosen 
in his place. Said board shall be divided into three classes, and the 
term of office of each class shall expire at the same time, and in such 
manner as to make a regular vacancy in the board, of one class an- 
nually. Should any vacancy occur by death, resignation, or other- 
wise, the remaining members of the board may fill such vacancy, 
until the next annual meeting of the town. 

Sect. 48. At every annual meeting of the town, all vacancies in 
the board shall be filled, by an election of the necessary members by 



158 ^ 

ballot ; any member, elected to fill an irregular vacancy, shall hold 
bis office only for the unexpired term of his predecessor. 

Sect. 49. In case any town shall have received any permanent 
funds from any school society within its limits, such town shall annu- 
ally elect, by ballot, a school fund treasurer, who shall have the charge 
of such funds, and keep a separate account of the same, and make 
an annual report to the town of the condition of said funds, and of 
his disbursements of the same, and who shall give bond, with security, 
to the satisfaction of the selectmen of the town, for the faithful dis- 
charge of the duties of his office. 

Sect. 50. The towns shall have power to establish and maintain 
common schools of different grades within their limits ; to purchase, 
receive and hold any real and personal property for school purposes, 
and to convey the same ; to build and repair school-houses ; to lay 
taxes, and to make all lawful contracts, and to adopt all lawful regu- 
lations and measures for the education of the children of the town. 

Sect. 51. The business of the towns, relating to schools, shall be 
transacted at regular and special town meetings, in the same manner, 
and subject to the same regulations, as other town business. 

Sect. 52. The selectmen shall have the care and management 
of any property, or funds, appertaining to schools, and belonging to 
the town, and shall lodge all bonds, leases, notes, and other securities, 
with the treasurer, except so far as the same shall have been, or shall 
be, intrusted to others by the donor, or grantor, or by the general as- 
sembly, or by the town ; they shall pay to the treasurer all money 
which they may collect and receive for the use of schools ; they shall 
settle and describe the boundary lines of any new school district, or 
of any existing district, or parts of a district, within their limits, 
where the lines are not now settled, and described, when applied to 
by the district, and shall cause the same to be entered on the records 
of the town ; they shall designate the time, place, and object, of hold- 
ing the first meeting in any new district, and perform all other lawful 
acts which may be required of them by the town, or which may be 
necessary to carry into full effect the powers of towns with regard to 
schools. 

Sect. 53. Whenever any town shall maintain any school of a 
higher grade, for the older and more advanced children of either sex, 
the board of school visitors of such town shall prescribe rules and 
regulations for the admission of scholars into such schools, and for 
the studies, books, and classification of the same ; and shall examine 
all candidates for teachers in such school, and shall give to those 
persons, with whose moral character, and literary attainments, and 
ability to teach, they are satisfied, a certificate, setting forth the 
brandies he is found capable of teaching; and shall visit such school, 
at least twice during each season for schooling, and may annul the 
certificate of any teacher in the manner and for the cause provided 
in the one hundred and fourth section of this act ; and said school 
shall receive such proportion of all money, provided for the support 
of common schools in such town, as the number of scholars, attend- 



159 

ing such high school, shall bear to the whole number attending all the 
other common schools of the town. 

Sect. 54. Such town may, at its annual meeting, or at any meet- 
ing specially warned for that purpose, choose, by ballot, a committee 
of not more than five residents of the town, who shall have all the 
powers, and discharge all the duties, in relation to such schools, as 
are by law imposed upon district committees, in relation to district 
schools. 

Sect. 55. Whenever any town shall fail to elect a committee, as 
provided in the preceding section, the board of school visitors of such 
town shall appoint a committee who shall have the powers and dis- 
charge the duties provided in the said section. 

Sect. 56. No town shall be entitled to receive its share of the 
public money from the treasury of the state, unless the report, re- 
quired by the one hundred and fifth section of this act, shall have 
been made by the school visitors to the secretary of the board of edu- 
cation. 

Sect. 57. Each of the towns in this state shall annually, on or 
before the first day of March, raise by taxation such a sum of money 
as they may deem advisable, not less than three-tenths of a mill on 
the dollar, on the grand list on said first of March last made and per- 
fected, and cause the same to be paid into the treasury of the several 
towns, respectively, for the benefit, support, and encouragement of 
common schools ; and the whole amount of money so raised shall be 
annually distributed to the several school districts within each town, 
under the direction of the selectmen and school visitors. 

Sect. 58. If any town shall neglect to raise such sum of money, 
in the manner and within the time limited in the preceding section, 
or shall fail to distribute the same according to the provisions of said 
section, such town shall forfeit, to tlie treasurer of the state, a sum 
equal to the amount which it was the duty of such town to raise as 
aforesaid, to be recovered by said treasurer in an action upon the 
case. 

Sect. 59. Towns shall have the same powers, and be subject to 
the same regulations, in taking land for school houses, out-buildings, 
and convenient accommodations for schools, as are conferred on 
school districts in the eighty-ninth, ninetieth, ninety-first, ninety- 
second, ninety-third, and ninety-fourth, sections of this act. 

Sect. 60. Every town, in lawful meeting, may authorize the 
school visitors in said town to draw an order on the town treasurer, 
in favor of such districts, as have kept their schools, in all respects, 
according to law, for their proportion of all the public moneys, re- 
ceived from the school fund for the use of the schools, in the hands of 
the treasurer, in proportion to the number of persons, between the 
ages of four and sixteen years, in each district. 

Sect. 61. Any town may, at any time, consolidate all the school 
districts therein in one district, to be known as the school district of 
(name of town), and shall thereupon forthwith take posses- 
sion of all school-houses, land, apparatus, and other property owned 



160 

and used for school purposes, which sucli districts might lawfully sell 
and convey ; but no such consolidation shall take effect, until a ma- 
jority of tlie school districts in the town shall, by a majority vote, in 
meetings legally warned, approve thereof. The property so taken 
shall be appraised under the direction of the town, and at the next 
annual assessment thereafter, a tax shall be levied upon the whole 
town, equal to the amount of said appraisal ; and there shall be re- 
mitted to the tax payers of each district the appraised value of its 
property thus taken ; or the difference, in the value of the property 
of the several districts, may be adjusted in any other manner agreed 
upon by the parties in interest. 

Sect. 62. Whenever any town shall consolidate its school dis- 
tricts, as provided in the preceding section, such town may, at its an- 
nual meeting, or at any special meeting called for such purpose, elect, 
by ballot, a committee of the town, not exceeding five persons in num- 
ber, who shall have all the powers, and discharge all the duties, in 
relation to such school, which are, by law, imposed upon district com- 
mittees in relation to district schools. 

Sect. 63. Whenever application shall be made to a town to form, 
alter, or dissolve, a school district, any district aggrieved by the action, 
or neglect of action of the town, in the premises, may appeal from 
such action or neglect of said town, to the superior court of the county 
in which such town is situated. 

Sect. 64. Such appeal may be taken to either of the next two 
terms, succeeding the action or neglect appealed from, and shall be 
made by a brief statement, that such appeal is taken, by whom, and 
the subject-matter of such appeal, signed by the proper agent or at- 
torney of the appellants, to which shall be annexed a citation, signed 
by proper authority, notifying the appellees to appear at the court to 
which such appeal is taken ; and service thereof shall be made by 
some proper officer, leaving a true and attested copy of such appeal 
and citation with the town clerk, or one of the selectmen, of such 
town, and with the clerk, or one of the district committee, of any 
other district interested, at least twelve days before the session of the 
court to which the same is made returnable. 

Sect. G5. Said court shall hear the parties, and shall have the 
same powers to act upon said application that said town by law had ; 
and if said court sees fit, it may appoint a committee to report the 
facts and their opinion thereon ; and the final decree of said court in 
the premises shall be recorded in the records of said town ; and said 
court shall have full power, as to the allowance and taxation of costs, 
including the fees for the surveys, and copies and recording of such 
decree. 

Sect. 66. No alteration of the lines, so fixed by such decree, shall 
be made, except by the superior court of such county ; and such 
court shall have original jurisdiction of any application for the pur- 
pose, made by any district interested. 



161 



4. — SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 

Sections. Sections. 

67. Towns may alter and dissolve districts. 84. District committee's duties. 

OS. Notice to be given of change of taxable 85. Vowers and duties of clerk, treasurer, and 

property from one district to another. collector. 

69. School "districts formed from two or more S6. Treasurer and collector to give bonds if 
towns, where to belong. required. 

70. Property in such districts, how taxed. 87 Fixing or changing site of a school-house. 

71. When districts are consolidated or divided, 88 When district does not support a school, 
corporate property, how disposed of. to whom school money paid. 

72. ileal estate, how divided. 89 — 93. How district may take land for site of 

73. Districts may allow school-houses to be school-house. 

used for private schools. 94. Extending provisions of five preceding see- 

74. Union districts under act of 1841, how to tions to other cases. 

be regulated. 95. llow school-house shall be built. 

75. Annual meeting of district, when held. 96. Money from school fund to be withheld if 
Special meetings, when to be called. school-house, &c, are not satisfactory. 

76. Place of meeting. 97. Enumeration of children in districts lying 

77. Notice of meetings to be given. in two or more towns 

78. Who may voie in district ; meetings. 98. District or committee may fix rate of tui- 

79. Name or number and limits of districts tion. Exemption of persons unable to pay ; 
to be recorded. abatements to be paid by towns. 

80. Settlement of boundaries of districts. 99 Kate of tuition limited. 

81. Corporate power of school districts. 100. How fixed and assessed. 

82. District officers, who, when, and how cho- 101. Tuition bills, how made out and collected, 
sen. Penalty for neglect of duty. 102. Application for abatements, when to be 

83. District failing to appoint officers, visitors made, 
shall appoint. 

Sect. 67. Each town shall have power to form, alter, and dis- 
solve, school districts within its limits, and any two or more towns 
may form school districts of adjoining portions of their several towns, 
and may alter and dissolve the same; but no new district shall be 
formed, which shall contain less than forty persons, between the ages 
of four and sixteen years ; and the jurisdiction of towns, for such pur- 
poses, shall extend to districts, specially incorporated by act of the 
general assembly, in the same manner as to others. 

Sect. 68. Whenever it shall be proposed to remove persons, or 
taxable property, from one district and annex the same to another 
district, the district, from which such persons or property are to be 
removed, shall be notified of such proposed alteration, by having a 
copy of the same lodged with the clerk of the district, at least fifteen 
days before the town is called to act upon said alteration. 

Sect. 69. Every school district, heretofore formed from parts of 
two or more towns, shall, for all school purposes, belong to the town 
within which the school-house of said district is situated, unless such 
towns shall make some other agreement, with regard to the jurisdic- 
tion over such district ; and in all cases, where any district shall here- 
after be so formed, the towns, from which the same are so formed, 
shall, in the formation of such district, agree as to the particular town 
to which such district shall belong ; but the inhabitants of such dis- 
trict shall have no right to vote in town meeting in any other town 
than that within which they reside. 

Sect. 70. The property of the inhabitants of a district, formed 
from two or more towns, may be taxed for school purposes in the town 
to which such district pertains ; but, for all other purposes, shall be 
taxable in the town in which such inhabitants reside. 



162 

Sect. 71. When any two or more districts shall be consolidated 
into one, the new district shall own all the corporate property of the 
several districts ; and when a district shall be divided, the funds and 
property, or the income and proceeds thereof, belonging to such dis- 
trict, shall be distributed among the several parts, in proportion to the 
number of persons, between the ages of four and sixteen years in 
each ; and in case the distribution shall not be made before the district 
is divided, and the several parts can not agree, the selectmen of the 
town shall distribute the same. 

Sect. 72. Whenever, on any sucb division of any such school 
district, the only, or principal, property of said district shall consist 
of a school-house, and real estate connected therewith, which can not 
be divided between the several parts of said district, without great 
inconvenience, the selectmen of the town, instead of dividing such 
school-house and real estate, shall set such school-house and real 
estate to one part, and award that the other part or parts shall receive, 
from the part to which such school-house and real estate are set, such 
sum of money as shall, in the judgment of such selectmen, be just 
and right, and such award shall be binding upon the several parts of 
such district. 

Sect. 73. Any school district may allow its school-house to be 
used for a private school, whenever the same is not used for a public 
school, by vote of a majority of the legal voters, present at any meet- 
ing of the district, legally called for that purpose. 

Sect. 74. All associations under the statute of 1841, allowing 
any two or more adjoining school districts to associate together, and 
form a union district, entered into before the repeal of said statute, 
shall continue to be managed and regulated, according to the provis- 
ions of the statute of 1841, any law or usage to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

Sect. 75. Every school district shall hold an annual meeting, on 
such day in the months of August or September in each year, as the 
committee, or clerk of the district, in the notice thereof, may desig- 
nate, for the choice of officers, and for the transaction of any other 
business, relating to schools in said district ; and shall also hold a 
special meeting whenever the same shall be duly called ; and the dis- 
trict committee may call a special meeting, whenever such committee 
may think necessary or proper, and shall call a special meeting, on 
the written request of five residents, therein qualified to vote ; which 
request shall state the object of calling the same. 

Sect. 76. District meetings shall be held at the district school- 
house ; if there be no suitable school-house, the committee shall de- 
termine the place of meeting ; if there be no committee, the clerk 
shall determine the same^ if there be no committee and no clerk, the 
selectmen of the town, to which such district belongs, shall determine 
the place of meeting, which shall, in all cases, be within the limits of 
the district. 

Sect. 77. Notice of the time, place, and object, of every annual 
and special meeting of the district, shall be given, at least five days 
inclusive, previous to holding the same. The district committee, or, 



163 

if there be no such committee, the clerk, or, if there be no commit- 
tee and no clerk, the selectmen of the town, shall give notice of a dis- 
trict meeting, either by publishing the same in a newspaper printed in 
the district, or, by putting notice on tlfe district school- house, or on 
the sign-post within the district, or in some other mode previously 
designated by the district ; but if there be no such newspaper, school- 
house, or sign-post, or other mode so designated, the selectmen of the 
town, to which said district belongs, shall determine how and where 
the notice shall be given. The person or persons, giving such notice, 
shall, on the day of giving the notice, leave a duplicate of the same 
with the clerk of the district, who shall preserve it on file.* 

Sect. 78. Every person, residing in the district, qualified to vote 
in town meeting, may vote in district meetings ; and every meeting 
may choose its own moderator, and may adjourn from time to time to 
meet at the same, or some other place. Every person, who shall vote 
illegally in any school district meeting, shall forfeit the sum of seven- 
teen dollars to the treasurer of the county where the offense is com- 
mitted ; and the attorneys for the state in the several counties, and 
grand jurors in the several towns, shall make presentment of every 
such offense. 

Sect. 79. The name, or number, and limits, of every school dis- 
trict shall be entered on the records of such district, and on the records 
of the town, to which such district belongs. 

Sect. 80. Whenever the boundary lines of any district are not 
clearly settled and defined, the selectmen of the town, in which said 
district is situated, shall settle and define the same ; and whenever 
said selectmen can not agree in settling and defining such boundary 
lines, the town, to which such district belongs, may appoint three in- 
different persons for that purpose, who shall have the same authority 
therein as is herein conferred upon said selectmen, and said boundary 
lines may, in either case, when necessary, be defined by an actual 
survey ; and when parts of such districts lie in two or more towns, 
the selectmen of the towns, in which any such part is situated, or, in 
case of disagreement, indifferent persons, appointed as aforesaid / shall 
settle and define the boundary lines of such part. 

Sect. 81. Every school district shall be a body corporate, and 
shall have power to sue and be sued, to purchase, receive, hold and 
convey, real or personal property for school purposes ; to build, pur- 
chase, hire, and repair school-houses, and to supply the same with fuel, 
furniture, and other appendages and accommodations ; to establish 
schools of different grades ; to purchase maps, globes, blackboards, 
and other school apparatus ; to establish and maintain a school library; 
to employ one or more teachers, and #iall be holden to pay the wages 
of any such teacher or teachers, as are employed by the committee 
of such district in conformity to law ; to lay taxes for all the forego- 
ing purposes ; to borrow money for any purpose for which it may lay 

* Object of meeting, how expressed in warning; meeting when opened; presump- 
tions in regard to record. South School Dist. v. Blakely, 13 C. R., 327. 

What is a sufficient warning. Bartlett v. Kingsley, 15 C. R. 327. Various point* 
iu relation to school meetings. Same. 



164 

a tax, and to make all lawful agreements and regulations for estab- 
lishing and conducting school.', not inconsistent with the regulations 
of the town to which said district belongs.* 

Sect. 82. Each school district shall choose, by ballot, at the an- 
nual meeting, a committee of not more than three residents of the dis- 
trict, a clerk, who shall be sworn, and a treasurer and collector, who 
shall hold their respective offices until the next annual meeting, and 
until others are chosen and appointed ; and any person so chosen, 
who shall refuse or neglect to perform the duties of the office, shall 
pay five dollars to the treasurer of the district, for the use of said dis- 
trict ; but any new district may choose its officers at its first, or at any 
subsequent meeting, called by the selectmen of the town, who shall 
hold their offices till the annual meeting of such school district, f 

Sect. 83. If any district, at the time for the annual meeting, 
shall fail, or neglect, to appoint all, or any, of the officers required by 
this act, or if any vacancy shall occur by death, removal from the 
district, or otherwise, the school visitors of the town, to which such 
district belongs, shall make such appointment, and fill such vacancy, 
on receiving written notice thereof from any three members of the 
district, and shall lodge the name or names of such officers, so ap- 
pointed, with the district clerk. 

Sect. 84. The district committee shall give notice, of all meet- 
ings of the district, in the manner prescribed ; shall, unless otherwise 
directed by the district, employ one or more qualified teachers ; shall 
provide suitable school-rooms, and furnish the same with fuel properly 
prepared; shall visit the schools, by one or more of their number, 
twice at least during each season of schooling ; shall, when the schol- 
ars are not properly supplied with books, and their parents or guard- 
ians are too poor to furnish them, provide the same at the expense of 
the district ; shall suspend, during pleasure, or expel from school, 
during the current season, all pupils found guilty, on full hearing, of 
incorrigibly bad conduct, and shall give such information and assist- 
ance to the school visitors of the town as they may require, and per- 
form all other lawful acts, that may be necessary to carry into full 
effect the powers and duties of school districts.} 

Sect. 85. The clerk, treasurer, and collector, of each school dis- 
trict, shall exercise the same powers, and perform the same duties, 
in their respective districts, as the clerk, treasurer, and collector of 
towns do, in their respective towns. 

Sect. 86. The inhabitants of each district, in lawful meeting, 

* A school district may be sued, and property of its inhabitants may bo taken to 
satisfy the judgment. JlcLoud v. Selbv, 10 C. R. 390. 

As to the kind of house a school disUjict mav build. See Sheldon v. Center School 
Distrtct, 25 C. R. 224. District can not change the site of its school-house without a 
two- thirds vote. Colt v. Roberts, 28 C. R. 330. 

School-houses may not be used for religious meetings. Scofield v. Eighth School 
District, 27 C. R. 499. 

t Taking the oath at any time before making the record, sufficient. Bartlott v. 
Kinsley, 15 C. R. 327. 

I The provision of this section, authorizing the committee to provide school-rooms, 
does not authorize a change of the site of the school-house without the requisite vote. 
Colt v. Roberts, 28 C. R. 330. 



165 

shall have power to require that the treasurer and collector shall 
respectively give bonds to the district, for the faithful discharge of 
the duties of their respective offices, which bonds shall be approved 
by the district committee, before the treasurer or collector shall enter 
on the duties of his office. 

Sect. 87. The vote of two-thirds of any legal meeting shall be 
necessary to fix the site of a new school-house, or to change the site 
of an old one ; but if such two-thirds vote can not be obtained in 
favor of any site, the school visitors of the town, or the school visit- 
ors of the towns, in which such district is located, on application of 
the district, shall fix the site, and make return thereof to the clerk of 
the town in which such site shall be. 

Sect. 88. Whenever a school district, from inability or other 
cause, shall not support a school within the same, and the scholars 
belonging thereto shall attend the school of any other district, the 
town, where the enumeration of the children is made and returned, 
may receive the proportion of school moneys, which are drawn on 
the children so enumerated, from the comptroller of public accounts, 
and pay the same over to the district or districts where such children 
actually attend school ; and a certificate from the committee of the 
school district, where such children have attended school, that the 
money is so appropriated, shall be presented to the selectmen of the 
town to which such children belong, and shall be sufficient evidence 
that such money has been appropriated according to law. 

Sect. 89. Any school district may take land, which has been 
fixed upon by it, as the site of a school-house for a common school, 
and which is necessary for that purpose, and for necessary outbuild- 
ings, and convenient accommodations for its schools, upon paying to 
the owner just compensation therefor. If the school district, wishing 
to take land for the purpose aforesaid, can not agree with the owner, 
upon the compensation to be paid him therefor, it may prefer its pe- 
tition to the superior court, to be held in the county in which the land 
lies, praying that such compensation may be ascertained and deter- 
mined by said court. The said petition shall be accompanied by a 
summons, signed by competent authority, notifying the owner of the 
land to be taken, to appear before the court to which the petition is 
returnable, and shall be served in the same manner as is provided by 
law for the service of other petitions ; and, upon said petition, said 
court shall appoint a committee of three judicious and disinterested 
men, who, after being sworn, and after giving reasonable notice to the 
parties, shall examine the land proposed to be taken, and, if they ap- 
prove the site, shall ascertain its value, assess such sum in favor of 
the owner as will justly compensate him therefor, and, in case of non- 
approval of said site by said committee, they shall have power to fix 
another site on land of the same owner, and proceed as aforesaid, and 
make report of their doings to said superior court ; and said court 
may reject the report of said committee, and set aside their doings, 
for any irregular or improper conduct in the performance of their 
duties. 



166 

Sect. 90. If the report of said committee be rejected and their 
doings set aside, the court aforesaid shall appoint another committee, 
who shall proceed in the same manner as the first committee are re- 
quired to proceed by the preceding section ; but if said report shall 
be accepted by said court, such acceptance shall have the effect of a 
judgment, in favor of the owners of the land against the petitioners, 
for the amount of the assessments made by the committee, and exe- 
cution may be issued therefor accordingly ; but said land shall not be 
used or inclosed by the school district, for any purpose whatever, 
until the amount of said judgment shall be paid to the party to whom 
it is due, or deposited for his use with the treasurer of the county. 

Sect. 91. The school district, preferring the petition aforesaid, 
shall pay the committee, for making said assessment, a reasonable 
compensation for their services, which shall be taxed by the court to 
which their report is made. 

Sect. 92. Any school district wishing to take land, which ha3 
been fixed upon by it as the site of a school house for a common 
school, and being unable to agree with the owner of such land upon 
the compensation to be paid him therefor, may at any time when the 
superior court is not in session in the county in which such land is 
situated, prefer its petition to either judge of the superior court, pray- 
ing for the appointment of a committee, for the purposes specified in 
the eighty-ninth section of this act. Said petition shall be accompa- 
nied by a summons, signed by competent authority, notifying the 
owner of the land, proposed to be taken, to appear before the judge 
to whom such petition is brought, at a time and place specified in said 
summons, and shall be served in the same manner as is provided by 
law for the service of other petitions, at least twelve days before the 
time specified in said summons. 

Sect. 93. Any committee, so appointed, shall have all the powers 
and perform all the duties provided for committees appointed by the 
superior court, in accordance with the eighty-ninth section of this act, 
and shall make report of their doings to the next term of the supe- 
rior court, holden in the county wherein such district may be, upon 
which said superior court shall proceed, in all respects, as provided 
in said section. 

Sect. 94. The provisions of the five preceding sections shall be 
so extended and construed, as to authorize school districts to take 
land for necessary out-buildings, and convenient accommodations for 
such schools, where school-houses have been heretofore erected, as 
well as where they are to be erected, after the proceedings therein 
authorized have been had. 

Sect. 95. Whenever a district shall have voted to erect a new 
school-house, the same shall be built, according to a plan approved 
by the board of school visitors, and by the building committee of such 
district, but such officers shall not have power to require such district 
to expend any larger sura therefor, than such district shall vote to 
appropriate. 



167 

Sect. 96. No district shall be entitled to receive any money from 
the school fund of the state, unless such district shall be supplied with 
a school-house, and out-buildings pertaining thereto, which shall be 
satisfactory to the board of school visitors. 

Sect. 97. The committee of any school district, formed from parts 
of two or more towns, shall, in their return of the names of the per- 
sons between four and sixteen years of age, to the school visitors of 
the towns to which such district belongs, specify the towns to which 
each person thus enumerated belongs, and shall, under oath, make re- 
turn to the school visitors in any other town, which may compose a 
part of such district, the names of those persons thus enumerated, 
whose legal residence shall be within the limits of said town, and who, 
for school purposes, are to be considered as belonging to said district. 
Sect. 98. Any school district, in lawful meeting, may fix, or au- 
thorize its district committee to fix, a rate of tuition, to be paid by the 
persons attending school, or by their parents, guardians, or employers, 
towards the expenses of instruction, fuel, books, and other expenses, 
over and above the money received from the town or state appropria- 
tions; and the selectmen, and board of visitors, as a board, shall, on 
application of the .district committee, exempt therefrom, all persons, 
whom they consider unable to pay the same; and the selectmen shall 
draw an order on the treasurer of the town in which such district is 
located, in favor of such district, for the amount of such abatements. 

Sect. 99. The rate of tuition, fixed as aforesaid, shall not exceed 
six dollars per scholar, for each school year, or a proportionate sum 
for each term of schooling, or part of a year, except in districts where 
different grades of common schools are established, where the rate for 
the higher grades shall not exceed twelve dollars per scholar, for each 
school year. 

Sect. 100. Such rate of tuition may be fixed by a district at any 
time during the school year, or within three weeks after the close 
thereof, and shall be assessed on all the persons who may attend, or 
have attended, the school of such district during said year, or upon 
their parents, guardians, or employers; and for any person attending 
school during any part of a term, the whole tuition fee for said term 
shall be paid, except in case of absence from school on account of 
sickness, death, removal from the district, or other good reason, when 
the district committee may make a reasonable deduction from the sum 
to be paid to such person; but in no case shall any deduction be made 
for any absence, except for a continuous absence of not less than four 
weeks. 

Sect. 101. Whenever a rate of tuition has been fixed by any 
school district, in accordance with the provisions of this act, the rate 
bill or assessment of such tuition shall be made out and signed by the 
district committee, and may be delivered to the collector of the dis- 
trict, or, if there be no district collector, to either constable of the 
town ; and said collector or constable shall have the same power in 
the collection of the same, as is possessed by collectors of town taxes ; 
and such constable shall be allowed the same fees for collecting as are 
allowed the collectors of town taxes. 



168 

Sect. 102. All applications made to the selectmen and board of 
visitors for the abatement of tuition bills assessed by any district, shall 
be made within twelve months from the close of the school term, for 
which such tuition bills are due. 

0. — SCHOOL VISITORS. 

SectioV!.. Sections. 

103. Duties of school visitors. 105. Duties of acting visitors. 

104. Visitors may annul certificates of unquali- 10G. Compensation of acting school visitors, 
fied teachers ; may appoint acting visitors. 

Sect. 103. The board of visitors shall prescribe rules and regu- 
lations for the management, studies, books, classification, and disci- 
pline, of the schools in the town ; and shall themselves, or by a com- 
mittee by them appointed for that purpose, examine all candidates for 
teachers in the common schools of such town, and shall give to those 
persons, with whose moral character, and literary attainments, and 
ability to teach, they are satisfied, a certificate, setting forth the 
branches he or she is found capable of teaching; but no certificate 
shall be given to any person not found qualified to teach reading, writ- 
ing, arithmetic, and grammar, thoroughly, and the wdiments of geog- 
raphy and history; shall visit all the common schools of said town, 
twice, at least, during each sea«on for schooling, once within four 
weeks after the opening, and again, within four weeks preceding the 
close of the school, at which visit they shall examine the register of 
the teacher, and other matters touching the school-house, library, stud- 
ies, discipline, mode of teaching, and improvement of the school ; they 
shall make return of the number of persons over four and under six- 
teen years of age in said town to the comptroller, and draw orders on 
the same for any portion of the public money due to said town, as 
heretofore prescribed ; and they shall draw all orders on the town 
treasurer or school fund treasurer for all moneys due the common 
schools of said town. 

Sect. 104. The board of visitors shall annul, by a major vote of 
the board, the certificates of such teachers as shall be found unquali- 
fied, or who will not conform to the rules and the regulations adopted 
by the visitors, and shall submit to the town, at its annual meeting, a 
written account of their own doings and of the condition of the sev- 
eral schools within their limits, for the year preceding; and said board 
may appoint a committee of one or two persons to exercise all, or such 
part of the powers, and perform all, or such part of the duties of 
said visitors as may be prescribed in the vote making the appointment, 
and the rules and regulations of said board, which committee shall be 
called the acting school visitor or visitors. 

Sect. 105. The acting school visitor or visitors shall visit the 
schools included in his or their appointment, in company with one or 
more of the visitors, or of the district committee, if such attendance 
can be obtained ; and such visits shall be made twice at least during 
each season of schooling, in conformity with the provisions of this act. 
He or they shall, unless otherwise directed by the visitors, spend at 
least half a day in each school visit; and shall make a full annual re- 



169 

port of the condition of said schools, and of all the important facts 
concerning the fame, to the secretary of the hoard of education, on or 
before the first day of October, annually, and shall answer in writing 
all inquiries that may he propounded to him or them on the subject of 
common schools, by said secretary. He or they shall also prepare an 
abstract of such report, to be read at the annual meeting of said town . 
Sect. 10G. The acting school visitor or visitors of every town 
shall receive, for the time actually employed in the performance of 
the duties prescribed in this act, the sum of* one dollar and twenty-five 
cents each, per day, to be paid out of the treasury of the town in 
which the school-houses of the schools visited by him or them are sit- 
uated, if he or they shall have made his or their annual report in the 
manner prescrihed in the preceding sections, and his or their account 
shall be approved by the visitors of the town. 

6. DISTRICT COMMITTEES. 

Sections. Sections. 

107. District committee to make report to school 10S. If report not made, public money to be 
Tisitors ; subjects of report. withheld. 

Sect. 107. The committee of every district shall, on or before the 
fifteenth day of September in each year, make a written report to the 
board of school visitors of the town, which shall state: 

1. The whole term for which a school or schools in such district 
shall have been kept by a qualified teacher or teachers during the year 
ending the thirty-first day of August, and how much of said term was 
winter school, and how much summer school. 

2. The amount of money received from the school fund of the state, 
town deposit fund, local funds, town tax, district tax, rate bills, and 
all contributions, whether in board, fuel, or otherwise, for the year 
ending the thirty-first day of August. 

3. The whole number of children between the ages of four and 
sixteen years, the number of each sex in the summer school, and in 
the winter school, the average attendance both summer and winter of 
each sex, and the number of pupils attending school over sixteen years 
of age. 

4. The number of male, and of female teachers employed, and for 
how long a time each. 

5. The wages of male teachers per month, and of female teachers 
per week, including board, when received as a part of the teacher's 
compensation. 

6. The amount expended during the year for school buildings, for 
apparatus and library, and for other school purposes. 

7. The different branches taught in the schools, the number of pu- 
pils in each branch, the number of public examinations, lectures, visits, 
and by whom, and such other information as may be required by the 
board of visitors, or by the secretary of the board of education. 

Sect. 108. Xo district shall be entitled to receive its share of the 
public money from the state treasury, unless the report, required by 
the next preceding section, shall have been made by the committee of 
the district. 

13 



170 



7. — TEACHERS. 

Simons. Sections. 

109. Teachers must hare certificates of examin- HO. Teachers to keep register. 

ation and approbation from school Tisitors 111. When teacher not entitled top3y. 

before commencing school. 112. Examination of teachers, how conducted. 

Sect. 109. No teacher shall be employed in any school, supported 
by any portion of the public money, until he has received a certificate 
of' examination and approbation, signed by a majority of the board of 
visitors, or by all the committee by them appointed, nor shall any 
teacher be entitled to draw any portion of his wages, so far as the 
same are paid out of any public money appropriated by law to schools, 
unless he can produce such certificate, dated previous to the opening 
of his school; but no new certificate shall be necessary, when the 
teacher is continued in the same school more than one term, unless the 
visitors shall require it. 

Sect. 110. Every teacher, in any common district school, shall 
enter in a book or a register, to be provided by the clerk, at the ex- 
pense of the district, the names of all the scholars attending school, 
their ages, the date when they commenced, the length of time they 
continued, and their daily attendance, together with the day of the 
month on which such school was visited by the school visitors of the 
town, or committee by them appointed; which book or register shall 
be open at all times to the inspection of all persons interested, and 
shall be delivered over by the teacher, at the close of the term, to the 
district clerk, together with a certified abstract, showing the whole 
number of pupils enrolled, the number of males and females, and the 
average daily attendance. The teacher, so far as practicable, shall 
furnish to the district committee such information, with regard to mat- 
ters appertaining to the school, as such committee shall require. 

Sect. 111. No teacher shall be entitled to any pay for his services, 
who shall have neglected to perform the duties enjoined by the next 
preceding section. 

Sect. 112. All examination of teachers under the one hundred 
and third section of this act shall be conducted by a majority of the 
board of school visitors, or by all the committee by them appointed. 

8. — school libraries. 

SECTIONS. Sicnoss. 

113. When payments may be made from state 115. Visitors may make regulations for district 
treasury for district libraries. libraries. 

114. Selection of books to be approved by Tisitors. 

Sect. 113. The treasurer of the state, upon the order of the sec- 
retary of the board of education, is hereby authorized and directed to 
pay over the sum of ten dollars, out of any moneys that may be in 
the public treasury, to every school district which shall raise by tax or 
subscription a like sum for the same purpose, to establish within such 
district a school library, and to procure philosophical and chemical 



171 

apparatus; and the further sum of five dollars annually, upon a like 
order, to the said districts, upon condition that they shall have raised 
a like sum for such year, for the purposes aforesaid. 

Sect. 114. The selection of hooks for such libraries shall be ap- 
proved by the board of visitors of each town. 

Sect. 115. The board of visitors of each town shall make proper 
rules and regulations for the management, use, and safe keeping, of 
such libraries. 



CHAPTER IV. 

OF STATE APPOHTIONMENTS, TAXATION, AND EXPENSES. 

Sections. Sections. 

116. Income of school fund, how distributed. 126. Visitors to certify in what districts schools 

117. Town tax and interest of town deposit have not been legally kept. 

fund, how distributed. Least amount of 127. Secretary of board of education to decide 
money to each district. when public money is forfeited. 

118. Excess of tax, how applied in districts ly- 128. School money misapplied forfeited to the 
ing in two or more towns. state. 

119. Schools to be kept at least six months, and 129. Penalty for fraudulent certificate, 
to be visited twice each season ; penalty. 13", 131. District tax, how levied. 

120. District committees to make annual return 132. How to proceed when property in two or 
of names of children, &c. more districts is not entered separately on 

121 When district clerk to make returns. grand list. 

122. When one of school visitors to make returns. 133. When real estate or polls have been omitted 

123. Returns to be sworn to; form of return. from grand list. 

124. Visitors to examine and correct returns, 134. When property has been sold or conveyed 
and transmit to comptroller. Form of cer- since last grand list was completed, 
tificate. 135- Duty of assessors in the preceding cases. 

125. Returns to school visitors how lodged, and 136. School districts may appoint a constable 
school money how drawn. Form of certiu- collector. 

cate by school visitors. 

Sect. 116. The income of the school fund, after deducting all ex- 
penses attending its management, shall be divided by the comptroller 
of public accounts, with the advice of the commissioner of the school 
fund, and distributed among the several towns, in proportion to the 
number of persons between four and sixteen years of age, as ascer- 
tained by the school visitors of such towns, in conformity with the 
provisions of this act. 

Sect. 117. The whole amount of money raised by the towns of 
this state, in accordance with the requirements of the fifty-seventh 
section of this act, and all the interest or income, arising from moneys 
known as the town deposit fund, shall annually, on or before the 
fourth day of March, be distributed to the several school districts, 
and parts of school districts, within the limits of each town, under 
the direction of the selectmen and school visitors ; but whenever the 
public money, derived from the school fund, will not amount, accord- 
ing to the rule of distribution, to thirty-five dollars for a district in 
any one year, the selectmen and school visitors shall appropriate from 
said funds a sum sufficient to make the amount equal to thirty-five 
dollars. 



172 

Sect. 118. In the distribution of the town school tax to parts of 
districts, or to joint districts, formed from two or more towns, when- 
ever either of such towns shall raise by tax, for school purposes, a 
greater amount than that required by law, the excess over such re- 
quired amount shall be applied towards the rate or tuition bills, (if 
any are made,) of such children, attending common school in said 
joint district, as belong to the same, and reside in the town in which 
said tax was collected. 

Sect. 119. No school district shall be entitled to any portion of 
the public money, unless the school in said district has been kept by 
a teacher or teachers, duly qualified, for at least six months in the 
year, and visited twice during each season by its visitors, nor until 
the district committee shall certify that the public money, received 
by the district for the year previous, has been faithfully applied, and 
expended, in paying for the services of such teacher or teachers, and 
for no other purpose whatever. 

Sect. 120. The district committee shall annually, in the month 
of January, ascertain the name of every person over four and under 
sixteen years of age, who shall belong to such district on the first 
Monday of said month, and compose a part of the family of his pa- 
rents, guardians, or employers, together with the names of such pa- 
rents, guardians, or employers, and shall make return of the same to 
the school visitors of the town, to which such district belongs, on or 
before the twentieth day of January in each year ; but in such return, 
no persons shall be included, who are residing in such districts to at- 
tend a private school, or for other private purposes ; and such persons 
shall be enumerated in the district where their parents or guardians 
reside. 

Sect. 121. In case of the absence or inability of the district com- 
mittee to make the enumeration and return above required, the clerk 
of the district shall do the same, in the manner, and within the time 
before prescribed. 

Sect. 122. Whenever the committee and clerk of any school dis- 
trict shall omit to return, to the school visitors of the town, the enu- 
meration of the children in their respective districts, within the time 
prescribed by law, one of the school visitors of such town shall make 
such enumeration, before the first day of February in each year, and 
return the same to said school visitors ; and for making such enu- 
meration, such visitor shall be entitled to receive five cents, for each 
child so enumerated, to be paid from the next dividend belonging to said 
district, which may thereafter be received from the town deposit fund. 

Sect. 123. The return, above required to be made to the school 
visitor-, shall be subscribed by the person making the same, and 
sworn to before a magistrate, according to the following form ; 

I do hereby certify, that I have carefully enumerated, according to 
law, all person* between the ages of four and sixteen years, within 
the school district, and do find, that on the first Monday of 

January, A. D. there were residing within said district, and 

belonging thereto, the number of persons between the ages 

aforesaid. 

A. B. 



On this day of A. D. personally appeared the 

above named A. B. and made oath to the truth of the above return 
by him subscribed, before me. 

C. D., Justice of the Peace. 

Sect. 124. The school visitors of the town shall examine and 
correct the returns made to them, so that no person shall be enumer- 
ated twice in different districts, or be improperly returned, and shall 
prepare and transmit to the comptroller of public accounts, on or be- 
fore the fifth day of February, annually, a certificate, in which the 
number of persons shall be inserted, at full length, which shall be 
sworn to according to the following form, to wit: 

We, the school visitors of the town of do certify, that from 

the returns made to us under oath, as by law provided, we find, that 
on the first Monday of January, A. D. there were residing with- 
in said town, and belonging thereto, the number of persons 
between the ages of four and sixteen years, and from the best in- 
formation we have obtained, we verily believe that said number is 
correct. 

[■ School Visitors. 

On this day of A. D. personally appeared the 

above named school visitors, and made oath to the truth of the above 
certificate by them subscribed, before me. 

C. D., Justice of the Peace. 

Sect. 125. The school visitors shall lodge the returns made to 
them with the treasurer of the town. The comptroller of public ac- 
counts, on the application of the school visitors of any town, shall 
draw an order on the treasurer for the amount, which such town may 
be entitled to, of all moneys appropriated by law, for the benefit, 
support, and encouragement of common schools, which may be in the 
treasury on the twenty-eighth day of February in each year ; but no 
order shall be drawn in favor of any town, until the school visitors 
shall certify, in writing, under their hands, in the words following, to 
wit: 

" We, the school visitors of the town of do certify, that the 

schools in said town have been kept for at least six months in the 
year, ending the thirty-first day of August last, by teachers duly ex- 
amined and approved, and have been visited according to law ; and 
that the moneys drawn from the public treasury by said town for 
said year, appropriated to schooling, have been faithfully applied and 
expended in paying for the services of said teachers, and for no other 
purpose whatever. 

Dated at the day of A. D. 

[■ School Visitors. 

To the Comptroller of Public Accounts. 

Sect. 126. Whenever the school in any school district shall not 
be kept according to law, the school visitors of the town, to which such 
district belongs, shallj in their certificate or certificates to the comp- 



174 

troller for the year following, state such fact, and also the number of 
children enumerated in such district, and the comptroller, when ap- 
plication is made for the school moneys, payable to such town for said 
year, shall deduct from the whole number of children, enumerated in 
such town, the number contained in such district, and shall draw an 
order for the benefit of the remaining districts of such town. 

Sect. 127. In all cases of forfeiture of public money, under the 
one hundred and nineteenth section of this act, application shall be 
made to the secretary of the board of education, who shall examine 
the facts of each case, and decide, according to its equity, on the 
right of the applicants to receive the money so forfeited ; and the 
same shall be paid, as if no forfeiture had occurred, on his certificate 
to the comptroller of public accounts, in approbation of such pay- 
ment. 

Sect. 128. If any money, appropriated to the use of schools, shall 
be applied by a town, or a school district, to any other purpose, the 
same shall be forfeited to the state, and the comptroller shall sue for 
such money in behalf of the state, to be applied to the use of schools. 

Sect. 129. If any school visitor or school visitors shall, at any 
time, fraudulently make a false certificate, by which money shall be 
drawn from the treasury of this state, each person, so fraudulently 
making such certificate, shall forfeit the sum of sixty dollars to the 
state, to be recovered by action of debt on this statute, and the comp- 
troller shall bring a suit to recover the same. 

Sect. 130. Whenever a district shall impose a tax, the same shall 
be levied on all the real estate situated therein, and upon the polls, and 
other rateable estate, except real estate, situated without the limits of 
such district, of those persons who are residents therein, at the time 
of laying such tax ; and said real estate shall not be taxed by any 
school district except the one in which the same is situated ; and said 
tax shall be made out, and signed, by the district committee, from the 
assessment list, of the town or towns to which said district belongs, 
last completed, or next to be completed, as said district shall direct ; 
and no deduction or abatement shall be made on account of the in- 
debtedness of the owner of any estate so taxed, unless the debtor and 
creditor both reside in the same school district, where said real estate 
is taxed. 

Sect. 131. Such tax shall also be levied on the interest of all 
manufacturing and mechanical business, subject to taxation, which is 
located or carried on in said district, whether the owners reside there- 
in or not, except so far as the same may consist in real estate, situated 
out of the district ; and said interest so taxed shall not be taxed in 
any other school district. 

Sect. 132. Whenever real estate, situated in one district, is so 
asse>sed and entered in the grand list, in common with other estate, 
situ; ted out of said district, that there is no distinct and separate 
value, put by the assessors upon the part lying in said district, then 
said district, wishing to lay a tax as aforesaid, may call on one or 
more of the assessors, for the time being, of the town in which said 



175 

property is situated, to assess, and they shall, on such application, 
assess the value of that part of said estate which lies in said district, 
and return the same to the clerk of said town; and notice of such 
assessment, and of the meeting of the assessors and selectmen here- 
after mentioned, shall be given by the district committee, in the same 
way as a notice for school meetings ; and at the end of fifteen days, 
after said assessment has been returned as aforesaid, said assessors 
and selectmen shall meet in such place, as said district committee 
shall designate in such notice, and shall have the same power, in rela- 
tion to such list, as the board of relief has, in relation to such list of 
towns ; and when such list shall be perfected by said assessors and 
selectmen, the same shall be lodged with the town clerk, and said as- 
sessment shall be the rule of taxation for said estate, by said district, 
for the year ensuing, and said assessors shall be paid, by said district, 
a reasonable compensation for their services. 

Sect. 133. Whenever a district wishes to lay a tax, and there is 
real estate situated in said district, which has been neglected to be 
put into the assessment list of the town ; or, where there are polls 
in said district, liable to taxation, which have not been entered in said 
assessment list, such district may call on one or more of the assessors, 
for the time being, of the town in which such neglect has occurred, 
who shall assess the value of such real estate, make a list of said polls, 
and add such property and polls to the list of the district, wishing to 
lay said tax. 

Sect. 134. Whenever a district wishes to lay a tax, and lays the 
same on the town list last completed, and any real estate has been 
sold and conveyed, or in any way changed ownership, between the 
time when said list was completed, and the time of laying said tax, 
such district may call out one or more of the assessors, for the time 
being, of the town in which such sale, conveyance, or change of prop- 
erty has occurred, who shall assess the value of said real estate, to 
the person owning the same, at the time of laying said tax, and de- 
duct the same from the list of the person, in whose name it stood on 
the assessment list of the town. 

Sect. 135. The assessors, in performing the duties mentioned in 
the two preceding sections, shall proceed in the manner prescribed 
for assessing real estate, in the one hundred and thirty-second section 
of this act. 

Sect. 136. The several school districts may appoint either of the 
constables of the town or towns, in which such school district may be 
situated, to be collector of the taxes of such sehool district, whether 
such constable belongs to said district or not, and the constable, ap- 
pointed such collector, on receiving any rate, tax, or assessment bill, 
from the committee of any such school district, shall forthwith collect 
the same, and pay the amount of such bill or bills into the treasury 
of such school district, and said constable shall be allowed such fees 
for collecting the same, as are allowed to collectors of town taxes. 



176 



TITLE XIII. 



CHAPTER IV. 



OF CHILDREN AND MINORS EMPLOYED IN LABOR. 

Sections. Sections. 

47. Children under fifteen years of age not to be 51. Constables and grand jurors to give iuform- 
eniployed in labor unless instructed in school ation. 

three months each year. 52. Complaints, to whom to he made. 

43. Certificate of teacher, evidence. Duty of 56. Towns may make and enforce by-laws respect- 
school visitors. ing truants and vagrant children. 

49. Ten hours a legal day's work. 57. Such children to be committed to suitable 

60. Children under, ten years not be employed institutions. 

in or about a factory. No minor under 58. Who may prosecute. 

eighteen years of age to be employed more 59. Warrants, before whom returnable. 

than twelve hours a day. Penalty. 

Section 47. No child, under the age of fifteen years, shall be era- 
ployed to labor in any manufacturing establishment, or in any other 
business in this state, unless such child shall have attended some public 
or private day school, where instruction is given by a teacher qualified 
to instruct in orthography, reading, writing, English grammar, geog- 
raphy, or arithmetic, at least three months of the twelve, next pre- 
ceding any and every year, in which such child shall be so employed; 
and the owner, agent, or superintendent of any manufacturing estab- 
lishment, "who shall employ any child in such establishment, contrary 
to the provisions of this section, shall forfeit, for each offense, a penalty 
of twenty-five dollars, to the treasurer of the state. 

Section 48. A certificate, signed and sworn to by the instructor 
of the school, where any child may have attended, that such child has 
received the instruction aforesaid, shall be deemed sufficient evidence 
of the fact; and the school visitors of the several towns, personally, 
or by a committee by them appointed, annually, and as often as they 
shall think proper, shall examine into the situation of the children 
employed in the several manufacturing establishments in their respect- 
ive towns, and ascertain whether the foregoing requirements are duly 
observed, and report all violations thereof to some informing officer, to 
the intent that prosecutions may be instituted therefor; and all inform- 
ing officers shall prosecute for all such violations. 

Section 49. Ten hours of labor, done and performed in any one 
day, by any one person, in any mechanical or manufacturing estab- 
lishment, shall be deemed to be a lawful day's work, unless otherwise 
agreed by the parties. 

Section 50. No proprietor of any manufacturing, or mechanical, 
establishment, or person carrying on business in any such establish- 
ment, as lessee, or in any other manner, or person having charge of 



1T7 

any such establishment, shall employ, or suffer to be employed, in or 
about such establishment, any child under ten years of age; and no 
such person shall employ, or suffer to be employed, in any such estab- 
lishment, any minor under eighteen years of age, more than twelve 
hours in any one day, nor more than sixty-nine hours in any one week. 
Every person, who shall violate either provision of this section, shall 
pay a fine of twenty dollars to the treasury of the town in which such 
offense shall have been committed. 

Section 51. The several constables, and grand jurors, in their re- 
spective towns shall inquire after, and make presentment of, all offenses 
against the provisions of the preceding sections. 

Section 52. All complaints for offenses, against any of the pro- 
visions of the fiftieth section of this chapter, may be heard and deter- 
mined by a justice of the peace, but the accused may appeal from the 
judgment of such justice of the peace, to the superior court next to be 
holden in the county, in which the offense is alleged to have been com- 
mitted. 

OF TRUANTS AND VAGRANT CHILDREN. 

Section 56. Each town shall make all needful provisions, and 
arrangements, concerning habitual truants, and also concerning children 
wandering about the streets, or public places, of any city, or town, hav- 
ing no lawful occupation, or business, nor attending school, and grow- 
ing up in ignorance, between the ages of seven and sixteen years ; 
and shall also make, such by-laws, respecting such children, as shall be 
most conducive to their welfare, and the good order of such city or 
town ; and suitable penalties shall be annexed to such by-laws, not ex- 
ceeding twenty dollars for any one breach; but said by-laws shall be 
approved by the superior court sitting in any county in the state. 

Section 57. Any minor, convicted of being an habitual truant, or 
any child, convicted of wandering about in the streets, or public places, 
of any city, or town, having no lawful business, nor attending school, 
and growing up in ignorance, between the ages of seven and sixteen 
years, may, at the discretion of the justice or the court having juris- 
diction of the case, instead of the fine mentioned in the preceding 
section, be committed to any such institution of instruction, house of 
reformation, or suitable situation as may be provided for the purpose 
by such city or tewn, under the authority of the preceding sections, 
for such time, not exceeding two years, as such justice or court may 
determine. 

Section 58. The several cities and towns shall appoint, at the 
annual meetings of such'towns, or annually, by the mayor and alder- 
men of such cities, three or more persons, who alone shall be author- 
ized to prosecute for violation of such by-laws. 

Section 59. Warrants, issued under the three preceding sections, 
shall be returnable to any justice of the peace, or judge of the police 
court of the town or city; and the justice, or judge, shall receive such 
compensation, as the city or town may determine. 



INDEX TO THE SCHOOL LAWS. 



Acting School Visitors, see Visitors. page. 

Annual meetings of district when and where held, - - 162 

Apparatus for schools, how furnished, ----- 170-171 

Appeal of district from town action, ----- 160 

Assessments, town lists the lists for school districts, - - 174 
Assessors on application to assess separately property lying in different 

districts, ..-.-.-- 175 

Board of Education of the State, how constituted, 153 

powers and duties of - - 163 

secretary of - - - 153 

Boundary lines of districts, how altered, ----- 161 

how defiled, ----- 163 

Clerk, district, when and how appointed, ----- 164 

duties of, ... 164 

to be sworn, - - .... 164 

must provide school register, - ... 170 

Children under fifteen to attend school at least three months each year, 176 

under ten years not to be employed in factories, - - 176-177 

truant or vagrant, towns to make by laws respecting, - - 177 

Collectors, district, when and how appointed, - - 164 

powers and duties of, - - 164 and 167 

when required to give bonds, - - 164-165 

constable of town may be appointed, - 175 

Committee, district, when and how appointed, - 164 

powers and duties of, - - - - 164 

required to visit schools twice each term, - - 164 
shall provide books for poor children at expense of district, 164 

may suspend or expel unruly pupils, - - - 164 

written report required of. - - - - 169 

subjects for report of, - - - - - 169 

penalty for refusing to serve, - 104 

Compensation for land taken as school house site, how determined, - 165-166 

of school visitors, - - - - - -169 and 172 

of Secretary of State Board of Education, - - 154 

Comptroller and Commissioner to divide income of school fund, - 171 

to draw orders on Treasurer for public money, - - 173 

in favor of certain organised districts, - 157 

to withhold public money when schools have not been legally 

kept, - 173-174 

to sue, in behalf of State, for public money forfeited, - 174 

Consolidation of districts, how effected, ----- 160 

Consolidated districts, property of how equalized, - - - 120 

town may appoint committee for, - 160 

Constables may be appointed collectors of d strict taxes, - - 175 

to make presentment of violations of law respecting minors, 176 

Conventions of teachers, held annually in each county, ... 154 

expenses of, how defrayed, - 154 

District Clerk, see Clerk,— District Collector, see Collector,— District 

Committee r -«ee Committee, — District Treasurer, see Treasurer. 

Districts aggrieved by action of town, may appeal to superior court, - 160 

annual meeting when and where held, - 162 

may appoint a constable collector, .... 175 

boundary lines, how altered, ... - 161 

how defined, ... - - 163 

consolidation of, - - - - - - - 160 

corporate powers of, ....-- 163 



180 

PAGE. 

Districts, division or dissolution of, ..... 161 

enumeration of children, ..... 172 

formed or dissolved, .-...- 161 

limits of to be placed on district and town records, - - 163 

name or number to be recorded, .... 163 

meetings of, annual, when and where to be held. - 162 

officers then to be clfosen, - - - 162 

special, when to be called, 162 

place of how determined, ... 162 

notice of, five days required, - ... 162 
manner of giving, - - - 162-163 

by whom to be called, ----- 162 

who may vote in, - .... 163 

penalty "for illegal voting in, ... - 163 

new, to contain at least 40 enumerated children, - - 161 
notice required of proposed removal of persons, or taxable 

property, to another district by change of boundary, - 161 

officers of, who, when and where chosen, - 164 

when to he appointed by school visitors, - - 164 

property of, how to be taxed, ----- 161 

lying in two or more towns, how taxed, - - 161 

not assessed in town list, how to be added, - WB 

consolidated, how equalized, - 160 

divided, how distributed, - - - - 162 

real estate in, not entered separately in grand list, how assessed, 175 
to be set in list of persons owning it at time of laying 

district tax, - 175 

receive at least 35 dollars, .... - 171 

receive public money, on what conditions, - 169, 172 

scholars in, where no school is kept, how provided for, - - 165 
site of school house to be fixed by two-thirds vote, or by the 

school visitors, - - 165 

may take land for, how, - 165 
! ' site may be taken by for out-buildings &c, where houses have been 

already erected, ------ 166 

site of school-house, compensation for, if district and owner of land 

cannot agree, to petition superior court, - - - 165 

or cither judge, if court not in session, 166 

court to appoint committee, - - 165 

powers and duties of such committee, 165 
if report of committee rejected, court 

may appoint another, - _ - 166 
report when accepted ti have effect of 

judgment against petitioners, - 166 

land not to be used till judgment is paid, 166 

district to pay services'of committee, 166 

tax, how levied, ------- 174 

in two or more towns, how formed and dissolved, - 161 

where to belong, - 161 

Enumeration of all persons between 4 and 16 years of age, - 172 

when and bv whom to be made, - 172 

to be made by clerk of district, 172 

one of school visitors, - - 172 

returns of to be made upon oath, - - - - - 172 

form of return, ------- 172-173 

returns of, school visitors to examine, correct, and transmit to 

comptroller, ----- 173 

to be lodged with town treasurer, - - 173 

form of return to comptroller, ----- 173 

in districts lying in two or more towns, - 167 

Expenses of teachers' conventions, how defrayed, .... 154 

Grand jurors to make presentment of violations of the law respecting em- 
ployment of children and minors, ... - 167 
High schools, to be subject to management of school visitors, - - 158 
Libraries, treasurer authorized to pay for support of, ... 170 
seleition of books to be approved by visitors, - - 171 
school visitors to make rules and regulations for, - 171 
Meetings. See District. 
Minors under eighteen to be employed not more than twelve hours each day, 1<7 



181 

PAGE. 

New district 5 ;, first meeting, time, place, and object to be designated by 

selectmen, ------- 158 

Notices, see District meetings. 

Officers of districts, to exercise same powers and duties as corresponding 

town officers, - 164 

penalty for refusing to serve, ... 164 

Property, corporate, of consolidated districts, how owned, ... 162 

of divided districts, how distributed, - - 162 

sold or conveyed since last grand list, how taxed, - - 175 

Public money to be withheld unless district committee's report is made, 169 

when forfeited, secretary of board of education to decide, - 174 

when misapplied forfeited to the State, - 174 

Real estate. See Property. 

Becords of school societies to be kept with town records, - - 155 

Register, form of to be prescribed by State board, - 173 

book for to be provided by" clerk of district, ... 170 

to contain what, -_--_-_ 170 

to be kept by teacher, ------ 170 

penalty against teacher for not keeping, - - - - 170 

Reports of district committee to be made to school visitors, - - 169 

subjects of, 169 

penalty if not made, - - - 169 

to be made upon oath, - 172 
form of return, - 172-173 

of acting school visitors to be made to comptroller, - - 178 

Scholars, enumeration of, ------ - 173 

in districts where no school is kept, how provided for, - - 162 

Schools, towns to be provided for support of, 155 

business relating to, to be transacted in town meetings, - - 155 

must be kept at least six months a year, ... 172 

School districts, see Districts. 

fund, income of how distributed, - 171 

houses, how to be built, ----.. jgg 

may be allowed to be used for private schools, - - 162 

to be satisfactory to school visitors, ... jgy 

penalty if they are not, - 167 

site of to be fixed by two-thirds vote, - - 165 

in certain cases by school visitors, - 165 
libraries, see Libraries. 

societies, records of how preserved, ... - 155 

funds or indebtedness of, how divided, - - - 155 

under act of 1855 to become districts, ... 35^ 

to choose a board of education, - 106 

powers and duties of such board, - 166 

to have exclusive control of funds, buildings, 

.Sec., belonging to them, - - 166 

other may avail themselves of the same privileges, - - 166 

money of district not maintaining school to be distributed to other 

districts, ------- 155 

forfeited when, ----- 159 ) 169 ) 173-174 

visitors. See Visitors. 

Secretary of Board of Education, how appointed, - 153 

duties of, - - - - - 153 

to decide when public money has been forfeited, - - 174 

to draw orders on treasurer for school libraries, &c, - - 170 

Selectmen, to manage funds, ------ 158 

to settle boundaries of districts, - 158 
to designate time, place, and object of first meeting in a new dis- 
trict, - - - - - - - -158 

Superior court, to determine in certain cases compensation for school house 

site, -------- 165 

Taxation in districts lying in two or more towns, - - - 161,172 

Taxes by towns for schools required, ----'-- 150 

forfeiture of public money if not laid, - 159 

Taxes in districts, how levied, -.-.-. 174 

not to be levied in more than one district on same property, 174 

on property lying in different districts, how assessed, - - 174—175 

or polls omitted from grand list, - 175 

sold or conveyed since last grand list, - - 175 



182. 

PAOK. 

Teachers, how to be examined, - ... - - 170 
must receive from school visitors certificates of examination and 

approval before opening school, » 1"0 

required to keep a register, ..... 170 

penalty for neglect to keep register, .... 170 

conventions, how held, ----»- 154 

expenses of, how defrayed, .... 154 

to certify on oath as to schooling ofchildren employed in factories, 178 

Town deposit fund, income of, how distributed, .... 171 

Towns to provide for support of schools, - - - 155 

to hold local school funds, ...... 165 

to elect school visitors, ...... 157 

school fund treasurer, when ..... 168 

powers of in respect to schools, .... 158 

shall transact school business at town meetings, ... 158 

on what terms entitled to public money, ... 159 

to raise money for schools by taxation," .... 159 

manner of distributing such'money, .... 159 

penalty for not raising it, ...... 159 

may form, alter, and dissolve districts, ... 161 

may take land for school house sites, .... 159 

may authorize orders on town treasurer when, - - 159 

may consolidate districts into one, ..... 159 

may appoint committee for consolidated districts, - - 159 

may appoint committee for high school, .... 159 

tax, amount required to be raised, .... 

raised, how to be distributed, - - - - 171 

to make and enforce by-laws respecting truant and vagrant chil- 
dren, -.--.-.. 177 
to appoint officers to enforce such by-laws, ... 177 
Treasurer, of state, when to pay money for district libraries, - - 1"0 
district, when and how appointed, .... 162 

duties of, ...... 164 

when required to give bonds, ... 164—165 

Truants, towns to make by-laws respecting, ----- 177 

Tuition, rate of limited to six dollars a year, .... 167 

to twelve dollars for high schools, — 167 

how determined, ------ 167 

exemption from how obtained, - - - - . 167—168 

bills, how made out and collected, - - - 167 
Union districts under act of 1841 to be managed according to provisions of 

that act, .-...-- 163 

vagrant children, towns to make by-laws respecting, - 177 

Visitors, when and how appointed, ------ 157 

vacancies in board of, how filled, - - - - 157 

term of office, - - - - - ' - - 157 

authority of restricted in certain cases, ... 157 

authorized to draw orders ou town treasurer when, - - 159 

duties of - 168 

to visit and regulate high schools, ..... 158 

may delegate part of their duties to a committee of their own 

number, .----_- 168 

acting, their duties and compensation, ... 168—169 

may annul certificate of unqualified teachers, - - - 108 
to certify to comptroller that schools have been kept according to 

law, 173 

form of such certificate, ----- 173 
to certify in what districts schools have not been kept according 

to law, 173 

penalty, for fraudulent certificate, .... 174 

to appoint district officers, when ..... ]6l 

to enumerate children, when ..... 172 

to ascertain situation of children employed in manufactories, - 176 

report violations of the law respecting such children, - - 176 



EXTRACTS 
FEOM THE REPORTS OF SCHOOL VISITORS. 



In accordance with the established usage, the following ex- 
tracts are made from the returns of school visitors addressed 
to the Superintendent of Schools. An examination of these 
papers will enable the friends of education to understand the 
sentiments which prevail in different places respecting the 
condition of the common schools. 

Asfiford. — Rev. Thomas Dutton, Acting Visitor. 

Improvement and Progress. — I have noticed the past year a decided 
improvement in the style and standard of teaching among us. The 
teachers have shown a decided zeal in their business above what I 
have noticed in former years. They are not content with a mere per- 
functory discharge of their duties, but exert themselves by approved 
methods and by devices of their own to give zeal, and life, and pleas- 
ure to their pupils in the prosecution of their studies. I regret to say 
that a majority of our districts are unwilling to tax themselves to con- 
tinue their schools beyond the six months required by law. It shows 
a low and miserable estimate of the value of education to their chil- 
dren. 

Avon. — Rev. O. L. Woodford, Acting School Visitor. 

New and Convenient District School-house. — A new district, called 
the " Seventh District of Avon," was constituted by the last Legisla- 
ture, greatly accommodating portions of three districts out of which 
it was composed, which were all very inconveniently situated as to 
school privileges. The district is fully organized, and a new and 
handsome school-house, on the exact plan of that in Westerly, Rhode 
Island, designed by Mr. Teft, of Providence, as represented in Bar- 
nard's School Architecture, is in full process of erection, and a school 
will probably be opened in it as early as December next. The entries 
are to be supplied each with iron sinks, wash-basin, and towels, also 
with umbrella-stands and wardrobe hooks. There will be also a 
shelved enclosure back of the teacher's desk. The school-room will 
be fifteen feet high in the centre, and well ventilated. This, I think, 
is very well for a small district numbering only twenty-five scholars. 



184 

Barkhamsted. — A. S. Hart and J. Pettibone, School Visitor.-. 

District Committees Delinquent. — The returns from some districts 
were quite imperfect, several were behind time, and from one district 
ne report has been received. Blanks sent to committees in January 
or February are very apt to be lost or mislaid before the following 
September. 

Drawbacks. — One of the greatest drawbacks on the schools of this 
town is the irregularity of attendance. The matter is believed to be 
made worse than it otherwise would be by the unjust and illegal system 
of laying tax upon attendance, which still prevails in this town. 

Berlin. — Kev. A. C. Washburn, Acting Visitor. 

Singing in Schools. — In most of the schools singing is daily prac- 
ticed. The happy influence of this exercise can hardly be over-esti- 
mated, and we fondly hope it will soon be introduced into all the 
schools in town. 

Neglect of Parents to Visit Schools. — From an examination of all 
the registers it appears that parental visitation of schools is almost 
wholly neglected. If parents and guardians felt interest enough in 
the school to visit it at least once during each session, it is confidently 
believed that the difference between the number of scholars in town 
and. the average attendance would be very much diminished. Irregu- 
larity in attendance at school not only causes irreparable loss to the 
delinquents, but hinders the progress of others, and tends to embarrass 
and discourage teachers. 

Libraries and Apparatus. — Some of our schools have valuable 
libraries, and a respectable apparatus for illustrating the different 
branches of science. But most of them sustain great loss for want of 
of a good library and a necessary apparatus. 

General Exhibition of the Schools. — There was a second general 
exhibition of the schools during the winter, and a unanimous desire 
expressed that there should be another the ensuing winter. These 
exhibitions have happily awakened in most of the schools effort for 
excellence, and it is believed that a fund established and judiciously 
managed for the encouragement of excellence would be a profitable 
and remunerating expenditure. To encourage the establishment of 
such a fund a gentleman has pledged $100, on condition that the town 
or the friends of education give a similar sum, and as much more as 
they please. 

insufficient Pay of School Visitors. — The pay of the Acting Visitor, 
witlHiorse and carriage, is about half of what is paid to a common 
Irish laborer. Is not this specially Connecticutish ? 

Betiiaxy. — II. S. Atwater, Acting Visitor. 

A New and Convenient School-house. — The new district of Beacon 
Falls has entered on its career in a spirit which is an earnest of future 
excellence. At the cost of $3,100 an ample school-house has been 
erected, with two instruction rooms, black-boards conveniently arranged,} 
a beautiful set of outline maps has been procured, and no doubt this 
flourishing district will soon complete, its fixtures by adding a good 
library and a geographical and mathematical apparatus. 



185 

Smalhiess of Teachers' Salaries. — It is difficult to elevate our schools 
to the rank they should attain in districts where the children are few 
and tlic parents are not wealthy. And even wealthier districts are 
often unwilling to pay such wages as every well-qualified teacher ought 
to receive. The ignorant laborer who can neither read nor write often 
receives more per diem than the man who has expended hundreds of 
dollars to qualify him to instruct this laborer's children. The same 
disparity of wages applies to female teachers. Hence many of our 
schools can hardly hope to advance till parents value the education of 
their children more than money. 

Bridgeport. — Dr. H. L. W. Burritt, Acting School Visitor. 

Before the war I had been Acting Visitor here for fifteen years- 
The schools are generally in good condition, though they have not pro- 
gressed much during the last three years. The improvement in the 
corps of teachers is not marked, and there does not appear to be as 
much energy and interest -called out in their pursuit as formerly. I 
wish we had more "Normal" scholars among them. 

District Committees are elected who are entirely incompetent, as a 
reward too often for political services. Men of ability neglect any in- 
terest in the schools. 

The buildings for school purposes have, however, gone on improving 
every year until we have but one school building of the old regime in 
the town. 

Burlington. — Rev. H. B. Smith, Acting School Visitor. 

Indifference of Parents to Public Schools. Some parents are not 
so much interested in the education of their children as they are in 
the growth of their cattle. In one town in this State there was a far- 
mer who had four children in the schoolhouse, and four colts in his 
pasture. He went twice every week to watch the growth and see to 
the welfare of his colts, but never visited the school to see how his 
children were educated, though he had to go by the school house 
every time he went to his pasture. 

Canterbury. — Rev. C. P. Grosvenor, Acting School Visitor. 

" Line Upon Line." " Line upon line, line upon line, precept upon 
precept, precept upon precept, here a little and there a little," is the 
programme of progress on this subject, the course that must be pur- 
sued, until the requisites of a good school shall be thoroughly under- 
stood and universally adopted. So that the first question in regard to 
a teacher will not be, " What is his price ?" but " What are his qualifi- 
cations ?" and if he has not had experience, or has not been trained 
for his work, he cannot be employed. So that parents will not send 
their children to an inconvenient, pent-up, unventilated school-room 
because it is as good as themselves had when they were young, and 
it will cost money to provide a new one, any sooner than a farmer 
will keep his choice stock out of doors in winter, and feed them from 
the stack, because such was the custom of his fathers, and it will cost 
money to build a barn. So that each child shall be fully equipped 
14 



186 

with books, and our schools no longer be miniature Babels by reason 
of the variety of books in a single study. So that, all things pertaining 
to the subject having been fully scrutinized, the system will be rounded 
out to its full symmetrical proportions. Our aim is perfection. 
Teachers adapted to and prepared for their work, and furnished with 
a home — not compelled to obtain, (we might almost say to beg) their 
bread from house to house. Rooms of sufficient size, and well ven- 
tilated, with comfortable seats and desks, properly arranged, with 
blackboards, globes, maps, and all needed apparatus — all that can 
add to their convenience, comfort, attractiveness, and usefulness. 

Cooperation of Parents, such as shall secure a full supply of books, 
constant and punctual attendance, and an enduring, lively interest in 
the school. 

"We rejoice in every evidence of progress, and anticipate the day 
•when our ideal shall become a reality. 

Colchester. — David S. Bigelow, Acting School Visitor. 

Evil of Changing Teachers. The practice of changing teachers 
where they have discharged their duties faithfully and given satisfac- 
tion, retards greatly the progress of our schools and should be discon- 
tinued. We think it would be for the interest of all concerned if well- 
qualified teachers should be retained in the same school during the 
year, or for successive years. Ordinarily, the longer a good teacher 
can be continued in the same school, the better for the school. 

Colebrook. — J. Marcus Grant, School Visitor. 

Want of General Interest in Schools. A great difficulty in this 
town is the want of interest in the schools on the part of a large por- 
tion of the inhabitants. They, perhaps, have no children to send to 
the school, and simply wish the school well. In many districts those 
whose children attend school make it their object to have the public 
money pay the teacher at least. I do not see any way to overcome 
this difficulty, except to compel each district to raise a property tax. 

Cornwall. — A. B. Palmer, Clerk of Board of Education. 

To make the schools in a town what they should be, the following 
conditions are requisite : 

1st. The continued services of successful teachers. 

2d. Good, well-arranged school buildings. 

3d. The interest and cooperation of parents and guardians. 

4th. Uniformity of text-books, together with maps and apparatus to 
aid the work of explanation and instruction. 

It has been the work of the writer during the last fifteen years to 
secure a compliance with the above conditions in this town. We have 
failed most in the first and more important condition ; have done well 
in the second and third, and are likely to secure the fourth in good 
time, if we " faint not." 

Coventry. — Rev. William J. Jennings, Chairman of Board of 
Visitors. 

Whispering and Confusion Avoided. The success and worth of 



187 

the schools, as a whole, have been above the average. Some of them 
have been very excellent. It has been clearly evinced by more than 
one school that whispering and all kinds of confusion can be banished 
from the school-room, and that this can be effected without harshness 
or severity on the part of the teacher — the children cheerfully uniting 
with the teacher in producing the result. In consequence, the daily 
routine of school duties has moved along easily and pleasantly for 
both teacher and scholars, and the efficiency of the school has been 
greatly promoted. 

Female Teachers Largely Employed. The tendency is toward the 
employment of female teachers, even in winter, and this is well, pro- 
vided care be taken by committees rfo obtain those who are well 
qualified for the position. 

Irregular Attendance. One of the greatest obstacles to the success 
of our schools is the irregularity of attendance. The average attend- 
ance is but a trifle more than two-thirds of the whole. This surely 
ought not so to be. 

Cromwell. — W. A. Stickney, School Visitor. 

Tax to Make the Schools Free. At the annual town meeting, held 
October 2d, 1865, there was voted a special tax of one mill on the.dollar, 
to raise a sum estimated to be equal to the amount which Avould other- 
wise be assessed on the scholars, and thereby to make our schools free. 

Dariex. — Rev. J. E. Barnes, Acting School Visitor. 

"Experienced" and "Inexperienced* Teachers. The school in 
district No. — was kept during the winter by a male teacher of 
several years experience, but of no great efficiency, who had taught 
the same school for several years previously. I think he was 
quite neglectful of his classes in Geography and other studies, ex- 
cept, perhaps, Mental Arithmetic, in which I noticed some manifest 
interest. Neglect, however, may be too strong a word, but there was 
certainly a lack of efficient teaching. The young lady who taught 
during the summer term was much better qualified for the teacher's 
work, and though the attendance of scholars was much smaller than 
during the winter term, there was a marked improvement in their 
recitations. As a general rule, I find the female teachers more suc- 
cessful, both in instruction and discipline, than the male. This is 
probably owing to the fact that the compensation ordinarily paid 
by our school districts is not sufficient to attract the best order of male 
talent. 

Fitch's Home for Soldiers. This is a new district, established at 
the last session of the Legislature of the State. The Home is now 
organized efficiently as an orphan asylum for the children of soldiers 
who have died in the national service, from the senatorial district em- 
bracing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien, 
Norwalk, and Wilton. The school has begun -its fall term, with a 
teacher duly approved by the Examiner of the Board of School 
Visitors. It numbers 21 boys and 11 girls. 

A Way to Improve our Public Schools. Our schools are not what 



188 

they ought to be. They are too cheap to be thoroughly taught and 
governed. In my opinion it would be well if the appointment and 
continuance of teachers, and the general management of the schools 
could be taken from the districts and entrusted to a competent board 
of salaried officers appointed for each county by the Legislature. 
The democratic polity in school affairs becomes too often, practically, 
the oligarchy of ignorance and prejudice. 

Derby. — Rev. Nathan II. Chamberlain, Acting School Visitor. 

Suggestion as to the mode of employing teachers. In my judgment 
the teachers should be hired by the School Visitors, and not by dis- 
trict committees. Now the teachers serve two masters, which is un- 
scriptural. 

East Haddam. — Rev. S. W. Robbins, Acting School Visitor. 

Advantage of retaining good teachers. Many of the teachers, and 
some of the very best we have, have been engaged in the same voca- 
tion for several years in this town. In some instances it is evident 
that the districts are receiving very great advantage from the continued 
services of these teachers in their respective schools. 

Disadvantage of untrained teachers. This cannot be said, however, 
in respect to all our teachers. One of the principal drawbacks, so 
far as teachers are concerned, is in the fact that many of them have 
commenced their vocation without any adequate training in the art of 
teaching. They can teach, but they have not been trained to teach 
thoroughly. They have sufficient understanding of the several studies 
to pass respectable examinations, but their teaching becomes too much 
a matter of routine, it does not sufficiently bring to the intelligent 
comprehension of the scholars the principles which they onght to un- 
derstand. The result is, that while in many cases the teachers improve 
by experience, yet in respect to thoroughness of instruction, and apt- 
ness in devising general and miscellaneous exercises for the improve- 
ment and interest of the schools, much would be gained had the 
teachers themselves first the advantage of apt and judicious instructors 
in their own profession. 

Reason why so few learn to teach. But it is to be borne in mind 
that these acquisitions on the part of teachers can not be gained with- 
out an outlay of much time and money ; and, when the outlay has 
been made, and the desired fitness secured, the remuneration which 
the teachers receive, in the great majority of our schools, will not 
allow us to retain them, for they can do better somewhere else. A 
teacher who has made teaching his profession, and has devoted suffi- 
cient time to gain suitable qualifications, naturally looks for employ- 
ment less irregular and more renumerative than that which is furnished 
by most of our country district schools. But these schools need the 
services of precisely such teachers. The difficulty therefore which 
is found in the imperfect qualifications of teachers is one which it is 
not in the power of school visitors, nor even of district committees, 
wholly to remedy. If we insist upon having none but thoroughly 
qualified teachers, as things now are many of our schools must go 
without teachers, at least for a time. Still much more might be done 



T89 

than is done to secure good qualifications in teachers. We should 
doubtless be more exacting in what we require of teachers who pur- 
sue the vocation of teaching for a term of years. * * * The 
time which our teachers spend in their first years of teaching would 
be more profitably employed in attending school, if they could com- 
mand the necessary means to do so, and the result would be a decided 
improvement in the value of their subsequent services as teachers. 
Two of the schools in this town are graded. In the grammar depart- 
ment of these schools we need teachers who could respectably perform 
the duties in any city high school. But the remuneration given does 
not enable us to secure permanently such a teacher. The committees 
therefore obtain such teachers as they can from time to time, and the 
schools suffer as a consequence. 

Respecting parental interest. In respect to the interest of parents 
in the schools, there remains about the usual story to be told. 
In this particular much might be said in praise of some districts, and 
in dispraise of others. It is much to be regretted that parents and 
others will not do all that they can in every district to promote the wel- 
fare of the schools ; especially as there are drawbacks enough which 
we can not remedy without quietly consenting to those which we can 
remedy. There is an important sense in which every good teacher 
deserves and may claim not to be interfered with. And yet every 
teacher needs to feel that he is prosecuting the work under the eye of 
the district, that if he is laborious and faithful his work is known and 
appreciated. A selfish and indolent teacher, who thinks more of his 
wages than of his work, will like nothing better than one of our 
schools which is scarcely visited by a parent from the beginning to the 
end of the term. He is well satisfied to have the school and the 
school-room to himself. But one who is conscientiously and earnestly 
striving day by day to overcome difficulties and to secure the advance- 
ment of his scholars, next to his own assurance of this advancement, 
will be encouraged by nothing more than by the intelligent apprecia- 
tion of his efforts on the part of the district which he serves. 

Ellington. — Sylvester Morris, Acting School Visitor. 

Teachers retained; good progress. Within the past two years our 
schools have made fine progress. We have some of the best teachers 
in the county. Three teachers have been retained in the same dis- 
trict for two years in succession, and two of these are to begin their 
third year the coming winter. As might be expected, their schools 
are the best in the town. The parents are giving more attention to 
the schools, and paying better wages to the teachers. Those districts 
having indifferent school-houses are agitating the subject of rebuild- 
ing or repairing them. I find this has to be done by the younger 
portion of the parents, by whom also the business of the districts is 
chiefly transacted. Our scholars are more advanced now at the age 
of twelve than they were a few years ago at the age of sixteen. I 
attribute this, in part, to the superior manner of teaching, and I think 
the teachers are greatly benefited by the Normal School and by the 
Teachers' conventions held from year to year. We encourage our 
teachers to attend, if possible, and we find it is not lost to their pupils. 



190 

Enfield. — Rev. C. A. G. Brigham, School Visitor. 

The popular views of education are too rigidly economical. The 
question of expenditure for schools generally is, not how much money 
may be profitably used, but rather how little will suffice to keep the 
schools in operation during the time required by law. The progress 
of the work of elevating the character of common schools has always 
been found to be slow. 

Truant and vagrant children. At the last session of the Legislature 
a law was enacted concerning truant children, vagrants and absentees 
from school, requiring, however, some action on the part of towns to 
render it operative. 

The town of Enfield has adopted the following by-laws on this 
subject. 

Whereas, an act was passed by the General Assembly of the State 
of Connecticut, entitled "An Act concerning Truant Children, Va- 
grants and Absentees from School," approved July 11th, 1865 ; and 

Whereas, the town of Enfield is desirous of availing itself of the 
provisions of said act, 

Therefore, be it enacted by the town of Enfield at a meeting 
legally warned for the purpose : 

Section 1. Any minor convicted of any offense, described in 
Chapter LI, Sec. 2, of'acts of the Legislature, May Session 1865, or 
either of them, shall be punished by fine not exceeding twenty dollars 
or by confinement in any institution of instruction, house of reforma- 
tion or suitable situation which shall be provided for the purpose, for 
such time, not exceeding two years, as the justice or court having 
jurisdiction in the case shall determine. 

Sec. 2. The Selectmen of the town shall provide a suitable lock- 
up, or institution of instruction, or house of reformation, or some oiher 
suitable place in the poor-house belonging to the town, or in some 
other place in the town aforesaid, which shall be assigned and used 
for the confinement of persons convicted aud sentenced to confinement 
under said act. 

Sec. 3. Three truant officers shall be annually chosen by nomina- 
tion, in the town of Enfield, at its regular meeting on the first Monday 
of October, to serve for one year, whose duty it shall be to make com- 
plaints of all persons who have violated any provisions of the act 
aforesaid or either of them. 

Sec. 4. Warrants issued in accordance with these by-laws and the 
statute act aforesaid shall be returnable before any justice of the 
peace, and the justice shall receive such compensation as the statutes 
of the State allow in the case of a justice trial of criminal cases. 
The compensation of other officers employed in the case shall be the 
same as the Statute law allows in criminal prosecutions before justices 
of the peace. 

Sec. 5. The Selectmen of the town, upon an exhibit of what 
they have done, shall fix the amount of compensation of said truant 
officers for their services, as they shall think just, and the same shall 
be paid from the treasury of the town. 



191 

Sec. G. It shall be the duty of the Board of Education, District 
Committees, and the teachers of public schools in said towns to report 
the name of every person or persons violating any or either of the 
provisions of said act to the truant officers of the town that they may 
be complained of therefor. 

Common School Association of Enfield. The Board of Education 
have formed an organization, called the Common School Association 
of Enfield, composed of the Board of Education, the acting teachers 
of the town, and such other persons interested in the cause of educa- 
tion as the association may invite. This association holds its regular 
meetings, at 2 o'clock on the first and third Saturdays of each month. 
The objects of this organization are the awaking of a greater interest 
in the cause of education throughout the town, the mutual improve- 
ment of teachers, and the elevation of the character of common school 
instruction. Recitations, discussions, and the interchange of views 
and experiences in their common labor of teaching will occupy the 
time of meeting. The schools of the town are so scattered that teach- 
ers have little opportunity of becoming personally acquainted with 
each other and the mode pursued by each. No one but a teacher can 
sympathize with a teacher in his or her peculiar trials. By associa- 
ting, those who have had experience in teaching will be able to assist 
the more inexperienced, and each will become interested in the other 
and in his or her labor, and each as a teacher will be better able to 
devise means for the improvement of the school which he or she has 
in charge. 

High Schools. In the last report of the State Superintendent of 
Common Schools, a large space is given to the discussion of the sub- 
ject of Town High Schools. From the reports and statistics of the 
several towns he has shown that there is a want increasingly felt 
for instruction in the higher branches. In this respect, however, 
Connecticut is behind Massachusetts. The law of Massachusetts re- 
quires that a town of 500 families, or 2500 population, should support 
a High School taught " by a master who is competent to give instruc- 
tion in general history, book-keeping, surveying, geometry, natural 
philosophy, chemistry, botany, the civil polity of the commonwealth 
and the United States, and the Latin language." In larger towns a 
still higher qualification is required of high school teachers, "in every 
town containing four thousand inhabitants ; in addition to these bran- 
ches, the master shall be competent to give instruction in the Greek 
and French languages, astronomy, geology, rhetoric, logic, intellectual 
and moral science, and political economy." The Greek and Latin 
languages are taught in the public schools of more than one hundred 
towm of Massachusetts. 

The time is fust approaching when the public sentiment of every 
town of sufficient number to maintain such schools, will demand their 
establishment. The importance of them is well understood by every 
well-informed and earnest friend of the cause of education. All ob- 
jections raised against them have their foundation in narrow views of 
education, selfishness, and a mistaken economy. 
The town has adopted the following resolution : 



192 

Resolved, that the Selectmen appoint a committee of five, to con- 
sider the expediency of establishing one or more town high schools, 
who shall report at a future regular or special meeting to be called at 
the suggestion of said committee. 

Education is a cause in which all, of every political name, may 
unite. It is pleasant to have some matters of a general and public 
interest, upon the consideration of which we may enter, without being 
hampered by our political creed and record. Education is the child 
of all parties. The school-house is a fitting symbol of the character 
of the American people. None but an educated people will ap- 
preciate nationality. As respects the welfare of the country, we have 
more to hope from common schools than from armies and navies. 
In a time of peace, and as a preparation for those evil days which 
sometimes come upon republics, we can not too liberally devise for the 
education of the masses. He is not a philanthropist or a patriot who 
does not put his hand to the work of advancing the cause of common 
school education. We may reproach ourselves that we have done no 
more in its behalf, and that a better public sentiment in favor of pro- 
viding greater facilities for higher English and classical education, 
does not exist. It is possible, with comparatively little expenditure, 
to give our children, at home, a far better education than those who 
go abroad and spend the most money, are receiving before entering 
college. It is not a remunerative but a thankless undertaking to en- 
deavor to elevate the character of common school:. Material wealth 
is held in so much higher estimation than mental culture, that the 
cause of education makes slow progress. Education is costly, but it 
is worth all it costs. What are not the privileges of the common school 
system, with all its defects, worth to the State? "It is," says one, "true 
economy for the State and for a town to set up and maintain good 
schools as cheaply as they can be had, yet at any necessary cost, so 
only that they be good." 

Glastexbuuy. — Henry Higgins and William Taylor, School 
Visitors. 

The Common Schools do not meet or satisfy the wants oj the people. 
— It is the opinion of your committee that our common schools gener- 
ally do not meet the wants of the people. What we most need is 
faithful and competent teachers, and such can not be secured without 
increasing the salaries usually paid. When we consider how few are 
the years that our children can attend school, how important does it 
appear that their privileges should be of the highest order. No dis- 
trict, however small in numbers and resources, can afford to have a 
poorly taught school, even if it is cheap. 
From W. II. II. Miller, Sclfool Visitor. 

Benefit of continuing the same 'Teacher. — In schools where the 
teacher was continued more than one term a greater advance was no- 
ticed. 

Groton. — Erastus Denison, Acting School Visitor. 
Opinions of a Veteran. — After twenty-two years as Acting Visitor 
of common schools, the following are among the observations and 
statements which I place upon this closing record: 



193 

1. I think so far as spelling and reading are concerned there were 
more that excelled in these branches in 1819, in proportion to their 
numbers. One cause of this is that so many other studies are followed ; 
and the shortness of the time that is left for reading and spelling has 
greatly diminished the necessary interest. 

2. Where proprietors have interfered with the government and or- 
der of the school there has been great progress in the wrong direction. 

3. A studied penuriousness on the part of districts has been very 
sure to obtain incompetent teachers, and in some instances the school- 
houses had better been closed; whereas in cases of liberal compensa- 
tion there have been, with few exceptions, worthy teachers employed, 
and in connection with parental co-operation great benefit has resulted 
to the children. 

4. Those districts which have been liberal in providing ample school- 
room are now reaping a benefit in the manners, moral, and other 
branches of a good education. 

5. It is a matter of increasing astonishment to me that we have 
next to no books in our common schools for reading or special study 
that treat of the special business of life, such as agriculture, the me- 
chanic arts, merchandising, the sailor's department, and others ; so that 
the boy or girl on leaving school will be ready to decide upon their 
future employment, and better prepared to enter upon it. The State 
Board will not, I trust, be offended at this suggestion, as it comes from 
one of more than forty years experience. 

Guilford. — Henry B. Starr and John R. Rossiter, Acting School 
Visitors. 

Insufficient Pay of Teachers. — The remuneration of our teachers is 
too small, and we can not secure the best of teachers without better 
compensation, for first-class teachers are in such demand that they will 
leave our schools for those in other places where they get better pay 
and more encouragement from their patrons. Some nave already left, 
and others will leave unless they have greater inducements to remain. 

Interest of the People in the Schools. — Several of our citizens have 
taken an unusual interest in the common schools, having not only vis- 
ited the schools in their own districts, but also spent days in visiting 
other schools, to the great encouragement of teachers and school visit- 
ors. Yet one great obstacle to the progress of our schools is the want 
of interest in them, and the failure to encourage both teachers and 
pupils by more frequent visits and a more watchful care on the part of 
parents. 

Hamden. — Rev. Austin Putnam, School Visitor. 
P?-ogress and Improvement. — In surveying the public schools of this 
town three thoughts forcibly impress our minds. 

1. These schools are a great deal better than nothing. 

2. Thy are a great deal belter than they used to be. The writer of 
this report has been familiar with the common schools of this town 
for more than a quarter of a century. In visiting them now he often 
finds in them the children of those who attended them twenty-five 
years ago, and he is deeply impressed with the fact that the present 



194 

generation are receiving a much better education than their fathers 
and mothers received before them. 

3. They are not nearly so good as they ought to be. School-houses 
should be made more commodious, comfortable, pleasant, and attract- 
ive; they should be better furnished vvitli apparatus, maps, libraries, 
and books of reference ; and teachers should be employed better fitted 
for their high vocation. 

Huntington. — Reuben TV. Linsley and Joseph S. Covell, School 
Visitors. 

The Religions Element in Education. — There is another thing in 
our common school education which is wrong; that is, the divorcement 
of religion from education. This was not sanctioned by our fathers. 
Washington's dying injunction was — "Never allow education to be di~ 
vorced from religion." Of all the dispositions and habits which lead 
to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. 
In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who should 
labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness. By the di- 
vorcement of religion from common school education, as it is in our 
system of common schools as now conducted and constituted, it is at- 
tended with an increase of crime, because it is the education of only 
one side of human nature, and that not the controlling side. Men's 
moral and religious nature constitutes this other and better, but unde- 
veloped half. 

Killinglt. — George "W. Pike, Chairman of School Visitors. 

Incompleteness of District Committees' Reports. — The district com- 
mittees' reports have been so imperfect that our report to the State 
Superintendent is far from being reliable. There is not such pains 
taken in selecting district committees as the importance of their office 
demands. Intelligence, judgment, and public spirit are necessary to 
fit a man for the position: intelligence, that he may know what his 
school requires; judgment, in selecting the right teacher for his dis- 
trict ; and public spirit, to perform gratuitously all the duties devolving 
upon him. 

Public Lectures on Schools. — If public lectures could be given so as 
to reach every district, it would, in our opinion, be the most effective 
means practicable of awakening attention to the importance of im- 
proving our schools. A great many, in some districts perhaps a ma- 
jority, are satisfied with the present condition of affairs, because they 
have no idea of what a good school is. They compare the present 
schools with those which they attended, and if the children now make 
as good advancement as they did in their school days, they suppose 
that nothing more is practicable. 

All who have given the subject any attention must admit that our 
schools are far from being up with the times. We have but few really, 
truly good schools in the town ; yet our teachers are laborious, and fail 
of making their schools what they should be not willingly, but from 
ignorance — ignorance both in regard to what they should teach, and 
the proper method of imparting instruction. 



195 

We earnestly urge district committees to use their best efforts to se- 
cure the services of competent instructors; for a good teacher will 
earn his seemingly high salary, while an incompetent one is dear at 
any price. 

Teachers should qualify themselves better, should spend more time 
in visiting good schools, and should be willing to spend at least one 
evening in a fortnight in attending teachers' meetings. 

Lebanox. — Rev. O. D. Iline, Chairman of Board of Visitors. 

Are our Public Schools Deteriorating ? There are those who claim 
that our schools are deteriorating, that they are not as good as they 
were thirty years ago. A considerable number of persons in differ- 
ent parts of the State set up this claim. These persons are generally 
those who are behind the times.who look with suspicion upon what is 
new. and have a special regard for the past. They are constitutional 
and habitual croakers, or they are those who reside in districts where, 
for some reason, the schools during some years have been poorly 
managed. What is meant by this claim ? That the scholars in our 
schools now have less knowledge of the main fundamental branches 
taught than those had who attended these schools thirty years ago ? 
It is manifest and notorious that during this period there has been an 
advance in the thoroughness and intelligence with which these 
branches have been taught. Is it meant by this claim that the 
scholars in our schools now have less comparative knowledge of these 
branches than they had thirty years ago? — that they have not 
advanced in proportion as society generally has advanced in intelli- 
gence, so that in relation to society there has been a deterioration ? — 
that the scholars are not advancing as fast as society advances ? We 
see no evidence that this is true, but see evidence to the contrary. 
Schools will naturally, almost necessarily, keep progress with the 
intelligence of the community. 

But probably the meaning more often given to this claim by those 
who put it forward is that the schools now are not as vigorously 
governed, and are not as obedient and orderly, as schools were thirty 
years ago. It is doubtless true that the rod is not now used as much 
as it was then ; and such is the state of society that parents would not 
and could not permit it to be used as it was then. Who would advo- 
cate the whipping-post, the branding iron, the pillory, as instruments 
of punishment for offenders against the law ? They can never be 
restored in civilized society, because they are barbarous and debasing 
modes of punishment, and society has outgrown them. For the same 
reason the frequency and violence of punishment in our common 
schools can not be brought back. The rod now needs to be used, and 
used in some cases with severity. It should be clearly understood 
that it is to be used in all our schools, if necessary, to enforce obedience. 
Still it is true, that in proportion as a teacher has skill in awakening 
in his scholars an interest in their studies, with discernment and tact 
in influencing them, he will need to use it less, and will employ it only 
in extreme cases. 

" Say not, What is the cause that the former days were better than 



196 

these ? for thou dost not inquire wisely concerning this." It should 
be borne in mind that the schools in this town, and in most of the 
agricultural towns in the State, are smaller than they formerly were, 
are composed of smaller scholars, many of the larger ones leaving 
to attend higher schools; that there is in nearly all of these schools 
a considerable element from families not native to this country — an 
element that has not the same advantages as the children of native 
families, and do not attend as regularly, and are not easily brought 
up to the same degree of interest and progress. These and other 
similar things are in the way of a success in our common schools 
which shall strike the public attention. In a comparatively small 
school, composed mostly of small children, though its progress may be 
marvelous, there is little to impress the public mind. 

And farther, the standard of schools which we now have in our 
minds is much higher than that winch was prevalent fifty or thirty 
years ago, so that the deficiencies of our schools are more readily seen, 
and make a stronger impression. 

Litchfield. — Dr. J. G. Beckwith, Chairman of School Visitors. 

Good School-houses. One reason why so small an amount has been 
expended for repairs of school-houses is the good condition of the 
houses or buildings, as they have either been erected or substantially 
rebuilt within the period of ten years. 

Manner of Distributing Public Money. The manner in which the 
moneys belonging to schools have been distributed to the schools in 
this town for a period of years enables the smaller districts to employ 
a competent female teacher for at least eight months of the year. Good 
teachers can be obtained for the small sum of $2.50 to $3.50 per 
week; and as the public funds give to the smallest districts about 
$75, and the teachers board with the parents or employers, the 
common schools are virtually free to all, except for the small item of 
board, which is cheerfully borne by the better class of people in the 
districts. 

Improvement. Our common schools are evincing a decided improve- 
ment from year to year, but there are still many between the ages of 
5 and 15 without much resulting benefits from our school funds. 

Mekiden. — W. E. Benham and H. S. Jewett, Acting Visitors. 

Teachers' Meetings. Monthly teachers' meetings, at the suggestion 
of the Visitors, were held during a portion of the year, to cultivate a 
mutual acquaintance, and to consult together in reference to the best 
modes of teaching. They were well attended by the teachers, acting 
visitors, and members of the Board. 

Great interest was taken in discussing, in a familiar way, the various 
subjects connected with the profession of teaching. Here originated 
the idea of the grand spelling match, held at the Town Hall on two 
successive evenings, which gave such a wonderful impulse to that. 
study, and which, we believe, surpassed anything of the kind that ever 
took place in the State. 

Vocal Music. Vocal Music has been practised to a considerable 



197 

extent the past year with a salutary influence. It is an aid to dis- 
cipline. "When the children have become weary and restless, or un- 
happy for any cause, a lively song tends much to restore cheerfulness 
and study. 

Ltght Gymnastics. Light Gymnastics, we have been pleased to 
observe, have been practiced in several of our schools. No apparatus 
is necessary — motions of the hands and arms and feet being sufficient. 
Let the teacher, each half-day, cause the school to rise and go through 
a series of these movements together, and it will contribute to the 
health and happiness of all. Music will add much to the exercise. 

Consolidation of Districts. The proposition made to the town, at its 
last annual meeting, by the Board of Education, to dissolve the dis- 
tricts and induce them to surrender their property to the town, so that 
the schools might be better graded and more effectually managed by 
a central Board, did not meet with general favor, owing, as we believe, 
in a great measure, to a misunderstanding on the part of the voters as 
to the intent and details of the plan. Yet some measure is necessary 
to remove existing difficulties and meet the educational wants in our 
midst, by increasing the facilities for the instruction of the advanced 
classes in our schools. To meet this want, we recommend the estab- 
lishment of a Free High School, in a central location, in which scholars 
above a certain grade may attend and enjoy better advantages than it 
is possible, from the nature of the case, for them now to enjoy, scat- 
tered and few as they are in each of the surrounding mixed schools. 
This we urge, both as an educational benefit and as a matter of 
economy. This plan is adopted to some extent in the cities and the 
larger towns of our State, and is quite universal in Massachusetts and 
other States. It is also strongly urged by the State Superintendent 
in a lengthy article in his annual report. 

MiddlebuPvY. — Benjamin Stone, Acting School Visitor. 

Improvement. An improvement has been apparent in our schools, 
in their order, discipline, mode of instruction, and general arrange- 
ment. Teachers have given evidence of fidelity to their work, and the 
behavior and proficiency of their pupils have been commendable. 

Diversity of Text Books. The diversity of text books has been a 
serious impediment in the way of their success, tending to retard im- 
provement by reason of the fact that their time has been thereby 
unprofitably divided, a proper classification prevented, and in various 
ways confusion introduced into the practical working of the schools. 
In order to secure a greater uniformity, and to guard against expense 
to those poorly able to bear it, or liable to remove from one district 
or town to another, I think books should be recommended by State 
authority. 

Middletown, City District. — George W. Burke, Secretary of 
the Board of Education. 

Systemization. — A most decided advance has been made toward sys- 
tematizing the course of instruction, grading the schools, and preparing 
ft way by which it is believed that the greatest amount of good can 



198 

be secured to the pupils while they are under our supervision. One 
great defect of the past few years has been that there was no regular 
course of study prescribed; that while text-books were designated, 
there was no specific amount of acquirements which should entitle the 
pupil to uniformity of promotion and final successful graduation. 
Quite lately, under the careful and patient investigation of the present 
Principal of the High School and the Acting School Visitor, a course 
of study has been laid down, and has been adopted by the Board. The 
school sessions have been changed to accommodate the new system of 
gradation, and to allow the promotions to be made at regular and equal 
periods. 

Improvements in School-houses. — One of the chief means of im- 
provement at the present, which can not be kept too much before the 
public, is the erection of some new school-houses. It is believed that 
if the district could have plainly set before them the necessities of the 
case, some plan would be immediately adopted looking toward the ulti- 
mate perfection of our school buildings, which, although it might not 
be all carried out at once, would yet present in harmonious detail what 
is needed, and by accomplishing a part at a time, lead to the most sat- 
isfactory results. 

Attendance. — The attendance in the schools during the past year 
has not varied much from that in former years, being partly dependent 
upon the capacity of the school-houses; but it would be well if there 
were less tardiness and unexcused absence. If each parent could 
realize that the absence of one pupil is not only an injury to himself, 
but retards the progress of the class, and aids in depreciating the gen- 
eral standard of scholarship, there would undoubtedly be greater punc- 
tuality, and as a matter of course greater emulation and progress. If 
we have a legal right to call upon property-holders who have no chil- 
dren to contribute their proportion of the tax for the support of the 
public schools, they, on the other hand, have a right to demand a 
proper portion of the time of the child for the purposes of education, 
so that their money may not be misapplied. 

Increase of Teachers' Salaries. — The same considerations with re- 
gard to the enhanced cost of living which were presented in the Re- 
port of last year have induced the Board to make some increase in 
the salaries of the teachers. This is but a simple act of justice to 
those who have devoted themselves so faithfully to the education of 
our children, and who even now with this addition receive less in pro- 
portion to their necessary expenses than they did five years ago. 

Milford. — John W. Fowler, Esq., Secretary of Board of Educa- 
tion. 

Disadvantages of small Districts and of relying too much on the 
Public Funds. — The condition of our common schools has been some- 
what improved in the past year, perhaps as much as could be expected 
under our present system of small districts and many different com- 
mittees. In this exists the chief bar to any improvement, and it will 
continue to be so, we fear, though there is now being made an effort 
to consolidate and establish graded schools. But the necessary taxa- 
tion is a great obstacle to us, who are already heavily burdened, and 



199 

•who have never raised for schools by taxation more than the sum re- 
quired by law. If a law of the State compelled towns to raise by 
taxation a sum at least equal to the amount received from public funds, 
our common schools would be, perhaps, better by far than they now 
are. They are now comparatively worthless, and chiefly because the 
people have a public fund insufficient to maintain alone good schools, 
but just enough to keep up a pretence, and to encourage an indisposition 
to self-taxation. We had better be without assistance, if its effect is 
to weaken us and to make us unable to help ourselves. 

Morris. — Samuel M. Ensign, School Visitor. 

Special Attention given to Spelling. — Great attention has been given 
to spelling and reading; several scholars mis-spelled only one word 
during a term of twenty weeks. The Acting School Visitor offered 
Webster's Unabridged Dictionary to the best speller in the schools as 
an inducement to increased attention to spelling. A trial took place 
in March. Three hundred words were selected from Webster's Spell- 
ing book without the knowledge of the competitors, who wrote them 
from dictation. Every i was to be dotted, every t crossed, and every 
letter to be distinctly written. The prize was carried off by a young 
miss of sixteen, who mis-spelled only one word. Another of the same 
age mis-spelled only two words. 

School Library. — District No. 3 has a library of 150 volumes, has 
expended the past year thirty-three dollars for books, has the best 
school in town, and carried off the prize in spelling. The prosperity 
of this school is due mainly to William B. Ames, Esq., who by word 
and deed has labored for its advancement so successfully, that from 
being the poorest school in town it is now the best. He says the 
library has done more for the district than he has. All say that it is a 
leaven which is silently doing its work. 

New Britain. — B. N. Comings, M. D., Acting Visitor. 

Average Attendance. — The average attendance in some of the dis- 
tricts compared with the number enumerated between the ages of four 
and sixteen is remarkably small — in one district only 26 per cent. 
This suggests the importance of some legal measures for securing a 
more general education of our youth. 

Course of Study. — In order to secure a more perfect and complete 
system of education in our public schools, the course of study in the 
Grammar and High Schools has been re-arranged and systematized. 
The course now prescribed is the result of careful deliberation, and it 
is believed that it will be found to secure to the pupils in these schools 
as large an amount of practical knowledge and mental training as can 
be gained in schools of like grade. The classical course has been 
made optional in the High School, and has been introduced to meet a 
growing want in our community, and to afford an education at home 
for youth who must otherwise be sent to other towns, and also to call 
from abroad a sufficient number of pupils to give material aid in de- 
fraying the expenses of the school. 



200 

New Hartford. — Rev. Edwin Hall, Jr., Chairman of Board of 

Visitors. 

Antiquated Seats and Desks. — Most of the school-houses in the town 
are in good condition, and fitted up With modern desks and seats. 

That in the South-East Middle district has lately undergone repairs 
which will render it more comfortable in the winter term than it has 
been for many seasons past. While we are disposed to award a high 
degree of credit to the district for their recent efforts in that line, we 
must express our regret that they propose to retain for the present the 
unsightly and uncomfortable seats and desks which have so long dis- 
figured their school-room. AVe would respectfully remind them that 
such seats and desks have been out of date for about thirty years, are 
to be found scarcely any where but in Connecticut, and in very few 
places in " the land of steady habits." Two other districts still retain 
the old desks ranged around the walls, and the seats without support 
for the backs of the pupils. The records of antiquity do not afford 
the means of determining the period in which the perverse workings 
of human genius devised these instruments of torture for the discipline 
of the rising generation. The most probable conjecture is that they 
were fashioned after the traditional pattern of antediluvian saw-horses. 
Seriously speaking, they are very formidable obstacles to the mainten- 
ance of order, modesty, and propriety, in the houses where they still 
exist, to say nothing of their extreme discomfort. 

New London. — Rev. S. B. Grant, Acting School Visitor. 

Cooperation of Parents. — There is one other consideration which 
the Acting Visitor would present to the parents and friends of educa- 
tion. It is the more thorough cooperation of all with the teachers. 
The teacher's work is an arduous one. He should have the coopera- 
tion of all, and especially of parents. Parents will aid the teacher 
essentially in his work by frequently visiting the school. Thus they 
will encourage their own children, and all the rest of the school. The 
pupils in any school will be more interested in their work if they see 
that their parents are interested for them. A new impulse would be 
given to our schools if during each term every parent or guardian 
would visit the school in which his children are being taught. 

New Milford. — C. A. Todd, A. N. Baldwin, and Edward F. 
Morehouse, School Visitors. 

School Grounds. We have but few pleasant grounds connected 
with our school-houses ; generally, the street is the only resort for the 
children. 

Pare?its. Many of them need the spur of the law to notify them of 
their manifest indifference toward the educational welfare of their 
offspring. We need a law compelling parents, in certain cases, to 
send their children to the school-room. 

The District Committees. Many of them need much admonishing 
and urging to make them perform their duties according to law. 

Irregular Attendance. This great hindrance to the cause of educa- 
tion needs to be thoroughly removed, and we hope this can be done in 



201 

a good degree by the execution of the law passed by the last Legis- 
lature respecting truant and wandering children. 

Holbrook's School Apparatus is in several schools, and some parts 
of it are practically used by the teachers, though not as much as should 
be for the benefit of the pupils. 

North Branford. Charles Page, Acting School Visitor. 

Need of New School-houses, and a Method for Securing them. While 
we are in immediate need of new and convenient school buildings, 
there is little interest in the subject, and the day of reformation seems 
far in the future. Our private houses are fitted up so as to render 
them pleasant and attractive, but when some one proposes to do the 
same thing with the school-houses, those who have no children to 
educate fail to see any need of improvement, and are ready to vote 
against any proposition for building. The Visitor would recommend 
to parents that they visit the schools often, that they take interest 
enough in the education of their children to go to the school-room and 
note the progress they are making in their studies, examining the 
room itself to see if it is adapted to their use, making it their special 
eare to see if the seats are such as they would like to occupy six hours 
each day. No person ought to think of making complaint against a 
teacher until he he has spent at least the whole of one day in the 
school of such teacher. 

North Haven. — L. B. Thorpe, School Visitor. 

Evil of Employing Cheap Teachers. The schools in general are 
believed to be a little improvement upon the previous year. There 
should not be so much blame laid upon poor teachers as poor commit- 
tees, and after all, primarily, poor districts ; not poor in assessment, 
but in management of school matters. Just so long as school districts, 
from very mistaken ideas of economy, persist in limiting their school 
support to a mere pittance, just so long will the cry of " poor schools" 
go up, and the teacher father the whole blame. Cheap teachers are 
plenty, who do cheap work, and there is a corresponding cheapness all 
round ; but the teachers cannot be blamed, except for mistaken views 
as to their calling. Neither legislation nor force will mend this evil, 
and not till districts are more liberal, more careful in the selection of 
committees, and more rigid in their requirements of what a teacher 
shall be, can we hope to have an honest, thorough reformation in school 
matters. 

Suggestion Respecting Text Books. It is suggested that the State 
Board of Education come to some decision in regard to Text-Books, 
and recommend a list to be used in the schools. 

North Stonington. — Samuel A. Babcock and Van R. Gray, 
School Visitors. 

The Great Difficulty. The principal difficulty, and we are led to 
say the whole, is on the part of parents ; for if we have poor school- 
houses, poor school officers, poor teachers, and poor schools, who is res- 
ponsible? The parents, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. The 
15 



202 

only interest they seem to manifest is that their school shall he in ses- 
sion long enough to obtain the public money, and that it shall be 
sustained by what is thus received. They will not employ a teacher 
worthy the name, who commands a greater compensation. We think 
there should be a law enacted that should oblige each district to raise 
a sum of money equal to the amount received from public sources for 
the support of its school. Some say, " As is the teacher, so will be 
the school." We would say, as are the parents, so will be the school 
and everything pertaining to it. 

Give us better school-houses, better school officers, and better teach- 
ers, and we will give you better schools, better societies, and fewer 
candidates for the jail and prison. 

Nokwalk. — M. B. Pardee, Acting School Visitor. 

Undue Regard to Cheapness. Perhaps the worst fault in the 
management of the schools in this place is founded in the prevalent 
idea that cheapness is the principal aim, both in securing teachers and 
in providing and furnishing the houses in which they labor. Money 
before merit is the maxim. Thus, an inefficient teacher is placed in 
charge of the bodies, minds and souls of our children and youth, 
because, forsooth, his or her services may be procured for a few dollars 
less than those of a worthy instructor ; and even the poor efforts of 
such are half paralyzed by the absence of every comfort and con- 
venience, and the total lack of interest in parents, committee, and 
community in general. In justice we must say there are a few 
honorable exceptions, but there is a lamentable dearth of interest in 
our common schools; and many a parent sends his immortal child to 
receive his first and lasting impressions in a place of less comfort and 
taste than he would provide for his horse, and perhaps from a teacher 
of less culture and remuneration than his hostler; and many a mother 
buys a feather to adorn the hat of her child while the infant mind is 
unfledged, and will never be able to soar above the commonest things. 
The cause of education can never prosper among us while the entire 
work of building up is thrown on the teacher's hands, even if that 
teacher be faithful — how much less if he be unfaithful. Many of our 
school-houses are in a bad condition, and but few of them are properly 
seated and furnished. Fewer still have maps, black boards, or any 
apparatus to render study practical and attractive. Our graded 
schools are better taught than the others, yet, the want of outside en- 
couragement is equally apparent, and really worthy teachers have 
become disheartened, and have left their unrewarded labors on this 
very account. 

Old Lyme. — Rev. D. S. Brainerd, Acting School Visitor. 

Plan for Consolidation of Districts. — A plan is on foot for the 
consolidation of several of our school districts and the erection of a 
graded school. Some money has already been raised for this object, 
and more is expected. We are continually agitating the subject, and 
hope to be able to accomplish it soon. Our present method of com- 
mon school education by no means meets our wants. 



203 

Old Saybrook. — Rev. P. L. Shepard, Acting School Visitor. 

Unsuitable District Committees. The Board of Visitors feel obliged 
to protest against the practice, now so common, of appointing incom- 
petent and uninterested persons for district committees. This has a 
deleterious effect upon the schools, for the time at least, and leads to 
the employment of inferior teachers, and to the utter failure of reliable 
reports to the visitors, from which reports their information in their 
report to the State Superintendent is mainly derived. 

Indifference of Teachers. The Board of Visitors also lament the 
want of due interest on the part of the teachers in general. Their 
duties seem to be performed mainly in a perfunctory and inefficient 
manner. The end of the session and the pay then due, seem to be 
the end and object in view with most of our teachers. There is no 
heart in their work, and as litle of the head and hands as possible. 
We cannot hope for better results from our schools until we can make 
it an object with young men and women to engage in teaching as a 
profession, and to devote their life and labors to that one thing. A 
divided service can never be effectual. Let us hold up teaching as 
one of the great professions, which will pay in honor as well as in 
money, and we shall soon have a better state of things. 

Oxford. — N. J. Wilcoxson, Esq., Chairman of School Visitors. 

Necessity for Provision for Increased Taxation. In view of the 
condition of the rural districts for paucity of numbers, and consequently 
the heavy burden realized in paying school expenses without taxation ; 
in view, also, of the fact that towns are required by law to levy a tax 
of T 3 „ of a mill, and that a considerable additional amount of the ex- 
penses is paid out of the town treasury, may it not be well to advise 
that we have a State law directing that towns shall establish a rate 
per cent, upon the scholar as tuition fee, and levy a property tax 
therefor. For the prosperous success of popular education in the 
agricultural districts it appears to be expedient, if not indispensable, 
that a tax at large pay educational expenses. 

Plymouth. — A. P. Fenn, Acting School Visitor. 

Progress. — We are happy in the belief that substantial progress 
has been made in the educational interests of the town during the past 
year. We rejoice that the efforts made to secure better attendance 
have been partially successful, for taking into account the number 
attending private schools, and the lack of seats, the number attending 
our common schools the past year was unusually large. Although 
the number of non-attendants is still large enough to excite our appre- 
hension, yet with suitable accommodations for pupils, and earnest and 
continued efforts of the friends of popular education, we believe this 
number will soon be comparatively small. 

Pomkret. — Rev. W. C. Alexander, Acting School Visitor. 

New Books Introduced. — One year ago, by the wise and liberal action 
of the town, the schools were supplied without cost with new and 
approved text-books. No one who has looked into the school room 



204 

and watched the interest and enthusiasm thus created, can for a 
moment doubt the wisdom of the investment. It was a little thing for 
the town of Pomfret to do, but the rctnrns, — the semi-annual divi- 
dends in summer aqd winter will be large. The truth has been again 
confirmed that we can afford to do whatever the interests of education 
demand. The books adopted by the Board are of unquestioned merit, 
selected only after careful examination and faithful comparison with 
other publications. Unless the State move in the matter, which we 
do not anticipate, the change thus happily concluded will remain good 
for ten years to come. 

Public Examination. — That the working of this introduction might 
be evident to a larger number of citizens than are accustomed to visit 
the schools during their regular sessions, a public examination of all 
the schools was appointed to take place near the close of the winter 
term, in the Town House. The day was clear and cold, and a large 
and appreciative audience came together, representing all parts of the 
town. The exercises were of a high order, reflecting credit upon the 
teachers and the pupils. It was a pleasant thing to bring the chil- 
dren, who before were strangers to each other, face to face, and to com- 
pare the proficiency of the different schools, and the method of instruc- 
tion adopted by different teachers. If it created a spirit of generous 
emulation and rivalry, if it induced the purpose to excel in scholarship 
and to exalt the common schools in the estimation of their friends and 
patrons, the purpose entertained at the beginning has been fully 
answered. What has now been accomplished we regard as a hopeful 
preparation for the future work. If the guardians of our educational 
interests will aim at a high grade of qualifications in teachers, and will 
accept the truth that good schools cannot be created and sustained 
without it, and demand that such and such only shall be employed, we 
shall enter upon a brighter era than Ave have ever seen. Fairness 
compels me to say that while some teachers the past year have 
accquited themselves with honor, others have hardly reached the stand- 
ard of mediocrity. If the public are disposed to inquire why the 
Board, in the instances of mortifying failure in some of our schools, 
have not interfered and said this thing cannot go on ; we reply that it 
would only have been flying "from ills we have, to others that we know 
not of." The remedy lies in the first case with the public and their 
agents, the district committees. We would respectfully suggest that 
teachers of experience and established reputation be sought, at least 
for our larger schools. If one familiar with the working of common 
schools twenty-five years ago had looked into the schools of this town 
the past year he would not have observed a very marked advance. 
Charts and outline maps have been added to the necessary furnishing 
of the school room, but with us it would be almost an unwarranted 
outlay, for our teachers know nothing of their use. "Object lessons," 
and familiar illustration to relieve the dull monotony of the school 
room, are resorted to in other places, but our children have, with 
hardly an exception, no one to lead them in these pleasant paths of 
fresh investigation and study.' I will not insult your considerate judg- 
ment, nor wound your sensibilities enough to inquire whether it be 



205 

because we are not able to pay for teachers who are sufficiently edu- 
cated to lead on the enthusiastic pupil to new fields of knowledge, or 
who are so devoted to the interests of their profession that they will 
regard it as the simple demand of faithfulness. The difficulty rather 
is that such teachers are not sought, that a degree of apathy and 
indifference rests upon the public mind which makes them content to 
take the first applicant that comes along and drag him before the 
Board for examination, feeling prepared to be affronted, if in their 
judgment he be found incompetent. It seems almost like a misnomer 
to urge upon your notice the public need of educated teachers, but it 
is a sad fact that too many uneducated teachers have passed in and 
vainly tried to satisfy the greedy minds of your children. 

While it belongs to a good citizen to pay all legitimate levies upon 
his property with cheerfulness, he should regard the levy which the 
education of his children imposes with positive pleasure and gratitude. 

Prospect. — Rev. Wm. Atwater, School Visitor. 

A Feeble District Re-invigorated. — The north district, which had but 
a faint existence, has been revived, has built a new and very pleasant 
and convenient school house, and had during the summer an excellent 
school. 

"We recommend to parents to visit the schools more, to sympathize 
with teachers, and to be careful against injuring a teacher's good influ- 
ence by false reports. 

Putnam. — D. B. Plimpton, Acting Visitor. 

Improvement in Teachers. — We have noticed for the past two or three 
years increased zeal and efforts on the part of teachers to excel in the 
work to which they have been called. It may be owing in part to the 
better compensation for their services, but the practice adopted in this 
town of publishing annually the school reports has, we believe, had a 
very salutary influence upon them. It has naturally awakened an 
ambition to secure favorable testimony. Whatever their qualifications, 
we have noticed in all a faithful endeavor to make the best use of the 
powers possessed, and the partial failures noted have not been from 
indolence or indifference, but from want of natural aptitude for the 
calling. 

Deficiency of Parental Interest. — We wish we might note a corres- 
ponding interest and co-operation on the part of parents in the work 
of the school room. While we notice a record of a considerable 
number of visitors in the different schools, many are from abroad, and 
far too few residents of the districts are seen in the school room. 
People are slow to learn that the best teachers are the cheapest. 
Low priced teachers and long schools is the policy of many. " Get 
the best" — is judicions policy in procuring most things necessary to 
life, and emphatically so in securing the education of our children. 
Fitness for the duties of life will not depend upon the time spent in 
the school room, but upon the character of the instruction there 
received, and the right use of the time devoted to school room educa- 
tion. The school room is principally valued by many parents as a 
safe place for their children for six hours in a day, and a glorious in- 



206 

vention to relieve them from care for that length of time ; and there- 
fore the longer the school the better. The right training of an immor- 
tal mind is too much a secondary consideration. A truly good teacher 
should rarely be parted with for pecuniary consideration.. 

Need of a Graded School, or a High School. — There is one enter- 
prise which at present overrides all others in importance. The great 
want of the two village districts is consolidation, and a graded school 
held in one building. The number of the schools would not be 
increased by this system, and the aggregate expense would be lessened, 
while far greater advantages would be realized than under present 
arrangements. This is in accordance with universal testimony where 
the experiment has been tried, and it has been tried in a very large 
number of places in the State. All shrewd business men must say 
that the subject is worthy of immediate investigation ; and if a new 
system will lessen expense and increase efficiency, it should be imme- 
diately adopted. The very least that should be done is the establish- 
ment of a High School, at which advanced scholars may be separated 
from others, and enjoy the advantages of an academical education by 
the aid of the public money. There is, or soon will be, pressing need 
of enlarging the school rooms in both districts, or of having additional 
rooms and teachers ; and it is earnestly hoped that there will be no 
temporizing in the matter, and that before further expense is incurred 
in building, intelligent men must see the wisdom of adopting the policy 
which has been indicated, and thus bringing honor to the village, and 
attracting to it an intelligent class of citizens. 

Increase of Compensation for Acting Visitors. — The compensation 
of a faithful Acting Visitor is inadequate for the services rendered, 
and should be increased at least fifty per cent. Almost the entire 
labor and responsibilities of the Board come upon that officer. While 
the reflection of having labored for the public good is pleasant, and a 
partial reward, the town should relieve the burden somewhat, and so 
remunerate the superintendent of this important interest of the town 
that he may devote sufficient time to the work to elevate the standard 
of our schools to the highest point of excellence. 

Redding. — E. P. Shaw, B. Bradley, and A. Salmons, School 
Visitors. 

Irregular Attendance. Irregular attendance still continues to be 
the great bane of our schools. We have endeavored to remedy this 
evil by advice and entreaty, but without avail. During the past year 
we have enforced the law in regard to the fixing a rate of tuition in 
order to obtain abatements, and we hope that in time this may remedy 
the evil. We are convinced, however, that as long as parents con- 
tinue indifferent in regard to their own schools, and refrain from all 
active cooperation in matters connected with their welfare and ad- 
vancement, the evil will remain. 

Teachers. The class of teachers remains the same from year to 
year. It is composed principally of those .who take up teaching as a 
temporary expedient, to be thrown aside when something more profi- 
table appears. While we would not intrust the building of our houses 



207 

to a man unacquainted with his trade, or our bodies when sick to a 
quack, yet we do not hesitate a moment to intrust the moral and intel- 
lectual training of our children to those totally unfitted for the task. Not 
till we are thoroughly convinced that money expended for a poor 
school is worse than wasted, will there be a reform in this respect. 

School- Nouses. In regard to school-houses, no improvement has 
been made. * * * While there are a few public spirited indi- 
viduals who desire a change in this respect, the majority, and those 
the most wealthy, set themselves firmly against any change, and seem 
to look upon every effort at reform as a conspiracy to rob them of 
their money. These eminent conservatives use the old argument, 
"the school-house was good enough for us, and is good enough for 
those who now attend." Yet these same eminent conservatives are 
very careful to have every thing about their own dwellings neat and 
comfortable, and even elegant ; and would think it a great hardship 
to live in the old houses in which their boyhood was spent. With 
such men argument is of no avail. The insatiable spirit of greed 
overcomes all their better feelings, and blinds them to the true inter- 
ests of themselves, and of the rising generation. 

Ridgefield. — Rev. C. T. Woodruff, Acting School Visitor. 

The teachers, as a whole, have done their duty faithfully. Consid- 
ering the discouragements under which they have labored in regard 
to the pitiful wages paid, the irregular attendance, and the almost ab- 
solute indifference of parents — it is astonishing they have had any 
heart to do any thing. 

Common Schools cannot prosper, cannot be what they ought to be, 
so long as the first question is, how cheap can we get a teacher t We 
need the best, at whatever cost. The knowledge imparted, the way 
in which it is taught, the habits of mind as to definiteness, exact- 
ness and thoroughness which are formed in our common schools, lay 
the foundation for the future man or woman, and it is a suicidal poli- 
cy, on the part of any people, not to have this foundation-work done 
in the most complete manner. 

But this is not all ; a cheap teacher, if faithful, is better, in a given 
school, than a succession of new teachers. It is a living fact, that 
much of the valuable time of childhood is absolutely lost, by the in- 
sane notion that is so prevalent, that there must be a semi-annual 
change of teachers. The result is, that about half the time of the 
new teacher is wasted in finding out the character and ability of the 
scholars, and that of the scholars in finding out whether the teacher 
can teach and govern him. Hence, it comes to pass that there is 
little, if any real progress. The scholar takes up the same book, be- 
gins it, and gets about so far every term, and if he really learns any 
thing definite in the end, it is, generally, because he is' smarter than 
the system under which he is living. We want teachers who love 
their work, who teach to benefit the scholars, not to get a living, other 
than by work. Teaching, when rightly considered, and faithfully 
done, is quite as hard work, as any kind of labor, and he, or she, who 
undertakes to teach, as a respectable way of shirking man-work, or 



208 

woman-work, has greatly erred from the truth and miserably mista- 
ken their calling. 

It is with teachers, as with laborers in any field, if you want good 
work done, you must employ good help, and if you get good help you 
must pay a good price. You all understand it in regard to every 
kind of business, and yet you dare to risk the polishing and setting of 
your most valued jewels, the education of your children, in the hands 
of incompetent workmen. Self-interest ought to teach people better. 
Why, if the board of examiners should stand by the law, strictly, as 
things now exist, your schools would be without teachers. 

The fact is, if you employ cheap teachers and send them before the 
board for examination, and the board reject them, you find fault 
with the board — call them unnecessarily severe, declare you cannot 
afford to pay a better teacher, or if, in consideration of the smallness 
of the school, or the age of the scholars, or your poverty, the board 
grants a certificate, then you find fault with the teacher, because for- 
sooth, she does not teach as well as the best. 

People cannot throw the responsibility of these things on the dis- 
trict committee, for they are your instructed agents. They have sins 
of omission enough of their own, independent of the district. Each 
district tells, or should tell, their committee what to do : and woe to 
that committee man who dares do otherwise ! If you want a 
thoroughly qualified teacher, all you have to do is to say so at the 
district meeting. The difference in the expense is a trifle not worth 
speaking of, but the difference in the minds of your children and in 
their acquirements is immense. I'll venture to say that if the dif- 
ferent districts in this town would determine to employ no teacher 
who was not fully up to the standard of the law, they would in one 
year see such an improvement in all respects, that no argument could 
persuade them to return to the present system. 

And while I am speaking on this point, I wish to say to you, that, 
as a general thing, female teachers do far better than male teachers. 
My observation and experience in schools convinces me that a female 
teacher, who makes teaching her business, and is fitted to teach, is 
more efficient, at least two to one, than any transient male teacher. 
They have an aptness to teach, a patience in teaching, and they have, 
in the very fact of their sex, and the respect which attaches to it, 
more power and influence over all ages and sexes than one man in 
ten, with all his muscle. 

I say then to the people of this town ; your highest interest is to 
employ none but the best teachers, pay them what they ask, give them 
one boarding-place, see that they have a good house, plenty of books, 
maps, and such things as are needed, and the result will more than 
satisfy you all ; you will find it the most profitable investment you ever 
made. As things now are, you do not get an equivalent for the time 
spent. There is no difficulty in securing teachers under such a 
management. Good wages always bring good workmen aiid plenty 
of them. It is very bad policy to have teachers going away from us 
because they can command nearly double wages in an adjoining town. 



209 

Rocky Hill. — Rufus W. Griswold, School Visitor. 

Suggestion of a Remedy for the Great Diversity of School-Books. 
— The State should have compiled and published a series of works for 
our common schools — the geographies and histories to be amended and 
added to, once, say, in five years, as changes may occur — and this se- 
ries should be the only one allowed in the school-room. It would at 
once do, away with the great confusion which, under the present system 
of competition, is almost unavoidable, and after the first two or three 
years would save the people of the State thousands of dollars every 
year. This matter should receive the serious attention of the State 
Board of Education. 

Roxbtjey. — Minott L. Beardsley, Acting School Visitor. 

Hindrances. — Parental apathy to a great extent still prevails. The 
irregidar attendance of the pupils — that source of serious difficulty, 
deranging the teacher's efforts at classification, and impairing the pros- 
perity of our schools — remains unremedied. The rigid economy prac- 
ticed in some districts in order to secure a school with no outlay of 
funds beyond the amount received from public sources, has (in one in- 
stance at least) wrought its legitimate result. But though these and 
many other causes have conspired to retard the progress of our schools, 
still it is evident that in many instances improvement has been made. 
Some of our teachers have had the energy and perseverance manfully 
to combat these mighty evils, and occasionally their efforts have been 
crowned with success. Could every parent be induced to visit our 
schools, and to cooperate and sympathize with the teachers in their la- 
borious duties, we should have fewer instances of disheartened, dis- 
couraged teachers; and the remark would not be so often made that 
"the funds appropriated for the benefit of our schools have beeia worse 
than wasted." 

A New Plan Necessary. — From year to year we are more fully con- 
firmed in the opinion that there should be one person appointed in each 
town to employ teachers for the town, and that the teacher should be 
examined by a County Board appointed by the Legislature for that 
purpose. In this way no favoritism could be shown, either by local 
or town committees, and those but poorly qualified would be deterred 
from offering themselves, while good teachers would receive better 
compensation. 

Saybrook. — J. H. Mather, Secretary of Board of Visitors. 

Value of Teachers from the Normal School. — The general improve" 
ment of the schools has been creditable to the teachers who had charge 
of them. Three of the teachers have been members of the Connecti- 
cut Normal School, one of -whom taught the higher department in 
district No. 1 three years to the acceptance of all concerned. Her 
successor proved herself a "workman" in her profession, thoroughly 
qualified. The third, the teacher of the primary school in No. 1, 
commenced her labors in November, 18G1, and still retains her posi- 
tion, going on successfully. All have won laurels for themselves. 



210 

Proposed . Change in the Law concerning the Visitation of Schools. 
— We think the schools should be visited within three weeks of their 
commencement, and within two weeks of their close ; also once near 
the middle of the term by the Chairman of the Board of Visitors or 
by one of their number designated by them, at which time the Dis- 
trict Committee and the parents who send- any children to the school 
should also attend for an examination of the school- Such an exam- 
ination would deeply excite all parties — parents, children, and teach- 
ers. Great good would be the result. The teacher's qualifications 
and efforts would be brought to light. If he has any essential failings 
they would be discoverable to all parties, and if necessary his ramoval 
could be made. 

Seymour. — Rev. O. E. Shannon, School Visitor. 

A High School Established. — During the year we have established 
a town High School. It is very well attended, and is a complete suc- 
cess. Our district schools are in a much better condition than ever 
they were before. The cause of public education has taken a fresh 
start in this town. 

Sherman. — J. N. Woodruff, School Visitor. 

Want of Interest in Schools. — The want of public interest on the 
part of parents and guardians of the pupils must be regarded as hav- 
ing a detrimental influence upon the general condition of our common 
schools. The farmer has time to see to his workmen in the field, and 
the mechanic to oversee his business in his workshop or manufactory. 
The housewife watches carefully her seamstress or hired girl, so that 
her work shall be done as she wishes. But neither of these can find 
time to look into the school-house to see if the minds of their children 
are being trained correctly. Can there not be some course taken by 
the Superintendent of our common schools to influence the patrons to 
visit and interest themselves in these schools? 

Southington. — Rev. E. C. Jones, School Visitor. 

Public Examinations and Prizes. — When the schools are fofund to 
be deficient in any particular branch of learning, we find it to be a 
good thing to turn the channel of enthusiasm in that direction, if pos- 
sible, by public examinations, trials, and prizes. This often suffices to 
raise the standard at once throughout the town, both in teachers and 
pupils. 

Female Teachers. — Other things being equal, female teachers, it is 
believed, may be as useful, at least in the smaller schools, as male 
teachers, and in many cases they quite excel. 

Stamford. — Z. B. Nichols, School Visitor. 

We need free schools throughout the State with compulsory attend- 
ance of all children between six and fourteen years for at least six 
months each year. 

Let each town form one district, having a paid committee to attend 
to all the duties now devolving upon district committees and school 
visitors; then impose a fine for not performing their duties properly. 



211 

Stonington. — S. S. Griswold, Acting School Visitor. 

District Committees. — The committee of a district should be one 
who is capable of knowing what a good school is, and who will aim to 
secure it by taking a deep interest in its welfare and securing a com- 
petent teacher. Yet in many districts the men most competent for 
the office of committtee utterly refuse to serve, and hence such dis- 
tricts have to endure the incompetency of ignorance, the self-will of 
conceit, and the penuriousness of close-fistedness. The best man in 
every district is none too good for a district committee. If such would 
but serve, (as is doubtless their duty,) there are few positions which 
open a better field for serving our fellow men. 

School Meetings. — The annual school meetings should be attended 
by all the legal voters of the several districts. These meetings should 
be free from all party strife, and all should combine their wisdom for 
the best interests of education among them. The man who will serve 
the best interests of the children for the ensuing year should be 
selected district committee. Such committee should be properly remu- 
nerated for his services. Such a course would doubtless secure the 
services of a competent committee in every district, while an opposite 
course often inflicts upon a district a most serious evil. 

Evils of Parsimony, How to Prevent Them. — The practice of many 
districts of limiting their school terms to their public money necessa- 
rily determines the quantity and quality of their schools. If districts 
were required to raise by taxation an amount equal to their propor- 
tion of the public money it would much improve their schools, both in 
character and duration That our common schools should be sustained 
perhaps mainly by taxation is becoming more and more the opinion 
of Legislators as well as Educators. The close of each financial year 
should be both a settlement and a canceling of each district's indebt- 
edness. If tuition fees do not meet the indebtedness, the balance 
ought to be raised annually by a property tax. 

Where tuition fees are laid they should be laid equally upon all the 
children that attend the school, including both winter and summer 
term, so that the public money can be equally appropriated to both 
winter and summer schools. It is illegal to apply all the public 
money to the winter school, and then impose a tuition fee upon those 
who attend the summer school. 

Thompson. — James A. Dean, Acting School Visitor. 

Shameful and Annoying Delinquency of District Committees. — I 
have waited, as you will observe, till the last day of grace before 
making my report. This has been caused by failure to receive the 
statistics from the district committees. After waiting till last week 
I rode nearly all day to get them to attend to the matter ; and then as 
two failed to report, I went again on Friday last, and finally succeeded 
in getting them all. Now what is the remedy for this ? Is there no 
pecuniary penalty upon the delinquent or his district ? And is there 
no compensation to the one that spends his time in doing their business 
for them, and wears out his horse, and his patience unless he has 
a good stock on hand. 



212 

Lectures on School Subjects. — I suggest that it would be well for 
some energetic man or men in each district to make arrangements for 
two or three lectures during the winter, obtaining some active friend 
of education either in the town, or from abroad, and paying, (perhaps 
by a collection,) his expenses and even something more, if need be. 
I am convinced that if the people were fully aroused to the benefits 
of education, and to the steps necessary to secure it for their children, 
our schools would immediately show the beneficial effects. If health 
and time permit, I propose to deliver at least one lecture in every 
district that I visit this winter. 

Tolland. — Rev. Abram Marsh, Acting School Visitor. 

The Best Way to Gather Statistics. — The Acting School Visitor 
should have the sole charge of statistics of the schools. There should 
be no reports from the committee of the school districts. They are 
rarely complete, and it costs more to correct them than to get the sta- 
tistics from original sources. We want but one wheel where we have 
two in this machine. 

Number of Scholars Diminishing. — There are but few scholars in 
the schools of this town. The number enumerated in 1832 was 533, 
in 1865, 324 ; difference 209, loss more than 39 per cent. 

We strongly recommend female teachers for the winter as well as 
the summer terms, except in some cases for particular reasons. One 
reason for this recommendation is the smallness of the schools; 
another reason, experience shows that the schools are as good under 
female teachers ; still another reason, the schools would be longer for 
the same money. We strongly urge the employing of the same teacher 
for successive terms in the same school. The reasons for this are 
obvious. Scholars will be led onward from term to term, and not con- 
tinually put back, as is apt to be the case where teachers are changed 
every term. 

A High School Recommended. — The school in district No. 1 is 
divided into two departments, with two terms for the higher depart- 
ment under a teacher competent to teach higher branches, and with 
three terms under a female teacher for the junior department. It is 
of great importance that a High School should have existence in the 
town by converting the senior department of the Centre s 'hool into 
a High School. Many times during the last 30 years we have had a 
select school, but it would be a better plan to have such a High School. 
Such a school in Tolland would bring the education which our chil- 
dren need up to the gold standard, such an education would be the gold 
of the poor and the rich alike. The glory of our institutions is that 
they level up. This is the power and the glory of our system of 
education. All are elevated by it, and are better fitted to fulfill the 
great duties of life. 

Torrixgton. — L. Wetmore, School Visitor. 

A Free School. — The Wolcottville district, comprising about one- 
half of the children within the town, voted by an overwhelming ma- 
jority to make theirs a free school, and laid a tax on the property of 



213 

the district to raise some three thousand dollars to meet the expense 
of our schools for the ensuing year. 

We need one thing more to make our school complete, namely, 
consolidation of the several schools in one building. 

Trumbull. — Le Grand G. Beers and Benj. H. French, Acting 
School Visitors. 

Parental Indifference. — We are sorry to report that the old trouble 
of parental indifference still prevails throughout most of the town. 
With the exception of one district, the schools have seldom been visited 
by the parents. Most of them have nevertheless been taught with a 
good degree of success, which, while it does not prove that parental 
interest and cooperation are unimportant, shows that a competent and 
energetic teacher can do much- in the absence of that important 
auxiliary. 

Though irregularity in attendance has been complained of by the 
teachers in one or two schools, we think that evil has been generally 
less prevalent than in former year. * 

The state of our schools at present is much the same as in previous 
years. We think, however, on the whole, that there is a gradual change 
in the right direction ; and though they are not all we wish for, we 
ought to be thankful for what they are. 

Union. — R. O. Brown, School Visitor. 

Our schools the past year have been unusually good, though one of 
them was not able to make the desired progress on account of irregu- 
lar attendance. 

Increase of Parental Interest. — During the past year the parents in 
some of the districts have manifested more than usual interest in the 
schools. They have visited the school room quite often, and their 
presence has been cheering to the pupils, and highly encouraging to 
the teachers. 

Verxon. — Rockville, Dr. S. G. Risley, Acting School Visitor. 

The people in both districts of the village, have shown a growing 
interest in the cause of education. School meetings have been at- 
tended more and more fully when the prospects and interest of the 
schools have been freely debated and acted upon. Schools have been 
visited by parents and friends, and thus pupils and teachers have been 
cheered and encouraged in their tasks and labors. 

Dr. N. Gregory Hall, Acting School Visitor. 

The other schools have as a whole been worthy of respect and 
praise. While there might be many deficiencies pointed out in each, 
yet collectively they are deserving of much credit. Their average 
is higher than that of any year for four previous years. They are 
however, now very far from perfection. Still it is highly gratifying 
to know that there is a progress upward toward a higher standard. 

Ten teachers have been employed during the past year, not one 
continuing in the same school two successive terms. The pupils in 
our schools cannot make the progress they would if only one teacher 



214 

was employed during the year. The rule should be, secure the ser- 
vices of a good teacher, and if possible, retain her. 

As has been intimated there has been more interest manifested on 
the part of the public in behalf of our schools than usual. More in- 
quiries have been made respecting the condition of the schools. A 
greater number of school visits have been made than during any year 
for four previous years. This increased interest may be due in part 
to the fact that at the commencement of the year we introduced two 
new series of text-books. It is a notorious fact that when you draw 
upon a man's purse you touch a very sensitive spring of action that 
will lead him at once to ascertain if possible, whether he will receive 
due compensation for the money expended. It was undoubtedly call- 
ing into action this principle that led some at least to exhibit more 
interest in our schools than heretofore. All of the interest manifest- 
ed is not however, traceable to this cause. Great credit most cer- 
tainly is due to the parents and guardians of the children in so will- 
ingly supplying them with the new text books and making so little 
objection to their introduction. It is certainly a most hopeful sign. 
Say all we can however, in favor of our schools still they are very 
far from being what they ought to be. And why ? One reason is, 
apathy on the part not only of parents and guardians, but of the 
friends of education. This is evident from the fact of the dilapidated 
condition of some of our school-houses, of the low state of average 
attendance, of the tardiness of the pupils, of their not being well sup- 
plied with text-books, of the want of sympathy for and cooperation 
with the teacher in her arduous work, but on the other hand too fre- 
quently a disposition to criticise severely and to find fault. Such are 
a few of the evidences which make it manifest that there is still too 
much indifference in the community respecting our schools. In re- 
gard to the condition of our school-houses, there has been in one or 
two districts a decided improvement. We hope it is but the beginning 
of a great change in this respect. It is with feelings of deep regret 
that I am obliged to allude again to the condition, the miserable con- 
dition for accommodating the number of pupils, of the building, (I will 

not call it a school-house) in the district. The district 

out of regard to the health of their children, to say nothing of 
their education, ought to furnish them with better accommoda- 
tions. I have visited that school when I should have had some 
doubt whether there was oxygen enough in the air to support com- 
bustion, had it not been for the fact that there were seated there on 
those unendurable benches sixty pupils trying to breathe, somewhat 
in the same manner as a fish does lying on the bank of a stream. 
There is certainly great danger that our children, many of them will 
suffer from ill health by study and close confinement, even with the 
best accommodations. "When will men learn wisdom? Our teachers 
complain, and that justly, of the want of sympathy and aid of the 
parents. The question is often asked, "Where are the parents? the 
term is half through, and I've only seen one or two of the parents in 
school." No one who has never taught knows how much good it 
does a teacher to speak a kind word, a word of encouragement. It 



215 

kindles up an enthusiasm and zeal for the work unfelt and perhaps 
unknown before. Even the very presence of the parent in school 
acts as a stimulus to a teacher. She feels she is not forgotten. I 
plead that more parents visit our schools, that those who do visit 
them, visit them oftener, and it would not be many terms before a 
very decided improvement would be manifest in all our schools. 
Another reason why our schools are not what they ought to be, is 
found in the tact that our district committees do not always exercise 
the care they ought in the selection of teachers. I well know the 
difficulties in the matter and would therefore be very charitable. I 
know that sometimes when the utmost care has been used there have 
been failures. Still there is too much of a disposition to secure the 
services of the teacher that applies, without due inquiry as to her 
general qualifications and her previous success. Too great care cer- 
tainly cannot be used in this matter. All the information it is possible 
tc gain in reference- to a teacher not well known to a committee should 
be had before she is hired. The extent of the evil consequences re- 
sulting from employing teachers not possessing the requisite qualifica- 
tions for teaching a good school, are not, I apprehend, well understood. 
The labor of a faithful teacher for half, and sometimes for a whole 
term, are necessary to eradicate from the pupils bad habits of study 
they have formed. Hence from one to two terms are nearly lost to 
the pupils. If parents would visit the schools sufficiently often, and 
observe so closely as to become fully aware of this fact, to see that 
money expended in employing an inefficient teacher is worse than 
thrown away, more care would certainly be exercised in obtaining 
good teachers. The deficiencies in our teachers have not been, with 
one or two exceptions, in intellectual capacity. The most prominent 
and most common defects are want of ability to discipline a school, 
and want of enthusiasm and zeal in their work. It is impossible for 
a teacher not having enthusiasm and zeal herself to awaken it in her 
pupils. And a dull school is about the dullest of all things. Method 
in conducting the exercises of the school is also a very common fault 
of teachers. I consider this of great importance in the education of 
the young. Train a child during his school days to habits of method 
in everj tiling, and he will be methodical through life. It is superflu- 
ous for me to enumerate the advantages of such habits in business 
life. They are indispensable. 

Voluntoavn. — William C. Stanton, and A. E. Bitgood, Acting 
Visitor. 

Fault-finding Parents. — We think our schools would be far more 
successful if parents and guardians would take more interest in coop- 
erating with and assisting the teachers in their arduous and important 
duties. We know of a few parents who, although they are never 
seen in the school, are always finding fault about the teacher and 
school. Such parents, who obtain about all they know of the school 
from their children, are frequently without any foundation whatever for 
their fault-finding, and consequently they greatly impair the efficiency 
of the school by their unfounded reports and unjust attacks upon the 



216 

teacher. Irregular attendance still continues, to the great detriment 
of our schools. We wish that parents could see the bad effects which 
irregular attendance has upon our schools. We think if they could 
see it in its true light, they would lend a helping hand to prevent it. 

Wallixgford. — Rev. R. J. Adams, Acting School Visitor. 

How to Secure and Retain Good Teachers. — The teachers recom- 
mended to us from the Normal School have uniformly proved success- 
ful Still it is evident that the great obstacle to the highest efficiency 
of our schools is the incompetency of teachers. The first minds in the 
community ought to be encouraged to engage in the work of teaching. 
It is a work which can not be properly done by any boy or girl who 
may think it would be a fine thing to teach school one or two terms. 
A special preparation is needed for it as much as for any of the so- 
called learned professions. 

If we could have thoroughly qualified and experienced teachers in 
all our schools for a few generations it would be one of the richest 
blessings to society, and would hasten the coming of that predicted 
time when "wisdom and knowledge shall be the stability of the 
times." 

What can be done to secure an improvement in teachers and schools'! 
Let what good teachers there are be engaged and continued in the 
same school as long as possible, and let their compensation be sufficient 
to keep them in the employment. There are not at present good 
teachers enough to supply all the schools, but create the demand and 
you will have the supply. Let the people insist on having teachers of 
the requisite qualifications, and they will be forthcoming, if the people 
are willing to pay for them. Refuse to hire cheap teachers. Let poor 
teachers be discharged as soon as their incompetence is ascertained. 
Parents must keep their eye on the teacher, and must frequently visit 
the school if they would encourage him and stimulate him to do his 
work well. They must aid him in maintaining discipline, must teach 
their children to obey him, and must concede to him all due authority 
and let him exercise it, even if their children receive correction. 
They should see to it that their children are regular and punctual in 
attendance, and that there is a commodious and pleasant school-house. 
Some of the farmers have barns better than the school-houses, showing 
that they are quite as thoughtful for their domestic animals as for the 
comfort of their children during the years they spend in obtaining an 
education. The fact is, the people do not, as a mass, duly appreciate 
the importance of educating the rising generation. They think more 
of making them rich in material possessions than of conferring upon 
them the more valuable and durable riches of knowledge, and of men- 
tal and moral worth. 

Importance oj Establishing either a Graded School or a High School. 
— Is it not a standing reproach to this town that we do not furnish to 
our young people facilities for acquiring a thorough education in the 
higher mathematics, the natural sciences, and the classics? If Con- 
necticut had a law like Massachusetts, Wallingford would be under 
the necessity of having a High School. Our town will continue to be 



217 

destitute of young men preparing for college and for the learned pro- 
fessions, so long as we are destitute of a school of a higher grade than 
any we now have. Our young men grow up without acquiring much 
literary taste. Shall these things continue so to be? Shall our young 
men continue to prefer to spend their evenings at some place of amuse- 
ment, rather than with some useful book in science or history? We 
shall not take that position in education which we ought to take till 
we establish a High School. 

"Warren. — Rev. William E. Bassett, Acting Visitor. 

Small Districts — Antiquated Usage. — There are two districts in 
Warren which are without a school or a comfortable place for a school. 
Their population is scattered and poor. The old way of charging 
scholars only for the days of their attendance has been followed in all 
the schools in this town. This is believed to encourage irregularity, 
and efforts are being made to lead to a conformity to the law in this 
respect. 

Washington. — Stephen S. Baldwin and Gould C. Whittlesey, 
Acting Visitors. 

Obstacles. — The greatest obstacles are general apathy and parental 
indifference. The former is manifest at our meetings for the election 
of district officers, and making provision for our schools, where, it is 
believed, (unless a direct tax is to be levied,) not one-fourth of those 
most interested, or one-eighth of the legal voters, are ever seen. It is 
also manifest in the election of district committees. Not every person 
of the best judgment as to the qualities or the value of a good horse 
or pair of oxen is competent to judge the value of a thorough educator, 
or what is necessary to a good school. Not every mechanic who 
knows what tools are necessary to the prosecution of his trade, and 
how to keep them in order, knows what tools are necessary and the 
order in which they must be kept to secure the successful operation of 
a common school. Not rotation in office but live school men should be 
the motto in the selection of district officers. There is a difference in 
our schools; but what has made this difference? Not the teacher alto- 
gether, for many of our teachers have labored alike faithfully, but 
some have not been sustained by the sympathy and cooperation of 
the parents. In some of our schools not more than two or three, and 
in some not even one parent, is seen during the term ; while in two 
others, and those the most prosperous, almost every parent, and mora 
visitors than pupils, were present at the last examination. What shall 
we think of that farmer, or mechanic, or housekeeper, who should have 
no greater anxiety about their help than most parents manifest in re- 
gard to those who have the training of their children. In the one case 
it is a mere matter of dollars and cents, in the other the training of 
the immortal mind. 

Waterbury. — Thomas L. Hendricken and Rev. Elisha Whittle- 
sey, Acting School Visitors. 

Influence of Examination and Premiums. — There are two ways by 
which a real advancement can be secured in our schools. Always to 
16 



218 

provide an adequate number of well-trained teachers, and to give to 
the pupils sufficient motive for exertion. These are the two great 
conditions in compliance with which only can real progress in education 
be secured, and many of the difficulties and obstacles which we com- 
plain of be surmounted. Granted for a moment that all ardent, ener- 
getic, and well-disciplined teachers could not be found to the number 
we require them, it is of far less importance than a want of a provision 
that would afford a stimulus to the pupils themselves. Now this can 
be done by holding out to the pupil that he shall be rewarded for his 
labors after a fair test of his attainments. It is trifling with the ques- 
tion to say that pupils should be taught to labor from a higher induce- 
ment than the hope of a premium. Allowing the abstract truth of 
the principle, we must, notwithstanding, confess that the desire of 
praise and the hope of reward are universally implanted in the human 
breast, and we must deal with old and young as we find them. 

"Waterford. — Nathaniel A. Chapman, Chairman of Board of 
Visitors. 

Improvement during the Tear. — There is more desire for improve- 
ment among parents and others than ever; the schools have been more 
frequently visited, children's books examined and commented upon, a 
desire to procure better teachers, paying better prices for their serv- 
ices, and more disposition on the part of the people to tax themselves 
in their annual district meetings than ever before. The gradual in- 
troduction of text-books for the schools will, I have no doubt, lead to 
very great improvement, and will encourage teachers to make greater 
exertions for the improvement of those under their charge. We hope 
at the end of another year to show still greater progress. 

Watertown. — A. C. Eggleston, Secretary of Board of School 
Visitors. 

Increased Town Taxation Recommended. — If possible get the Leg- 
islature to raise the town tax from -fa of a mill to -fa, at least, or bet- 
ter still, to yV It will be immensely better to approximate, at least, 
the free school system. 

Woodbury. — P. M. Trowbridge, Acting Visitor. 

Beneficial effect of a Teachers' Institute. — The Teachers' Institute 
for Litchfield County, held in this town in October, 1864, gave a de- 
cided impulse to our schools, stimulating teachers to fresh zeal, and 
awakening a new interest in the whole community, the effects of which 
are still plainly visible. 

Westbrook. — Rev. J. H. Pettingell, Acting Visitor. 

Need of Improvements in School-houses. Several of the school- 
houses need very much to be repaired and remodeled. The influence 
of a cheerful and convenient room upon the minds and habits, not to 
speak of the health of the scholars, is a consideration of no small 
importance. The welfare of the school is promoted by making the 
room as pleasant and attractive as possible to the teacher and pupils. 
If the walls are dirty and ragged, and the seats uncomfortable, and 



219 

ill-arranged at that, the windows without any shades to prevent the 
glare of the sun in summer, and with joints so open as to let in the 
cold air in winter, the wood green and made to burn with great diffi- 
culty, and the stove dilapidated and murky, it can hardly be expected 
that any ordinary teacher will be able to keep what is called " a good 
school." Yet this is the condition of several of our school-houses. 

Diversity of Text-Books. The diversity of text-books, not only in 
the different schools in the town, but also among scholars of the same 
school, is a source of much inconvenience, and a serious drawback on 
the prosperity of our schools. This evil has been growing upon us for 
several years, and it is impossible to check it without the exercise of 
some authority on the part of the school visitors. The same books 
are handed down from generation to generation of scholars ; others 
of a later date are brought in by pupils who had no predecessors in 
the family ; others still by those who came from abroad ; and yet others 
are brought down from the academy ; so that we have come to have 
a complete medley of books, and often in a class, or what should be 
a class of half a dozen pupils in some branch of study, no two of them 
have the same text-book. The teacher has not the time to hear 
them all recite separately, and if he had, it would be much better 
for these pupils to be in a class together; but this is quite impossible 
unless they use the same textbook. Some of these books are cer- 
tainly much superior to others, but a uniformity with any one of them 
would be better for the school than the present state of things. In 
deciding upon the books to be used in the various branches, while we 
have desired to adopt the best so far as practicable, we have also 
wished to make as little change as possible, and to avoid all unnecessary 
expense. We have, therefore, in all cases, selected some one from 
among the number in use, as the best, and as the standard to which 
the schools will be expected to conform. It will be necessary to 
insist on this regulation for the coming year, * * * and teachers 
will be instructed to carry this regulation into effect. 

A High School Desirable. It is much to be regretted that the town 
is not ready at once to accept the system which is becoming so com- 
mon in this State, and which is almost universal elsewhere — of grading 
the schools — so that we can have at least one good high school, which 
shall come under the provisions of the Common School law and 
receive the benefit of the public funds to aid in its support. If such a 
school were maintained the year round, with a competent gentleman 
teacher, we see no reason why female teachers might not be retained 
in all our districts both summer and winter. In this case, the expense 
of this high school would be an additional tax upon the town, while it 
would give to our older scholars an opportunity of pursuing the 
higher branches without any additional expense. The money which 
is now expended by the few in sustaining a feeble and uncertain pri- 
vate school in the academy, and that which is expended by some of 
our citizens, in educating their children in schools out of town, would 
be more than sufficient, under this plan, for sustaining here a town 
high school of the very highest grade. Thus, the high school, instead 



220 

of weakening our district schools, and operating as a discouragement 
to them, would cooperate with them, and would be felt as a healthful 
stimulus in all of our district schools. This arrangement, which we 
urged without effect last year, and which the State Superintendent, in 
his last annual report, so strongly commended, is becoming very 
general, and we cannot doubt that this town, though it may bring up 
the rear, will, before many years, be constrained by the force of public 
sentiment, if not by statute, to adopt it. 

The Abolishment of Districts Recommended. It could be wished 
also that the old district system, which might perhaps have answered 
some good purpose at first, but which has had its day, and is going 
out of use at the East, and is utterly discarded in the newer States as 
cumbersome and detrimental to harmony of action and progress, were 
abolished with us, and that the town, as every town ought, would 
consent to take the schools under its own care, as one of its most im- 
portant interests. The towns are farther advised that the f 3 ff of a mill 
tax which they raise for the support of their schools is the very lowest 
fraction allowed by law, and is quite inadequate to our wants. Many 
towns exceed this amount, some of them tenfold it, and the general 
average throughout the State is much above this. It could be wished 
that there was a law requiring every town to raise by taxation at least 
as much as they receive from the School Fund. This would add 
another tenth of a mill to our tax, making it T 4 ff of a mill. At any rate 
the town should raise enough by general tax to relieve the district 
(except in special cases) from the necessity of laying an additional 
tax, for if the money is to be raised, it would save much time and 
trouble, and some expense, to have it raised by one general tax 
rather than after the inconvenient, complicated and uncertain way in 
which it is now raised. According to the present mode of operation 
the action of the district depends upon the action of the town, and 
when there is a delay in apportioning the town money, the district 
can not tell how mucli to raise, the committee can not make out their 
report, as by law they are required to do on or before the loth of Sep- 
tember; the visitors' report must also be incomplete, it is impossible 
to pay off the teachers, and everything is hurried and uncertain at the 
end of the year. 

Weston. — J. R. Nichols, Acting Visitor. 

Parents in Fault. While some parents have blamed their children's 
teachers for real or imaginary causes, it is believed that the teachers 
have tried to do their duty. The visitor would respectfully suggest 
whether parents themselves are not to be blamed for some things 
which act as a drawback to the teacher, and counteract his influence? 
Do parents try to assist and encourage him by trying to teach their 
children at home out of school-hours? How many are kept out of 
school for trivial causes, thus making more trouble to the teacher by 
not being with the class ? These, among other things, ought not to 
be. 

School-houses. Another thing to which the visitor would call atten- 
tion is the situation of the different school-houses, with one exception, 



221 

close to the public streets. They ought to be located back from the 
road, so as to have a yard in front for a play-ground. 

Presents. It has been th(; custom for the teachers to give presents 
to their pupils at the close of each term. The visitor would suggest 
whether it would not be better for the several districts to offer through 
their committees, prizes to be given to the most deserving? The dis- 
tricts are better able to do so than the teachers, and could distribute 
more valuable prizes as inducements to study. 

"Wellington. — Albert Sharp and J. M. Browne, School Visitors. 

Need of Parental Interest. Jt is greatly to be desired that parents 
and friends of the children should be seen in the school-room. The 
teacher feels the influence of their presence, awakening his interest, 
and eliciting his efforts to gratify the interest of his friends by doing 
well. It is the calamity of most of our schools that so few of the 
parents manifest interest enough to take this easy way of doing so 
much good. 

Diversity of Text-Boo/cs. It has been a settled policy with the 
Committee to simplify the work of the teacher as much as possible by 
uniformity of text-books. In most of the schools this has been, to a 
great extent, accomplished ; but in some of the schools a few of the 
old text-books are pertinaciously retained, thus multiplying classes, 
and stinting the progress of the pupils. 

Teachers. As a whole, the Committee believe that our schools the 
past year have not only accomplished very satisfactory results, but 
in important respects have made decided progress in the right 
direction. There has been more caution, and in many cases better 
success in the selection of teachers. And on the part of many of our 
teachers there has been an ambition to excel — a conscientious endeavor 
to discharge their high responsibilities. 

Windham. — E. D. Bentley and J. G. Clark, Visitors. 

Teachers. — Good teachers are scarce. This arises from several 
causes. In the first place the demand for labor, and the advanced 
rate of wages and profits in almost every branch of business, have 
drawn off many excellent teachers into other pursuits and occupations. 
To this may be added, that schools in many other places are paying 
larger salaries. There is no reason why teachers should accept a 
smaller compensation for services than a similar grade of talent in 
other occupations. Districts must give attention to salaries, or there 
will be serious deterioration in our schools. 

Many of our teachers could be much improved by attendance upon 
the State Normal School ; some if not by acquiring knowledge, to 
learn how to express their knowledge and communicate it to others, 
and to learn the best methods of teaching. 

Music. — Vocal music is receiving some — perhaps increased atten- 
tion each year. Its influence is subduing, refining and elevating, upon 
both boys and girls. But very little is done in acquiring the rudi- 
ments of music as a science. "We would suggest that in many of our 
schools where the teacher does not understand the rules of music, a 



222 

competent music teacher be employed to give one lesson of one hour 
per week in the school. If a musical instrument can be secured for 
the school, so much the better. If districts do not provide such musi- 
cal instruction the formation of " singing classes " outside the school 
should be encouraged. We believe that so far as time and money are 
concerned, no department of our schools would make better returns 
than the musical. 

Discipline. — As a general thing our schools are under quite good 
discipline, and we have heard no great complaint by parents the past 
year. Good discipline is the foundation of a good school. There are 
different ways of securing it. We have seen schools where the heavy 
and exact machinery of order, the rigid position of pupils, the awe 
and fear of the teacher, the death-like stillness pervading the school- 
room, were absolutely painful ; such schools had a reputation for fine 
discipline. We have seen other schools where the attention of pupils 
was so concentrated and thoroughly absorbed in studies and duties, 
that they seemed to forget many little proprieties of position and order, 
and the school wore a little the appearance of carelessness, though 
there was not to be observed a single willful or marked impropriety. 
Such schools had perhaps little reputation in discipline. Yet we 
should greatly prefer the discipline of the latter to the former. We 
would, however, advance no Utopian theories of discipline. We would 
take our schools as they are, often made up in part of refractory boys 
and girls. It seems to us the time has not yet come, or rather our 
schools are not prepared to entirely dispense with corporal punish- 
ment. It is still needed, as a reserve power, when other means have 
been sufficiently tried. No one, however, can fail to see that the sys- 
tem of corporal punishment is fast losing ground. The mental and 
moral powers must be more fully drawn out to aid in discipline, and 
thus the jiupil is taught the most valuable of all discipline — self-disci- 
pline. To make the discipline of our schools what it should be, compell- 
ing the teacher to draw largely on the mental and moral resources of the 
pupil, and to banish much of the uncalled for use of corporal punish- 
ment, a rule like this would do much : that the teacher be required to 
make a record in the School Register, of each case of corporal punish* 
ment inflicted — specifying the offense quite minutely — the kind and 
degree of punishment inflicted, there to be a record in future time of 
the pupil's offense, and of the teacher's method of administering pun- 
ishment. Both pupil and teacher would desire to avoid such a record. 

History. — The study of history is, we fear, greatly undervalued in 
— our schools, and by many cf our teachers. It is a sort of connect- 
ing link which binds together all one's other acquirements of knowl- 
edge, and a teacher acquainted with it can do far more in interesting 
and instructing a class in almost every branch, than one whose knowl- 
edge of it is meagre. Many teachers in town cannot pass a credita- 
ble examination in the History of the United States, and only a por- 
tion have any knowledge of general history. 

Drawing and Black-boards. — All our schools are provided with 
black-boards, and considerable use is made of them ; still they might 
be more profitably used if the teachers were better acquainted with, 



223 

and the pupils taught the rules of drawing. Great proficiency in 
instructing could be made if teachers had their knowledge at the 
" tips " of their fingers, as well as on the " tip " of their tongues. 

"Woodstock. — 0. Fisher and L. J. "Wells, Acting Visitors. 

More Competent Teachers Requisite. — The Acting Visitors are 
pleased to notice the general interest manifested in the education of 
the young by the parents and friends in the several districts. One or 
two suggestions they deem not improper. The exercise of more dis- 
cretion in hiring teachers, and allowing sufficient compensation to se- 
cure well-qualified and efficient teachers, would give us better schools, 
and prevent some unpleasant failures. Young men will generally seek 
those employments which afford the best remuneration. At present 
male teachers get much less pay than mechanics, and less than many 
common day-laborers; and female teachers get much less than good 
milliners, or those engaged as operatives in factories. Consequently 
there is but little inducement for one to qualify himself for the work 
of a thorough and successful teacher. Teachers should not only have 
good native talent and some maturity of thought and judgtn jnt, but a 
thorough knowledge of the studies taught. To secure such, it will 
not do in all cases to depend solely upon the public funds, if the inhab- 
itants would have good schools and terms of usual length. While the 
amount of money received from the School Fund remains about the 
same in the aggregate, tha number of children in the State is increas- 
ing. Consequently the amount divided per capita is growing less ev- 
ery year. And in districts where, in addition to this fact, the number 
of scholars also decreases, there seems to be a disposition to cut down 
the wages of teachers accordingly. Better, if no more funds can be 
raised, to have shorter terms under good teachers than long ones under 
poor teachers. We have too many cheap teachers for the welfare of 
our schools or the good of the community. 

Outline Maps. — We would suggest that the districts more generally 
supply themselves with outline maps. They are of great importance 
to scholars in acquiring a knowledge of geography. The State pro- 
vides assistance to every district, upon proper application, in the pur- 
chase of maps and other school appliances. The first installment is 
ten dollars, subsequent Qve dollars each ; and many towns in the State 
are particular to avail themselves of the privilege thus afforded. 

Injudicious Remarks. — We would also speak of the deleterious 
effects of injudicious remarks in regard to teachers by parents in the 
presence of their children. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



INDEX TO SECRETARY'S REPORT AND APPENDIX. 



Page. 

Academies, incorporated, list of, - - - - 43, 4 

and High Schools, ... 41, 54 

Agriculture in Connecticut, statistics of in 1850 and 1860, 24 

and manufactures in Connecticut, relative value of, 

in 1850 and 1860, .... 24 

American Institute of Instruction, meeting at New Haven in 

1865, ....... 69 

American Journal of Education, - - - - 68 

Appendix to the Report, ..... 97-223 

Attendance, average, in public schools, - - - 28, 9 

towns having highest and lowest, - 31, 2 

Barnard's Journal of Education, - - - - 68 

Board of Education, report of, 5 

Camp, D. N. resignation of, - - - - - 112 

services of, - - - - . 95 

Children enumerated, 1865 and 1866, - - 19, 27 

1820 to 1865, 22 

relative number diminishing, - 22 

employed in factories, .... 81-8 
law respecting, ... 176, 7 

not enforced, ... 82-7 
facts respecting reported by School Visitors, 84-7 
in public schools, number registered, 27 

per centage of, - - 27, 8 

average attendance, - - 28, 9 
towns having highest and lowest aver- 
age attendance, - - 31, 2 
neglected and truant, - - - - 81-8 

registered, towns having highest and lowest per centage 
of, 29, 30 



Page. 

- 62-4 

G2 


- 63 


G8 


- 25, 6 


64 


- 25 


79,80 


80,81 


79 



228 



Colleges and professional schools, - - - 

number of students in, 
residences of students in, 
Common School Journal, - 
Connecticut, standing and condition of, 

young men, number of at colleges in other States, 
resources and population of, 
Consolidation of districts, advantages of, - 
in New Haven, 
meaning of, - 

Convention of School Visitors and Committees recommended, - 94 
Corporal punishment in schools, a decision respecting by Judge 
E. I. Sanford, ..... 100-102 

Decimal system of Weights and Measures, - - 103 

District system, abolition of, recommended, - - 70-81 

disadvantages of enumerated, - - 78, 9 

remedy for, - - - 79 

evils of illustrated, ... 72-8 

Districts, average number in each town, - 70 

consolidation of, see Consolidation. 

Educational bureau, permanent establishment of by the State 
recommended, - - - - - - 68, 95 

Educational conferences recommended, - - 68, 94 

Evening schools for factory children, - - - 84, 87 

Factory children, evening schools for, - 84, 87 

facts reported concerning, - - 84-7 

law respecting not enforced, - 82-7 

new law respecting suggested, - - 86, 87 

Foreign born citizens of Connecticut, per centage of, - - 21 

Gillette, Hon. F. statement of, - - - • - 56 

services of, - - - - 110 

Graded schools, towns maintaining, ... 38-40 

Higher education, provision for in New Haven Colony, - 89 

public provision for in the several towns, 47-54 

High Schools and Academies, - 41-54 

an essential part of a good common school system, 89-93 

law respecting in the Connecticut Colony, A. D. 

1650, 92 



229 

Page. 

High Schools maintained by towns, list of, - - - 45 

districts, list of, - - 46 

necessity and advantages of, - - - 89-93 

Land improved, acres of per square mile in each State, - 23, 4 

Libraries, see School Libraries. 

Manufacturers in Connecticut, statistics of in 1850 and 1860, 24 

Money per child enumerated, towns raising most and least, 34, 5 

Neglected children, ----- 81-8 

Normal School, 6, 55-61, 108-24 

change of instructors, - - - 55 

correspondence respecting, - - - 117-24 

general principles as to its management, 59-61 

instructors in, 1849-66, - - - 110,11 

list of graduates teaching in Connecticut in 

1865, 114-16 

new boarding-house projected, - - 60 

number of graduates engaged in teaching 

in 1865, 58 

number of pupils and graduates 1850-65, - 113 
1865-6, - 56 

resignation of Prof. Camp, - - 112 

terms and vacations, - - - - J 09 

of admission, - - 57, 108 

trustees of, 1849-65, - - - - 110 

Population of Connecticut, - - - 21, 2 

Reports printed by towns and districts, - - - 99 

Resources of Connecticut, - 22-4 

School-houses, new, August, 1864, to August, 1865, - - 37 

School laws in force, January, 1866, ... 153-77 

index to the same, ... 179-82 
libraries, amount reported as contributed for in the 

several towns, - 105 
districts which have drawn money for from 

the State treasury the past year, - 106-6 
modification of law respecting State appro- 

tion for recommended, - - 69 

State appropriation for, 69 



230 

Page. 
School Visitors and committees, State convention of, recommended 94 

in the several towns, list of, - " 

Sheffield Scientific School, - - - 61 ' ' 

Statistics of schools, tables of by towns and counties - l ^ *< 
summary of, in general, - - - iy > ™ 

by counties, - - 14 ?7 5 ? 

Supplementary schools, 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 

Home for Imbecile and Idiotic youtl 

Reform School, 

Soldiers' Orphan Home, - 



64-6 
64 
64 

64,5 
65 



32. 



Taxation for schools, amount raised by, 

1856-65, - 33 

CQ 

Teachers' Association, State, 

good influence of, 
Institutes, - 

at Portland and Sharon, Prof. Camp s 
report, 
Teachers' wages of, 1856-65, 

graduated at Normal School, list of, 
Text-books, diversity of, 
Truant law of 1865 referred to, 

and neglected children, - 

Visitors, see School Visitors. 

"Wages of teachers, 1856-65, 

Wealth of States in proportion to population, - 

Weights and measures, decimal system of, 



94 
66,7 

104 
36 

114 
38 

88 
81-8 



36 
23 
103 



ERRATA. 
Page 24, 3d line from the bottom, for 75,756 read 57 756 

Page 52, 1st line, for 1853 read 1855. 




I'lghf $ 



i. 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

ignnri 0f Crustecs 

OF THE 

STATE REFORM SCHOOL 

OF 

CONNECTICUT, 

FOR THE YEAR 1866, 

ITS OFFICERS, BY-LAWS, REGULATIONS, &c, AND REPORTS OF THE 
TREASURER, SUPERINTENDENT, AND PHYSICIAN, 

TO THE 

. GENERAL" ASSEMBLY, 
MAT SESSION, 1866. 



grinttfr b£ (Bxbtt uf % f egislatuw. 



HARTFORD: 
CASE, LOCKWOOD & CO., PRINTERS. 

1866. 



NAMES, RESIDENCE AND EXPIRATION 

OF COMMISSION OP THE 

TRUSTEES OF THE STATE REFORM SCHOOL 

ARE AS FOLLOWS, VIZ. : 

ROSWELL BROWN, Hartford, Hartford County. 

Term Expires, - - - - - 1869. 

HIRAM FOSTER, Meriden, New Haven County. 

Term Expires, ------ 1869. 

D. P. NICHOLS, Danbury, Fairfield County. 

Term Expires, ------ 1866. 

WILLIAM SWIFT, Windham, Windham County. 

Term Expires, ------ 1866. 

DANIEL G. PLATT, Washington, Litchfield County. 

Term Expires, ------ 1867. 

BENJAMIN DOUGLAS, Middletown, Middlesex County. 

Term Expires, ------ 1867. 

HENRY McCRAY, Ellington, Tolland County. 

Term Expires, ------ 1868. 

WILLIAM P. BENJAMIN, New London, New London County. 
Term Expires, -.-.-. J868. 

D. P. NICHOLS, Chairman. 
HIRAM FOSTER, Secretary. 

Executive Committee, 
ROSWELL BROWN, HIRAM FOSTER, WM. P. BENJAMIN. 



Auditor of Accounts, 
HIRAM FOSTER. 



REPORT OF TRUSTEES. 



To the General Assembly, May Session, 1866 : 

The Trustees .in this their fourteenth annual report, 
ending March 31st, 1866, to your Honorable Body, beg leave 
to assure you of the continued prosperity of the Institution 
under their charge. 

The present condition of the School and its needs can be 
stated in a few words. 

The kindness and sympathy manifested by your predecessors 
in the Legislature, and their promptness to do for the School 
all that has been asked, leads us to the belief that the sym- 
pathy between the School and people is so well established, 
that we are relieved from the necessity of speaking one word, 
in commending it to your favorable notice — or from speaking 
of its success or usefulness. 

We believe that this school sustains the same relation to 
the public educational interests of the State as the common 
school does. And we believe the public as fully recognize 
its necessity as they do the necessity of the common school 
or any other branch of our educational system. 

We believe that for economical management we may suc- 
cessfully challenge comparison with any school on the conti- 
nent. We yield to none in the efficiency and thoroughness 
of our Institution, and have seen with a just pride that the 
" Board of State Charities" of Massachusetts, after examining 
every one of the kind in the several States, have ranked our 
Institution as one of the two best in the country. We believe 
that our boys are as well taught, as thoroughly drilled in 
the primary branches, and as far advanced in proportion to 
their advantages, as any boys in the State. 



The educational interest of the boys is with us a primary 
interest. We mean that all other interests of the School shall 
be subordinate to this. Our labor account this year is not as 
large in the aggregate as in some former years. This is our 
misfortune and not our fault, and is owing to circumstances 
entirely beyond our control. Both of the chair factories in 
New York from which we obtain our work, have been burned 
in the last eighteen months. The hoop skirt business in which 
we were engaged has been suspended in Meriden, thus throwing 
us entirely out of work in that department. Now both of the 
chair factories are rebuilt, and all our force in the house 
except such as are needed in the Domestic, Clothing and Shoe 
departments, are engaged seating chairs, and the prospect for 
the ensuing year is very encouraging. The Finances of the 
School are as usual, (notwithstanding the extravagant prices 
of food and clothing the past year,) in a good condition. It 
has ever been the aim of the Board to keep out of debt, 
believing that an institution, like an individual or corporation, 
can not be as free from embarrassment while in debt, as 
when out of debt. We are able to say therefore that we are 
out of debt, and we neither hope nor expect ever to see such 
a financial year in the history of the School as the last one 
has been. While we take great pleasure in presenting to 
you this satisfactory condition of our treasury, we are com- 
pelled to say that we need for repairs and improvements, 
absolutely essential for the protection and preservation of 
your property, Five Thousand Dollars ($5,000.) We believe 
that this money, judiciously expended, would increase the 
value of your property fully that amount. We would call 
your attention to the fact that we are full to overflowing, 
that our present accommodations can not be enlarged so as 
to receive more boys without new buildings. The Family 
system is in great favor with many who are actively interested 
in Reform Schools, and there is no doubt that in many cases 
this is the best. The institution of the family can never be 
superseded. It is a God ordained institution, and we recog- 
nize it as such. But with our success in the congregate sys- 
tem in the past, and with our present management under 



this system, for the present we do not believe that the people 
at this time are prepared to adopt that, and assume the nec- 
essary expense attending it. 

That the State needs more ample accommodation for 
the wayward, neglected and vicious youth, there is not 
a doubt. And we would urge upon your Honorable Body 
the necessity o.f immediate attention to the subject. We 
would respectfully suggest that a committee be appointed, of 
one from the Senate and two from the House, to confer with 
the Trustees and examine this Institution with special refer- 
ence to its enlargement, who shall report to the next Legis- 
lature, that they may have reliable information on which to 
act, and may know the necessities of the State and the capac- 
ity of the Institution to supply them. 

The whole subject of reformatories is one which will bear 
the closest scrutiny. The more it is examined the more will 
be seen the necessity of liberal appropriations for benevolent 
objects. We would not advocate for a moment any but the 
most rigid economy in all our public expenditures, and par- 
ticularly in our charities should this be insisted on. 

But withholding is not always economy, nor giving always 
charity. The State can afford to educate and restrain the 
vicious, and give them an opportunity to reform, but it can 
not afford to allow the unfortunates of either sex to grow 
up in ignorance and go unrestrained, or with only such 
restraint as the Town House, Jails, and State Prison offer. 
It is the duty of the State to care for the vicious, and if 
youthful and ignorant, it is the privilege of the State to re- 
strain and educate them. 

We do not feel called upon to argue the case to the Legis- 
lature, only to fully set forth the wants of the State in our 
particular department. During the fourteen years that the 
School has been in operation, almost one thousand boys have 
been sent out from here, who are now filling almost every de- 
partment of life. It has cost the State some money to educate 
them, but we believe Connecticut is richer to-day in all that 
makes a State rich, than ever before. Now her population is 



greater, her cities particularly more densely populated, hence 
the almost absolute necessity of increased educational and 
restraining institutions. "We are indebted to the clergymen 
of Meriden, Messrs. Brown, Wooley, Farnsworth and Hayden, 
for another year's labor for the religious interests of the 
School. We are sure that the Legislature and the people 
of the State will be pleased to know that the present corps 
of officers will for the present continue unchanged. We 
think that we can not serve the interests of the State better 
than by retaining officers of known capability and efficiency, 
believing that nothing can be so detrimental to the best interest 
of the School as frequent changes in this department. 

Accompanying this is the usual annual report of the Super- 
intendent, Treasurer, and Pbysician, also tables of interest 
concerning age, committal, discharges, &c, <fec. 

We take pleasure in acknowledging the kindness of the 
Legislature of last year in granting so unanimously our re- 
quest to change tbe law by which the School is sustained. 

We do not know that any legislation is necessary this year, 
to increase the efficiency of the School, — the present statute 
law seems to us all that is needed. 

The terms for tbe Trustees for Fairfield and Windham 
counties expire this year, and it will devolve on the present 
Legislature to appoint their successors. 

We thank God that peace again blesses the land ; may we 
not hope that with it will come all the attendant blessings and 
charities. That the arts nobler than those of war, may be more 
assiduously cultivated. That education and geireral intelli- 
gence may be more disseminated, and receive new impulses 
from every quarter. Tbat society may be more ready to 
protect itself, by increasing the number of tbe virtuous and 
educated citizens, rather than by enlarging and increasing its 
penal institutions. 

Hoping that this School may continue to deserve the con- 
fidence of the public so generously accorded to it, and that 
its success may incite to increased effort to save the ignorant 



and unfortunate, and that our efforts to serve you may meet 
vrith your approbation, we most respectfully submit this report. 

DAVID P. NICHOLS, 
WM. P. BENJAMIN, 
DANIEL G. PLATT, 
ROSWELL BROWN, 
WILLIAM SWIFT. 



Personally appeared David P. Nichols, Wm. P. Benjamin, 
Daniel G-. Piatt, Roswell Brown, William Swift, and made 
oath to the truth of the foregoing report, before me, 

HIRAM FOSTER, 
Justice of the Peace. 
Meridex, April 11th, 1866. 



Personally appeared Hiram Foster, and made oath to the 
truth of the foregoing report, before me, 

WM. P. BENJAMIN, 

Justice of the Peace. 



BY-LAWS 



FOR THE 

GOVERNMENT AND REGULATION OF THE STATE 
REFORM SCHOOL. 

Adopted by the Board of Trustees, at a regular meeting holden 
at Meriden on the 5th of Oct., A. D. 1853, revised by a 
Committee of Trustees in 1861, and amended in 1865. 



The Trustees. 



Sec. 1. The Board of Trustees shall be organized at the 
regular meeting in July, annually, by the election by ballot, 
of a Chairman, Secretary, and an Executive Committee of 
three members, except the Executive Committee for the pres- 
ent year, who shall be elected at the meeting held at the time 
of the adoption of these by-laws. 

A majority of the members shall constitute a quorum for 
business. 

The chairman shall preside at each meeting when present. 
In his absence, one may be appointed by the Board for the 
time. 

The Chairman shall call special meetings, whenever re- 
quested by any two members of the Board. Such meetings 
may be holden wherever the Chairman may direct. 

The regular meetings of the Board shall be holden quarterly, 
at the Institution in Meriden, on the second Wednesdays of 
January, April, July, and October, in each year, the annual 
meeting being in July. 

The Executive Committee shall meet at such other times 



12 

and places as their duties may require, and report their doings 
at the next meeting of the Board. 

The Secretary shall keep in a book, prepared for that pur- 
pose, a record of the proceedings of the Board, which shall be 
subject to the examination of each member. 

He shall prepare, or cause to be prepared, all documents, 
statements, and notices which may be directed by the Board 
or the Chairman, and shall give notice through tbe mail, or 
otherwise, to each member, of the time and place of each 
meeting of the Board. 

The Officers. 

Sec. 2. The following named officers of the State Beform 
School sball be appointed by the Board of Trustees, whenever 
their sevices may be required by the Institution, viz., a Super- 
intendent, an Assistant Superintendent, a Chaplain, Pbysician, 
Matron, Steward, Teachers', Overseers of the Workshop, and 
a Farmer. • 

The several officers shall hold their appointments during the 
pleasure of the Board, and no resignation shall take effect 
until three months after being tendered, in writing, except 
by consent of the Board of Trustees. 

It shall be the duty of all officers and assistants to remain 
constantly at the Institution, and no one of the subordinate 
officers shall leave it without permission from the Superin- 
tendent. 

All the stibordinate officers, in addition to their appropriate 
duties, shall act as aids to the Superintendent, in preserving 
order and quiet among the delinquents, in guarding against 
escape, and generally in maintaining the rules and discipline 
of the Institution. They shall also perform such other ser- 
vices as shall, from time to time, be required of them by the 
Superintendent.* 

Sec. 3. The Superintendent shall have the general charge 
of the inmates, the business and interests of the Institution. 

He shall see that the subordinate officers are punctual and 

*Dr. E. W. Hatch is acting as Physician also. 



13 

faithful in the discharge of their respective duties, and that 
the regulations and by-laws are carefully observed. 

He shall keep a journal, and daily make record of all occur- 
rences worthy of notice, which shall be subject to the inspec- 
tion of any member of the Board. 

He shall perform all the correspondence, keeping files of all 
letters received, and copies of those sent, so far as of import- 
ance for reference. As Treasurer of the Institution, in suit- 
able books he shall keep regular and complete accounts of all 
receipts and expenditures, and of all property intrusted to his 
care, showing the expenses and income of the Institution. 

He shall make out and present to the Comptroller the bills 
for weekly board of the delinquents, and perform all the du- 
ties of this department according to law. 

Under the advice and direction of the Executive Commit- 
tee, he shall procure the necessary supplies for the Institution, 
and purchase all such articles and materials as may be wanted 
for the support and employment of the boys, and dispose of 
all articles raised on the farm or manufactured by them, which 
are not wanted for iise. 

In a suitable book, he shall keep an account of all purchases, 
and the cost of delivering the same at the Institution. 

He shall daily inspect every available part of the premises, 
and have a watchful care over all the inmates, and be respon- 
sible for the proper care and discipline of the boys. 

He shall see that they receive no detriment to health, from 
want of sufficient clothing, by day or by night, from wet feet 
or from any other exposure, and that the rooms and buildings 
are properly warmed and ventilated. 

He shall employ, whenever necessary, suitable persons, for 
any temporary services, not provided for in these by-laws, and 
report the same to the Executive Committee. 

At each quarterly meeting he shall report to the Board the 
number of boys committed to the Reform School, also commu- 
nicate full information of the state of the Institution, and 
make such suggestions as he may think proper for the consid- 
eration of the Board. 

At each April meeting he shall furnish the Board with a 



14 

duplicate copy of his accounts, presented to the State Comp- 
troller of Public Accounts, up to the 31st of March; also a 
full schedule of all the property of the Institution, including 
everything in the care of the Steward and Farmer. 

He shall, at all times, be ready to perform whatever other 
services may be required by the Board of Trustees, for the 
benefit of the Institution. 

Sec. 4. The Assistant Superintendent shall assume and 
perform all the duties of his superior during his absence or 
inability. 

It shall also be his duty to aid in the discipline, instruction, 
supervision, and general management of the Institution, and 
to report to the Superintendent all instances of impropriety 
of condxict, neglect of duty, or violation of the rules and 
by-laws, which may come to his knowledge. 

He shall keep the account-books of the Institution, and 
books in which shall be recorded the admissions, histories, 
and discharges of the boys, and shall be responsible for their 
neatness and accuracy. He shall make out and record the 
indentures, and do all other necessary writing which may be 
required. 

He shall receive and attend visitors, and see to the proper 
intercourse between the boys and their friends. 

He shall examine all packages and letters received for the 
boys, and may, by the direction of the Superintendent, 
examine their letters before being sent away. 

Sec. 5. The Superintendent acting as Chaplain shall have 
the direction of the the moral and religious instruction of 
the inmates. He shall perform devotional exercises with the 
boys morning and evening, have charge of the Sabbath 
School, conduct the religious worship in the chapel on the 
Sabbath, and obtain such aid from the Reverend Clergy in 
the vicinity as may be necessary, and on all other days set 
apart for religious observance, and to officiate at funerals. 

He shall occasionally give familiar expositions of moral 
and religious duty, in such a manner as he shall deem most 
conducive to the good of the boys, and at such times as may 
be determined on, by consultation with the Trustees. 



15 

He shall mingle freely with the hoys in kind, familiar inter- 
course, and spend as much time with them in conversation as 
he may think will be for their benefit, and as will be consistent 
with the proper performance of Ins other duties, and his posi- 
tion in the Institution. 

At the quarterly meeting of the Trustees in April the Chap- 
lain shall furnish his report, embracing the condition of this 
department, and facts respecting the reformatory influences 
effectively made use of in this Institution. 

The Physician.* 

Sec. 6. The Physician shall visit the school and inspect in- 
mates with a view to ascertain the state of their health, at 
least once a week, and as much oftener as may be deemed 
necessary by the Superintendent. 

He shall acquaint himself with the condition of the boys, 
and give such direction to the Matron respecting the care and 
treatment of the sick as shall be suited to their wants. 

He shall also make any examination and suggestions he 
may think proper as to the best means of preserving health, 
and with reference to the general sanitary condition of the 
Institution. 

He shall present to the Trustees at their meeting in April 
a true and full report of the state of health among the boys 
during the past year. 

The Matron. 

Sec. 7. The Matron shall have the general charge and di- 
rection of all the domestic arrangements of the family, the 
sewing-rooms, laundry, and hospital, and shall see that clean- 
liness, order and propriety are uniformly maintained in these 
apartments. 

She shall see that all female assistants, except teachers, are 
diligent and faithful in the discharge of their appropriate du- 
ties, discreet and regular in their deportment, and strict in 
their observance of all the regulations of the Institution, and 

* The Superintendent performs the duty of Physician since 1st July, 1855. 



16 

shall report to the Superintendent any remissness that may 
come to her knowledge. She shall see that the sick receive 
proper attention, and that the directions of the Physician arc 
strictly complied with ; and she shall have a maternal regard 
for the health and physical welfare of the boys. 

She shall confer and advise with the Superintendent respect- 
ing tke duties of the persons employed in the departments 
under her charge, and also as to the general management of 
the house. # 

The Steward.* 

Sec. 8. The Steward shall have the general oversight of 
the domestic arrangement of the boys, their food and clothing. 
He shall see that the tables are seasonably and properly fur- 
nished for each meal, and shall have the care of all apartments 
used or occupied by the boys, except such as are assigned to 
the Matron. 

He shall have the care of all rooms and cellars in which 
provisions, stores, and general furnishing articles are kept, and 
of all apartments used for the boys' clothing, bedding, and 
materials for the same. 

He shall personally deliver all articles for them, as the daily 
wants of the house may require, and shall be responsible for 
the cleanliness and good order of all apartments and articles 
under his charge and supervision. He shall keep accurate 
accounts of all supplies placed in his care, and of the time 
and quantity, as they are re-delivered for use, which accounts 
shall be subject to examination by the Superintendent and 
Trustees. He shall make such arrangements with the persons 
having charge of the culinary department of the boys as to 
secure the presence of one or both at all the meals, to see that 
the food is properly prepared, economically distributed and 
used. 

He shall keep all the boys comfortably and properly clad, 
and see that their bathing and dressing is conducted in a 
proper and satisfactory manner. 

* There is no such officer now known in the Institution. 



17 



Teachers. 

Sec. 9. The Teacher or Teachers shall instruct the boys in 
such branches of education as may be required by the Super- 
intendent, and shall use all proper means to inspire them with 
a love of study, and lead them justly to estimate the value of 
a sound practical education, and shall constantly strive, by 
precept and example, to impress on their minds the importance 
of good order, self-government, and purity of body and mind. 

They shall take charge of the boys at all times in the school- 
rooms, and shall require them to be promptly in their places 
at the appointed time, unless they are absent by permission. 

They shall attend to the cleanliness and good order of the 
school-rooms, and shall be responsible for the safety, care, and 
preservation of all books, furniture, apparatus, and fixtures 
provided for the same, and by strict personal examination sec 
that no injury or waste is suffered. 

It shall be the duty of the male Teachers to see the boys to 
their beds, to close and secure the doors of their dormitories, 
to see that they rise in the morning at the ringing of the bell, 
and make their beds in a proper manner, and attend to their 
washings, before assembling in the chapel in the morning; and 
when they come from their work, to assemble in the school- 
rooms. 

In conjunction with the overseers of the workshops, and by 
a just and equal division of these duties, to be approved by 
the Superintendent, the Teachers shall have charge of the 
boys' recreations, take charge of them at their meals, and have 
charge of them during the night. 

The Teachers shall assist in the Sabbath School and in vocal 
music, and the principal Teacher shall act as librarian to the 
boys. 

Overseers of the Workshops. 

Sec. 10. The overseers of the workshops shall take charge 

of all tools, apparatus, stock, and materials, furnished or used 

in the shops, and see that the same are carefully preserved, 

worked with prudence and economy, and properly manufac- 



18 

tured. They shall keep accurate accounts of the number of 
boys and time employed each day, of the work done, and of 
all articles made and how disposed of. They shall attend to 
the cleanliness, warming and ventilation, and keep a daily 
record of the temperature of their workshops. They shall 
hare charge of the boys during work hours, in the shops ; 
shall exercise a prudent and judicious oversight, see that in- 
dustry and good order are constantly observed, and return 
them to the yard, or such other place as may be appointed by 
the Superintendent, at the ringing of the bell at the close of 
work. They shall see that the boys are furnished with shoes 
properly fitted. 

In conjunction with the Teachers they shall have the over- 
sight of the boys' recreations, take charge of them during 
their meals, and after they retire at night. They shall also 
assist the Teachers, if requested, in their duties on the Sab- 
bath and in the Sabbath School. 



Watchmen. 

Sec. 11. The Superintendent shall have power, with the 
approbation of the Executive Committee, to appoint one or 
more Watchmen for night duty, whenever it is considered 
necessary for the safety of the Institution. 

The Watchman on duty shall perform a regular patrol 
throughout and around the buildings, for the purpose of using 
due vigilance of all occurrences, to prevent escapes, and to 
discover and prevent danger from fire. He shall use the ut- 
most vigilance to guard against damage by fire, and promptly 
notify the Superintendent on the first cause of alarm. He 
shall ring the bell in the morning, and at other times, as may 
be directed, and perform any other service required by the 
Superintendent. 

The Farmer. 
Sec. 12. The Farmer shall have charge of all the farming 
operations, and shall be responsible for the proper manage- 
ment, good order, and economical use of every thing con- 



19 

nected therewith. He shall carry forward all designated im- 
provements, shall have charge of all the help and the boys 
employed on the farm, and shall be responsible for the labor 
and conduct of the same during the hours of work. Every 
evening he shall inform the Superintendent of what work he 
intends shall be done by the boys on the following day, and 
the place or places where they are to be employed, that in ae. 
signing boys to the work, proper regard may be had to their 
age, character, qualifications, and exposure, and that such as- 
signments may be made as will most effectually guard against 
escapes, and secure the best advantage from their labor. He 
shall have charge of the boys while thus employed, shall re- 
ceive and return them punctually as required by the Superin- 
tendent, and see that the rules of the Institution respecting 
their discipline are strictly observed while they are under his 
care. 

He shall cause all supplies, and whatever else may be re- 
quired for the Institution, to be drawn by the teams of the 
farm, and shall perform any other labor or services with men, 
boys or teams, at the request of the Superintendent, when 
not inconsistent with his duties upon the farm. He shall keep 
an accurate account of the labor performed, and of every kind 
of produce raised or furnished on the farm. He shall see that 
all rules and regulations of the Institution are strictly ob- 
served by all persons under his care, and shall promptly report 
to the Superintendent any one who may refuse or neglect to 
comply therewith. In no case shall he be absent from the 
premises without the knowledge and consent of the Superin- 
tendent. 

The Library. 

Sec. 13. It is necessary that a Library of well selected 
books and maps, and of Sunday School books, should be kept 
at the State Reform School for the use and improvement of 
the delinquents, and it is thought proper to solicit donations 
for the supply and increase of such Library. 

The Superintendent, the Librarian, and Clrairman of the 
Executive Committee, shall be a Standing Committee on the 



Library, who shall have in charge the efforts, ways and means 
to promote this department of the Institution, and they shall 
report to the Board of Trustees, at their quarterly meetings, 
the progress and condition of the Library, with a full list of 
all donations received for this object. 

General Regulations. 

Sec. 14. The distribution of time for each working day 
shall be from six to eight hours for labor, four hours for school, 
not less than nine hours for sleep, and five hours to devotional 
exercises, incidental duties, and recreations. 

The time of rising in the morning shall be at five o'clock, 
from the first of March to the first of November, and at six 
o'clock during the other four months. 

The time of retiring shall be at eight o'clock, from the first 
of November until the first of March, and at eight and a half 
o'clock the remainder of the year. 

All persons having requisite duties to perform shall rise at 
the ringing of the morning bell. 

No lights shall be used in any of the outbuildings, the cel- 
lars, workshops, dormitories or laundry, without being enclosed 
in glass or in a lantern. 

No spirituous liquors or intoxicating drink shall be brought 
to the Institution, unless by order of the Physician. No officer 
or assistant shall at any time make use of such liquor, nor 
shall any one make use of tobacco, or smoke a pipe or cigar 
on or about the premises. 

No tobacco shall be furnished or allowed to the delinquents, 
in any form. 

No person regularly employed at the Institution shall be 
absent from his duties, without permission from the Superin- 
tendent or the Executive Committee. 

All persons employed at the Institution, in whatever capac- 
ity, are required to devote their whole attention to the per- 
formance of their respective duties, which are enjoined in 
these by-laws, or required by the Superintendent. 

Each office should feel it incumbent on him to see that all 
the rules and regulations are strictly observed, and should 



21 

promptly report any failures therein. As the great object is 
reform, the intercourse of all with hoys should be so con- 
ducted as to convince them that this object is- the chief end 
and aim of the Institution. 

Sec. 15. Every boy shall, at all times, be in charge of 
some responsible person, unless otherwise directed ; and that 
person shall be held responsible for the safe keeping until re- 
turned into the house or yard, or intrusted to the care of 
another person duly authorized. 

No officer shall permit any boy to examine his keys, or to 
pass out of the yard, without permission from the Superin- 
tendent. 

No person shall take or detain a boy from the performance 
of one duty to discharge another, without direction from the 
Superintendent. 

The teachers or overseers having charge of the boys during 
their time of recreation, shall see that a kind and proper tone 
of feeling is observed among them, and that they do not use 
violence, or injure each other's clothing, or mark or deface 
the buildings, fixtures, or furniture. 

All persons employed at the Institution, who are in health 
and can leave their appropriate duties at the time, shall at- 
tend the daily devotional exercises and the religious services 
on the Sabbath, unless special leave of absence is granted. 

No officer shall be compelled to perform any duty inconsist- 
ent with those regularly assigned to him ; but as this Institu- 
tion is to be a family, as well as a school for detention and 
reformation, duties will occur growing out of this double 
relation, which no by-laws can clearly indicate or provide for ; 
therefore, all must be expected to act agreeably to the spirit as 
well as the letter of these rules and regulations, by holding 
themselves ready at all times for any emergency, and by gen- 
eral and constant acts of accommodation, firmness, and kind- 
ness, accomplish the desired object. 

Punishment for Misconduct. 
• Sec. 16. If any delinquent shall neglect or refuse to obey 
the orders of the Superintendent, or other officer having 



charge over him, or shall neglect or refuse to perform the 
labor or duty assigned him, or shall strike or resist an officer, 
or shall willfully or by gross negligence or carelessness injure 
any property of the Institution, or shall strike or otherwise 
abuse a fellow-delinquent, or shall be guilty of using indecent 
or profane language, or shall attempt to escape, or shall know- 
ingly be guilty of any violation of the rules of the Institution 
or of good order, he shall be punished, either by the officer 
having charge at the time the offense is committed, or by the 
Superintendent, or under his direction. 

In cases of a combination among the delinquents to resist 
the authority of the officers, and in flagitious cases of willful 
offenses, punishment shall be promptly administered. In other 
cases great forbearance and caution should be observed, but 
some punishment should follow the commission of every 
offense of a serious character. 

With regard to minor offenses and indiscretions, gentle ad- 
monition and reproof should be adopted. 

In all cases, care should be taken to impress the delinquents 
with the conviction that the object in administering punish- 
ment is to subdue their vicious passions, and to promote their 
welfare individually, and secure the good of the Institution, 
and at the same time to convince them beyond a doubt that 
discipline and good order will be maintained at all hazards. 

For the first offense the punishment should be as light as 
the end to be attained by it will allow. In cases of repetition 
of the offense, or oft-repeated transgression, the punishment 
should be increased in severity. 

Punishment may be inflicted by the deprivation of amuse- 
ment and recreation, by withholding some favorite articles of 
food, or some privilege or indulgence, by loss of rank and 
standing in the class, by imposing some irksome duty, by close 
or solitary confinement for a limited period, and when it be- 
comes absolutely necessary to maintain good order and en- 
force the rules and regulations of the Institution, by coporeal 
infliction by the Superintendent or under his direction. 

These by-laws, or any part thereof, may be altered, amended, 
or repealed at any regular meeting of the Board of Trustees. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT AISD PHYSICIAN. 



To the Trustees of the Slate Reform School: 

The fourteenth animal report shows the whole number con- 
nected with the Institution since its opening, March, 1854, to 
have been . . . . .979 

Number at the date of the last report, 227 

Number received from March 31st, 1865, to April 1st, 1866, 
From Hartford County, . . . .35 

New Haven " ... 42 

New London " . . .12 

Fairfield " . . . 26 

Litchfield « . . • . 6 

Middlesex " . . . 6 

Tolland " . . .5 

Windham " . . . 10 

Boarders . . . . .10 

Returned .... 9 

Total received the past year, . . . 161 

Total number during the year, . . 388 

Discharged in various ways, . . . 140 

Leaving in the Institution, April 1st, 1866, 248 

We have been more crowded the past year than at any 
previous time. We have not refused to receive any. Many 
from the cities who would have been sent have not been, as I 
had previously requested the committing officer not to send 
them. 

We try to do justice by all parts of the State, and have not 
refused to receive them from those counties which have the 
fewest in the school. We have discharged more the past year, 
as our crowded house keeps us constantly on the lookout for 
the best ones to be released. 



24 

We have released quite a number to their fathers, who have 
been absent in the army, and who liave shown their ability to 
take charge of their sons, who had been sent here in their 
absence. 

The boys who have gone out from here the past year, have 
with some exceptions done well, and are now in good situa- 
tions. There are of course some exceptions to this rule. Boys 
are sent here in all cases, we suppose, because they are bad ; 
if they are not, they ought not to be sent. If they are, and 
their young souls are corrupt by example, or by vice and vi- 
cious propensities, inherited, or breathed in with their first 
breath, what wonder that many of them have low traits and 
propensities, and seek to gratify them at every opportunity. 

The health of the school has been as usual remarkably 
good. There have been four deaths, and this is but a small 
number out of the 388 boys in the Institution. Two of those 
of consumption, one of inflammation of the bowels, and one of 
disease of the brain and spinal marrow. There have been 
but two or thr je cases of fever, and these have not been severe. 

We have had no epidemic for the last seven years, and none 
before to my knowledge. We hope by careful sanitary meas- 
ures to prevent any pestilential disease. Our hours, our 
meals, and our exercise are regular. Our labor is such that 
the boys can not be overtasked, and if any seem to be suffer- 
ing by confinement in-doors, we at once put them on the farm. 
In my judgment no 218 boys can be found in finer physical con- 
dition than ours. 

Our labor for the past year has not been as regular in quan- 
tity as in years before, but the boys have earned in money, 
which has been paid into the treasury of the Institution, over 
8,000 dollars, subject of course to the usual expenses of the 
shops, overseeing, &c. 

It gives me great pleasure to report in addition to the usual 
statistical tables, the general good condition of the Institu- 
tion, not only at present but prospectively. Our future, of 
course, depends on that kind Providence that has blessed us 
in the past, and whose hand we desire to recognize in all our 
ways. 



25 

The report of the school shows but meagrely in compari- 
son to what has been done. Mr. S. B. Little, my assistant, 
with an able corps of teachers, have labored with commenda- 
ble zeal. 

The classes have in many cases been backward and over- 
crowded, and this is not advantageous to any school. We 
are trying to relieve this as far as is practicable with our 
limited means. I would call your attention particularly to 
our primary school-room furniture, as being entirely unfitted 
for the purpose for which it is used. It will cost $800 to put 
things in a proper condition for a public school-room, or for 
a fit room to teach writing in ; but it ought to be done with- 
out delay. 

Our Sabbath School and devotional exercises Sabbath day, 
and week days, have been attended with unusual interest the 
past year. 

The teachers in the school, and the pastors on the Sabbath, 
have all been faithful, and their reward is sure. 

Our farm has prospered this year, and every year is more 
fruitful and yields more abundantly. We are commencing 
this year on an enlarged scale, and hope the productions may 
repay the outlay. 

For our success in this department you will find statistics 
in the tables accompanying this report, as well as the usual 
statistical tables. 



2G 





TABLE 


1, 








Showing Whence Received. 








Hartford County. 






TOWNS. 




PA8T YEAR. 


PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 


Bristol, 







6 


6 


Berlin, 


. 


2 


4 


6 


Canton, 







2 


2 


Enfield, 


, 


8 


7 


15 


East Windsor, 







2 


2 


Farinington, . 


. . 





5 


5 


Granby, . 







2 


2 


Glastenbnry, . 


. 


1 


1 


2 


Hartford, 




. 13 


112 


125 


Manchester, . 


. . 


2 


5 


7 


New Britain, 




3 


27 


30 


Rocky Hill, . 


. 





4 


4 


Simsbury, 




2 


2 


4 


Southington, . 







3 


3 


Windsor Locks, 




1 


G 


7 


West Hartford, 


. 





2 


2 


Windsor, 




3 


2 


5 


Wethersfield, . 


Nevj Haven 



County. 


2 


2 


Cheshire, . 







1 


1 


Derby, 




3 


10 


13 


East Haven, 




1 


7 


8 


Hamden, 


, 


1 


4 


5 


Bran ford, 




2 





2 


Meriden, 


. 


3 


29 


32 


Milford, . 







8 


8 


Madison, 


. . 





2 


2 


New Haven, 




. 27 


156 


183 


Naugatuck, 


. 





2 


2 



27 



TOWSS. 


PAST YEAR. 


PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 


Seymour, 


.. .0 


3 


3 


Southbury, 


6 


1 


1 


"Watcrbury, 


5 


1G 


21 


Wolcott, 





2 


2 


Wallingford, 



New London County. 


6 


6 


Bozrah, 





1 


1 


Colchester, 





6 


6 


East Lyme, 





1 


1 


Franklin, 


3 





3 


Groton, 





2 


2 


Lyme, 


1 





1 


Norwich, 


4 


40 


44 


New London, 


4 


24 


28 


Preston, 





1 


1 


Stonington, 





8 


8 


Watcrford, 



Fairfield County. 


1 


1 


Bridgeport, 


. 10 


57 


67 


Brookfield, 





2 


2 


Danbury, . 


6 


21 


27 


Darien, 





1 


1 


Easton, 





1 


1 


Fairfield, 





10 


10 


Greenwich, 


1 


2 


3 


Huntington, . 





1 


1 


Newtown, 





2 


2 


Norwalk, 


6 


25 


31 


New Canaan, 





1 


1 


Stratford, 


1 


4 


5 


Stamford, 


2 


13 


15 


Wilton, 



Litchfield County. 


1 


1 


Cornwall, 





1 


1 


Bethel, 





4 


4 


Harwinton, 





2 


2 



TOWNS. 


PAST YEAR. 


PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 


Litchfield, 





1 


1 


Morris, 





1 


1 


New Hartford, 





1 


1 


New Milford, 


1 


3 


4 


Plymouth, 





6 


6 


Sharon, 





3 


3 


Salisbury, 





1 


1 


Washington, 


. . . .0 


2 


2 


Watertown, 





i 


1 


Winchester, 


2 


l 


3 


Woodbury, 


2 


4 


6 


Torrington, 


1 

Middlesex County. 





1 


Clinton, 





1 


1 


Cromwell, 





1 


1 


Chester, 


1 


2 


3 


Durham, . 





1 


1 


Deep River, 





2 


2 


Essex, 





1 


1 


Killingworth, . 





1 


1 


Haddam, 





2 


2 


Middletown, . 


5 


23 


28 


Portland, 





1 


1 


Saybrook, 



Tolland County. 


2 


2 


Coventry, 


1 


6 


7 


Ellington, 





1 


1 


Hebron, . 





3 


3 


Somers, 


3 





3 


Stafford, . 





1 


1 


Tolland, 





4 


4 


Vernon, . 


1 

Windham County. 


11 


12 


Ash ford, 


1 


1 


2 


Brooklyn, 





2 


2 


Chaplin, ' . 





1 


1 



29 



PAST TEAR. PREVIOUSLY. TOTAL- 



Sillingly, 

Plainfield, 

Putnam, - 

Sterling, 

Sprague, 

Thompson, 

Windham, 

"Woodstock, 

Boarders. 



i 


6 


7 





4 


4 


1 





1 


l 





1 





2 


2 


l 





1 


4 


4 


8 


1 


4 


5 


10 


43 


53 



Total, 



152 



82T 



979 



TABLE 2, 
Showing the age of boys at date of commitment. 



Eight, 

Nine, 

Ten, - 

Eleven, 

Twelve, 

Thirteen, 

Fourteen, 

Fifteen, 



PAST YEAR. 


PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 





8 


8 


1 


12 


13 


2 


31 


33 


13 


122 


135 


23 


110 


133 


26 


132 


158 


24 


128 


152 


23 


143 


166 


40 


141 


181 



Total, 



152 



827 



979 





TABLE 3, 








Showing 


parentage and nativity. 








PAST TEAR. PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 


Born in Ireland, - 


- 


6 


58 


64 


" Scotland, 


- 


3 


4 


7 


" France, - 


- 





1 


1 


" England, 


- 


3 


22 


25 


" Germany, 


- 





7 


7 



GO 





PAST 


TEAR. 


PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 


■a in Atlantic Ocean, 




1 





'I 


" West Indies, 


- 





2 


2 


" New Brunswick, 


- 





1 


1 


" Nova Scotia, 


- 





1 


1 


" Canada, 


- 


1 


3 


4 



Total Foreigners, 



14 



99 



113 



Born in Connecticut, 


- 109 


682 


091 


a 


Massachusetts, 


12 


33 


45 


a 


Rhode Island, 


2 


8 


10 


« 


Vermont, 


1 


2 


3 


a 


New York, 


- 10 


77 


87 


a 


Maine, 


1 





1 


(( 


North Carolina, - 





3 


3 


a 


New Hampshire, 





1 


1 


« 


Pennsylvania, 


2 


6 


8 


« 


Maryland, - 





3 


3 


« 


Ohio, 





3 


3 


« 


Indiana, 


1 


3 


4 


« 


Illinois, - 





1 


1 


i< 


Iowa, - - • 





1 


1 


C( 


Wisconsin, 





1 


1 


" 


District of Columbia, 





1 


1 


" 


New Jersey, 





2 


2 


(( 


Florida, 





1 


1 



Total born in the United States, 138 



728 



800 



Total, 



152 



827 



!»79 



Of those born in America 303 are of Irish parentage, 5 of 
Scotch, 20 of German, of French, and 17 of English ; of the 
whole number 80 are colored. 



31 



TABLE 4, 
Showing' for what offenses com mil ted. 

I'.VST YEAR. PREVIOUSLY. TOTAL. 

Theft, - - 101 552 053 



Burglary, 


15 


31 


46 


Vagrancy, 


3 


51 


57 


Stubbornness, 





-19 


49 


Obtaining goods on false pretenses, 


2 





2 


Cruelty to animals, 





2 


2 


Sabbath breaking, - 





1 


] 


Malicious mischief, 


1 


14 


15 


Assault and battery, 


7 


15 


22 


Breach of peace, 


1 


9 


10 


Horse stealing, - 4 


2 


3 


5 


Disorderly conduct, 





9 


9 


Trespass, ... 





4 


4 


Forgery, 





2 


2 


Assault, 


8 


26 


34 


Arson, 


2 


9 


11 


Profane cursing and swearing, 





2 


2 


Common drunkard, 





1 


1 


Fornication, - 





1 


1 



Boarders — no offense specified, 10 43 53 

Total, - - 152 827 979 

TABLE 5, 
Shoiving by what authority committed. 









PAST YEAR. 


PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 


Hartford Superior 


Court, - 


- 5 


20 


25 


New Haven 


" 


« 


12 


22 


34 


Fairfield 


« 


u 


- 4 


25 


29 


Litchfield 


« 


tt 





2 


2 


Middlesex 


(< 


« 


- 


1 


1 


Tolland 


« 


H 


4 


2 


6 


New London 


« 


" 


- 2 


6 


8 


Windham 


'" 


(1 





2 


2 



32 



FAST YEAR. PREVIOUSLY. 



Hartford Police Court, 
New London Police Court, 
Norwich Police and Justice Courts, 
New Haven Justice Court, 
Bridgeport " 

Justice Court, various, towns, - 
Boarders, - 



9 


104 


113 


3 


24 


27 


3 


40 


43 


15 


142 


157 


4 


. 57 


61 


81 


337 


418 


10 


43 


53 



Total, 



152 



827 



979 



TABLE 6, 



Showing length of sentence. 



During minority, - 




Till 18 years of age, 


- 


For less than 1 year, 




For 1 year, 


- 


For 1 year and 6 months. 


For 2 years, 


- 


For 3 " 




For 4 " 


- 


For 5 " 




For 6 " 


- 


For 7 " 




For 8 " ■ 


- 


For 9 " 




For 10 " 


- 


Boarders, 





'AST YEAR. PREVIOUSLY'. TOTAL. 



18 


205 


223 





3 


3 


4 


36 


40 


7 


44 


51 


2 


17 


19 


31 


129 


160 


42 


157 


199 


11 


53 


64 


25 


85 


110 


1 


24 


25 


1 


16 


17 





11 


11 





2 


2 





2 


2 


10 


43 


53 



Total, 



152 



S21 



979 



TABLE 7, 

Showing the various ways by which the boys have left the 
Institution. 

PAST YEAR. PREVIOUSLY. TOTAL. 

Indentured to Farmers, - 40 40 

" " various trades, - 20 20 



33 



PAST TEAR. PREVIOUSLY. TOTAL 



Sentence 


expired, 


28 


158 


186 


Discharged as reformed, 





14 


14 


a 


to Hospital, - 


1 





1 


u 


to go to sea, 





o 


2 


" 


to go into the army, 





2G 


26 


" 


to Selectmen, - 





1 


1 


" 


on parole of honor, 


20 


60 


80 


u 


for defective mittimus, - 





5 


5 


a 


by Superior Court, - 





1 


1 


a 


by Legislature, - 





3 


3 


" 


by order of Court, - 





2 


2 


Returned 


to parents, or friends, 


75 


160 


235 


Remanded to alternative sentence, 





13 


13 


Boarders 


left, 


12 


37 


49 


Escaped, 


. 





47 


47 


Died, 


- 


4 


9 


13 



140 



598 



TABLE 8, 

Shows something of the social and moral condition of the 
boys at the time of their commitment. Boarders are not 
included in this table. 



PAST TEAR. 


PREVIOUSLY. 


TOTAL. 


Whole number received, - 142 


784 


926 


Who have lost fathers, - - 26 


202 


228 


11 " mothers, - 27 


116 


143 


" " both parents, - 10 


65 


65 


Whose fathers were intemperate, 35 


256 


291 


" mothers " 6 


39 


105 


Were mostly idle previous to ad- 






mission, - - - 112 


489 


501 


Were untruthful, - - 140 


675 


815 


" profane, - - 103 


620 


723 


" truants, - - 90 


625 


715 


Had visited theatres, - 25 


278 


303 


" used tobacco, - - 42 
3 


274 " 


316 



34 

PAST TEAR. PREVIOCSLT. TOTAL. 

Had been arrested once before, 23 181 204 

" " twice before, 15 29 44 

" " three times, 5 17 22 

" " four times or more, 2 17 19 

Irregular at Church and Sabbath 

School, ... 82 467 549 

"Were never connected with any Sab- 
bath School, - 
Had never attended any School, 



43 


143 


186 


School, 


23 


23 


TABLE 9, 







Shows the present attainments of the boys in their School 
studies. Time devoted to study twenty-six hours per week. 

Wbole number in School, .... 248 

Can read in books generally, ... 105 

" easy lessons, .... HO 

Can scarcely read, ----- 33 

Study geography, - - - - - 105 

" written arithmetic, - - - - 127 

" mental " - 178 

Have been through Greenleaf's Common School Arithmetic, 10 
<: to involution " " " " 12 

" subtraction of common fractions, - 26 

" reduction, ... - 16 

" common fractions, - 20 

" through division, - - - 19 

" to division, - - - 20 

" through Davics' Elementary Algebra, 10 

Have studied Natural Philosophy, - - - 10 

" studied grammar, - ... 30 

Can write letters to their friends, - - - 130 



35 



TABLE 10, 

Showing- articles made in Sewing- Shop. 

No. of Coats, - - - - - 413 

" Pants, ..... 816 

" Shirts, 558 

" Vests, 12 

« Sheets, 242 

" Pillow Cases, .... 180 

" Pairs of Suspenders, .... 604 

" Aprons, ..... H 

u t Blankets, 2 

" Caps, ..... 600 

" Quilts, 199 

" Pillow Ticks, ... . 50 

" Mittens, ----- 36 

" Table Cloths, - 3 

" Carpets, .... 4 

To those friends who have kindly remembered us, we 
return our hearty thanks. The following among many favors 
we gratefully record : 

To the noble men of the 1st Connecticut Light Battery we 
are indebted for their large, valuable and well-selected library 
of 188 volumes. 

The Editors and Proprietors of the following Weeklies have 
continued to supply the boys with fresh and instructive read- 
ing : 

"Religious Herald," "Christian Secretary," "Press," and 
" Courant," Hartford. 

"Journal and Courier," and "Register," New Haven. 

"Norwalk Gazette," "Norwich Aurora," "The Constitu- 
tion" and "Sentinel and Witness," Middletown; "Iowa 
Republican," "Meriden Recorder," and the Circular from 
the Wallingford Community. 



36 

Hon. L. F. S. Foster, Public Documents, - 10 vols. 

Dea. Benjamin, - - - - 1 " 

Miss F. Hough, .... 1 « 

George W. Goodsell, one Barrel of Apples. 

Chair Shop. 

Dr. 

To Cash paid for stock, ... - $7,164.97 

" Expense of shop, - 1,330.00 

" Cane and seats on hand, March 31, 1865, - 1,719.09 

" Fixtures and tools, - - - 200.00 





$10,413.98 




Cr. 


By Cash received for seating chairs, 


- $13,181.30 


" Due for seats, March 31, 1866, - 


2,577.36 


" Cane on hand, 


145.29 


" Fixtures, ... 


200.00 



$16,103.95 

Avails of boys' labor in- Chair Shop, - $5,689.97 
Number of seats caned, - 37,658 

" Backs, - - 8,107 

" Settees, - - 391 

TABLE 11. 
Amount and Value of Farm Products. 

42 tons of English hay, at $20, - - $840.00 

6 " Rowen, "" at $20, - - 120.00 

7 " Meadow " at $14, - - 98.00 
9 " Corn fodder, at $10, - - 90.00 
3 " Oat straw, at $15, - - - 45.00 
2 " Barley straw, at $12, - - 24.00 
5 " Rye straw, at $10, - - - 50.00 
2 " Litter, $15; Soiling, $50, - 65.00 

326 bushels of Com, at $1, - - - 326.00 



37 



97 bushels Oats, at 70 cts. - 


867.90 


78 " Rye, at $1.20, 


93.60 


71 " Barley, at $1, - 


71.00 


21 " Beans, at $2.25, - 


47.25 


41 " Green Peas, at 1.25, 


51.25 


1012 " Potatoes, at 75 cts. - 


759.00 


500 " Turnips, at 30 cts. 


150.00 


123 " Carrots, at 50 cts. - 


61.50 


70 " Beets, at 75 cts. 


52.50 


187 " Mangold Wurtzel, at 37^ cts. 


70.12 


100 " Onions, at 75 cts. 


75.00 


28 " Parsnips, at 75 cts. - 


21.00 


90 " Sweet corn, at $1, 


90.00 


10 " Currants, at 82, 


20.00 


15 " Grapes, at 03, - 


45.00 


3487 pounds of Beef, at $14, 


488.18 


2130 " Pork, at $16, - 


340.80 


1311 " Yeal, at $9, 


118.26 


5793 gallons of Milk, at 28 cts. 


1,622.04 


li tons of Squashes, at 2 cts. per lb. 


60.00 


33 Pigs, $204 ; 4 Shoats, $75, 


279.00 


1 yearling Heifer $30 ; 5 Calves, $50, 


80.00 


15 barrels of Apples, at $4, 


60.00 


300 boxes of Strawberries, at 20 cts. 


60.00 


400 Cabbages, at 6 cts. 


24.00 


Poultry and Eggs, - 


75.00 


38 cords of Wood, at $7, - 


266.00 


Preparing fuel, ... 


95.00 


Garden products, - 


125.00 


Labor of Men, Boys and Teams, 


231.40 



$7,257.80 

TABLE 12. 

Inventory of Stock and Tools on hand April 1st, 1866. 

3 yoke of Oxen, .... $675.00 
13 Cows, 1,160.00 



38 

2 Heifers, $75 ; 5 Calves, $50, - - $125.00 

1 thorough-bred Durham Bull, (Gen. Grant,) 300.00 

5 breeding Sows, $200 ; 4 Shoats, $75, - 275.00 

2 Ox Carts, $200 ; 2 Ox Sleds, $30; 5 Wheelbar- 

rows, $15, - - - 245.00 

1 "Allen Mower," $150 ; 1 Mower, $20 ; 1 Iron 

Roller, $50, .... 220.00 

6 Ploughs, $60 ; Cultivator, $5 ; Horse Hoe, $3, 68.00 

2 Harrows, $10 ; Corn Shcller, $15 ; Fanning 

Mill, r $5, .... 30.00 

1 Root Cutter, $12; 1 Hay Cutter, $15 ; 1 Horse 

Plow, $5, - - - 32.00 

1 Horse Hay Fork, $12; 1 Drag Rake, $3; Hay 

Knife, $2, .... 17.00 

3 Chains, $12 ; 3 Iron Bars, $10 ; Quarry Tools,$9, 31.00 
12 Shovels, $9 ; 4 Spades, $3 : 6 Hoes, $2 ; Bog 

Hoes, $1, 15.00 

6 Hay Forks, $4.50 ; 12 Manure Forks, $9 ; Garden 

Rakes, $2, - - 15.50 

6 Wood Saws, $6; Cross-cut Saws, $5; Saw-horses,$8, 19.00 
6 Axes, $6 ; Scythes and Snaths, $6; Grain Cradle,$5, 17.00 
Grindstone, $5 ; Seed Sower, $10 ; Broom 

Cleaner, $3, 18.00 

Stone Drag, $6 ; Platform Scales, $12 ; Yokes, $20, 38.00 
Steelyards, $4 ; Evener and Whiffletree, $6, - 10.00 

Horse Rake, $18 ; Bush Hooks and Corn Cutters, $4, 22.00 
Hammers, Saws, Wrenches, Pails and Baskets, 9.00 

Feed box, $6 ; Cards, Brushes and Curry-combs, $2, 8.00 
6 Picks, $6 ; 2 sets Pulleys, $10 ; Grain Fork, $3, 19.00 

2 dozen Bags, $18 ; 2 dozen Barrels, $4, - 22.00 



,390.50 



Produce on hand April 1st, 1866. 

20 tons English hay, at $20, - - $400.00 

4 " Meadow hay, at $14, - - 56.00 

3 " Rye straw, at $10, - - - 30.00 

« " Barley straw, at $12, - - 6.00 



39 
150 bushels of Corn, at $1, - - - $150.00 



35 " 


Rye, at 81.20, - 


- 


42.00 


45 " 


Barley, at $1, 


- 


45.00 


8 " 


Seed Corn, at $2, 


- 


16.00 


li « 

-*-2 


Clover seed, at $8, - 


- 


12.00 


2 « 


Millet, at $1, - 


- 


2.00 


450 " 


Potatoes, at 75 cts. 


- 


337.50 


100 " 


Mangold Wurtzel, at 37 1 


cts. 


37.50 


40 " 


Sugar Beets, at 37 \ cts. 


- 


15.00 


50 " 


Carrots, at 50 cts. 


- 


25.00 


15 " 


Table Beets, at 75 cts. 


- 


8.25 


10 " 


Parsnips, at 75 cts, 


- 


7.50 


10 " 


Turnips, at 50 cts. - 


- 


5.00 


f ton 


of ground Bone, 


- 


30.00 


2 


unground " 




15.00 




$1,239.75 




Farm. 




Dr. 


For Stock and Tools on hand April 1st 1865, 


12,439.00 


" 


Produce, " " 




1,213.75 


(< 


3197 days work of Boys, at 25 cts. 


799.25 


" 


Sundries purchased for Farm, 


1,833.26 


M 


Board of Farmer 37 weeks, 


at $4, 


148.00 


a 


Labor of Farmers, - 


- 


1,100.00 



$7,533.26 

Cr. 

By Stock and Tools on hand April 1st, 1866, $3,390.50 

" Produce, « " . 1,239.00 

" Produce and Stock sold, -. - 908.51 

" Labor of Men, Boys, and Teams on permanent 

improvements, - - - 168.15 

" Sundries furnished Institution as follows : 
5793 gallons of Milk, at 28 cts. - - 1,622.04 

2130 pounds of Pork, at 16 cts. - - 340.80 



40 



13 i 5 pounds Beef, at 14 cts. 


$792.50 


5000 » Squashes, at 2 cts. 


60.00 


200 bushels of Corn, at $1, - 


200.00 


15 " Barley, at $1.25, 


18.75 


10 " Rye, at $1.20, 


12.00 


125 " Oats, at 70 cts. 


87.50 


762 " Potatoes, at 75 cts. 


571.50 


50 " Turnips, at 50 cts. 


25.00 


15 " Beets, at 75 cts. - 


11.25 


15 " Parsnips, at 75 cts. 


11.25 


50 " Carrots, at 50 cts. 


25.00 


26 " Beans, at 12.25, 


58.50 


90 " Sweet Corn, at $1, 


90.00 


100 " Onions, at 75 cts. 


75.00 


41 " Green Peas, at $1.25, 


51.25 


7 tons of Hay, at $20, - 


140.00 


3 " Oat straw, $15, - 


45.00 


8| " Rye straw, at $13, 


42.33 


1\ " Squashes, at $40, 


60.00 


15 barrels of Apples, at $4, 


60.00 


300 boxes of Strawberries, at 20 cts. - 


60.00 


400 Cabbages, at 6 cts. ... 


24.00 


38 cords of Wood, at $7 , 


266.00 


Preparing Wood for fuel, 


95.00 


Poultry and Eggs, 


75.00 


Garden products, ... 


125.00 


Labor of Men, Boys, and Teams, 


63.25 




$10,214.83 




7,533.26 



Balance in favor of farm, - - $2,681.57 

It is hopeful and encouraging to us who are the immediate 
lookers-on in this work, to notice the improvement made in 
the boys by education and association. Nothing can be sub- 
stituted for the family. It is a divine institution — one that 
has stood the test of ages, and one about which our dearest 
associations cluster. 



41 

But wild, thoughtless, headstrong hoys, will hreak the most 
wholesome restraint and the dearest ties. For such, for hoys 
who have heen tried over and over again, and violated all con- 
fidence and all vows, some restraint, other than simple family 
restraint offers, is necessary. To such the State Reform School 
commends itself. To the young criminal who defies all law 
and all restraint, who may have heen neglected, hut who is 
nevertheless guilty, this offers an asylum. 

We try to make our house a home, hut it comes far short 
of the home where mother is. But we give them all the re- 
ligious, moral, and educational privileges in our home. We 
set before them clearly the folly and guilt of sin and its conse- 
quences. We also point them to the opposite path, to the 
higher life, and use all our endeavors to induce them to walk 
in it. 

Our labor is such and our hours so regular that the habits 
of tlie boys must be in accordance with them. They are not 
only forming regular habits, but habits of industry. 

I still think the non-contracting system of labor the most 
preferable for a reformatory. Where every officer is paid by 
the state and has no pecuniary interest in the business, they 
may take more interest in the boys. It is not at any rate for 
their interest to overwork them. 

It gives me pleasure to 6peak of the promptness and effi- 
ciency of my assistants in every department. 

I have great hope that many of these boys will turn out 
noble men and good citizens. All that we can do shall be 
done to accomplish so desirable an object. 

I am indebted to you for your kindness and co-operation in 
my labor the past year. If the future of the Institution 
shall be as the past has been, there are many years yet before 
it of unlimited usefulness. 

Hoping that it may be preserved, prospered, and blessed, I 
respectfully submit this report. 

E. W. HATCH, 
Superintendent and Physician. 



42 



TO THE TRUSTEES OF THE STATE 

The Treasurer respectfully presents 
Da. 

To Balance in his hands, April 1st, 1865, - $184.90 
To amount from State Treasury for board of De- 
linquents, ----- 20,004.06 
To cash borrowed, - 800.00 
" received from Farm, - 908.51 
" Tailor's Shop, - - 49.01 
" Chair Shop, - - 13,181.30 
" Incidentals, - - 705.56 
« Stable,- - - 10.00 
" Boarders, - - - 707.75 



Total Receipts, 



$36,551.09 



I hereby certify that I have examined the foregoing Treas- 
urer's report and found the same to be correct. 

HIRAM FOSTER, Auditor. 
Mertden, April 14th, 1866. 



REFORM SCHOOL OP CONNECTICUT. 
the Fourteenth Annual Report, and is 











Or. 


By cash paid for Provisions, - 


- 


$9,498.70 


« 


u 


Farm, ... 




- 1,833.26 


t< 


ii 


Traveling, 


- 


318.24 


a 


U 


Salaries, - 




- 7,332.30 


u 


" 


Books and Stationery, 


- 


351.52 


" 


u 


Freight, - 




924.82 


u 


u 


Clothing and Bedding, 


- 


3,964.74 


u 


ii 


Chair Shop, 




- 7,164.97 


a 


(I 


Incidentals, - 


- 


640.16 


u 


ii 


Furniture, 




445.40 


a 


a 


Repairs and Improvements, 


- 


1,632.84 


H 


a 


Postage, --- 




46.80 


U 


a 


Hospital, 


- 


42.10 


u 


a 


Fuel and Lights, 




- 1,460.27 


ii 


a 


Stable, 


- 


438.62 


u 


" Shoe Shop, 
Expenditures, ... 




339:62 


Total ] 


- $36,434.57 


Balance in 


Treasury, ... 


- 


116.52 






E. W. HATCH, 


Treasurer. 



State Reform School, 
West Meriden, March 31st, 1866. 



LAWS RELATING TO THE REFORM SCHOOL. 



The following laws relating to commitments to the State 
Reform School, are now in force : 

When any hoy under the age of sixteen years, shall he con- 
victed of any offense known to the laws of this State, and 
punishable by imprisonment, other than such as may be pun- 
ishable by imprisonment for life, the Court or Justice, as the 
case may be, before whom such conviction shall be had, may, 
at their discretion, sentence such boy to the State Reform 
School, or to such punishment as is now provided by law for 
the same offense. 

And if the sentence shall be to the Reform School, then it 
shall be in the alternative to the State Reform School, or to 
such punishment as would have been awarded if this act had 
uot been passed. Sec. 4th of " An Act to establish the State 
Reform School," passed 1851. 

All commitments to the Reform School, of boys, of whatever 
age when committed, shall be for a term not longer than dur- 
ing their minority, nor less than ninety days, [the ninety days 
limitation has been altered by subsequent statute,] unless 
sooner discharged by order of the Trustees, as herein provided, 
and whenever any boy shall be discharged therefrom, by the 
expiration of his term of commitment, or as reformed, or as 
having arrived at the age of twenty-one years, such discharge 
shall be a full and complete release from all penalties and dis- 
abilities which may have been created by such sentence. 

Sec. 7 of above act. 

Any Justice of the Peace, before whom any juvenile delin- 
quent may be lawfully committed to the State Reform School, 
may sentence such delinquent during his minority, provided, 
that no Justice of the Peace shall sentence any delinquent as 
aforesaid to said school, for a longer period than ninety days, 



45 

[ninety days clause altered by subsequent statute,] unless 
upon tbc recommendation, at tbe time of such sentence, of a 
majority of the Selectmen of the town in which such convic- 
tion is had. 

Sec. 1 of Act of 1854. 

No person shall hereafter be sentenced or committed to the 
State Reform School for any of the offenses specified in the 
24th and 55th sections of the " Act concerning Domestic Re- 
lations," or the 23d section of the Act concerning Prisons. 

Sec. 1 of the Act of 1855. 

No person under the age of ten years shall hereafter be 
committed to the State Reform School, nor shall any person 
be so committed for a less period than nine months. 

Sec. 3 of Act of 1857. 

Any parent may iudenture his boy, or any guardian may 
indenture his male ward, to the State Reform School, for such 
length of time as may be agreed upon by such parent or guar- 
dian and the Trustees of said State Reform School, on condi- 
tion that such parent or guardian shall pay the expenses of 
his boy or ward, so indentured as aforesaid, while at said 
State Reform School. 

Act of 1859, Sec. 1. 



FORM OF INDENTURE ADOPTED BY THE TRUSTEES. 
To the Trustees of the Connecticut State Reform School: 

1 hereby request that the boy named 

be received as indentured according to Law, to the State Re- 
form School, at West Meriden, and I hereby bind myself and 
agree to the following conditions, viz. : 

The price of board, education, training and clothing for said 
boy shall be at the rate of Three Dollars per week, payable 
quarter-yearly in advance, and the said' 

is bound to remain in said Institution for the term of 
months, entitled to the same supervision, medical 



LAWS RELATING TO THE REFORM SCHOOL. 



The following laws relating to commitments to the State 
Reform School, are now in force : 

When any hoy under the age of sixteen years, shall he con- 
victed of any offense known to the laws of this State, and 
punishable by imprisonment, other than such as may he pun- 
ishable by imprisonment for life, the Court or Justice, as the 
case may be, before whom such conviction shall be had, may, 
at their discretion, sentence such boy to the State Reform 
School, or to such punishment as is now provided by law for 
the same offense. 

And if the sentence shall be to the Reform School, then it 
shall be in the alternative to the State Reform School, or to 
such punishment as would have been awarded if this act had 
not been passed. Sec. 4th of " An Act to establish the State 
Reform School," passed 1851. 

All commitments to the Reform School, of boys, of whatever 
age when committed, shall be for a term not longer than dur- 
ing their minority, nor less than ninety days, [the ninety days 
limitation has been altered by subsequent statute,] unless 
sooner discharged by order of the Trustees, as herein provided, 
and whenever any boy shall be discharged therefrom, by the 
expiration of his term of commitment, or as reformed, or as 
having arrived at the age of twenty-one years, such discharge 
shall be a full and complete release from all penalties and dis- 
abilities which may have been created by such sentence. 

Sec. 7 of above act. 

Any Justice of the Peace, before whom any juvenile delin- 
quent may be lawfully committed to the State Reform School, 
may sentence such delinquent during his minority, provided, 
that no Justice of the Peace shall sentence any delinquent as 
aforesaid to said school, for a longer period than ninety days, 



45 

[ninety days clause altered by subsequent statute,] unless 
upon tbe recommendation, at tbe time of such sentence, of a 
majority of the Selectmen of the town in which such convic- 
tion is had. 

Sec. 1 of Act of 1854. 

No person shall hereafter be sentenced or committed to the 
State Reform School for any of the offenses specified in the 
24th and 55th sections of the " Act concerning Domestic Re- 
lations," or the 23d section of the Act concerning Prisons. 
Sec. 1 of the Act of 1855. 

No person under the age of ten years shall hereafter be 
committed to the State Reform School, nor shall any person 
be so committed for a less period than nine months. 
Sec. 3 of Act of 1857. 

Any parent may indenture his boy, or any guardian may 
indenture his male ward, to the State Reform School, for such 
length of time as may be agreed upon by such parent or guar- 
dian and the Trustees of said State Reform School, on condi- 
tion that such parent or guardian shall pay the expenses of 
his boy or ward, so indentured as aforesaid, while at said 
State Reform School. 
Act of 1859, Sec. 1. 



FORM OF INDENTURE ADOPTED BY THE TRUSTEES. 
To the Trustees of the Connecticut State Reform School: 

1 hereby request that the boy named 

be received as indentured according to Law, to the State Re- 
form School, at West Meriden, and I hereby bind myself and 
agree to the following conditions, viz. : 

The price of board, education, training and clothing for said 
boy shall be at the rate of Three Dollars per week, payable 
quarter-yearly in advance, and the said' 

is bound to remain in said Institution for the term of 
months, entitled to the same supervision, medical 



46 

treatment, support and education, and subject to the same 
regulations, employment and restraint, as all other inmates of 
said School. 

[Signed.] 



MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. 

The Annual, Quarterly, and Semi-Annual Meetings of the 
Board of Trustees, are holden as follows : 
Annual Meeting, second Wednesday in July. 
Quarterly " " " in October. 

Semi-Annual Meeting, second Wednesday in January. 
Quarterly " " " in April. 



RESOLUTION. 

The following resolution was passed at the January meeting 
of the Board, 1860, and is considered one of the standing 
rules of the Board : 

Resolved, That we visit the Institution in succession, each 
month in which the regular meetings of the Board do not 
occur. 

The following is the order of counties : 

February — Middlesex County. 

March — Tolland County. 

May — Lttch field County. 

June — New London County. 

August — Hartford County. 

September — New Haven County. 

November — Fairfield County. 

December — Windham County. 



Karnes, Residences, Commissions and Retirement of the Trustees 
of the State Reform School, from its commencement to the present 
time. 



Date of 
Commission. 


NAMES. 


RESIDENCE. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1851. 


Gideon Welles, 


Hartford, 


1853. 


1851. 


Philemon Hoadley, 


New Haven, 


1857. 


1851. 


E. S. Abernethy, 


Bridgeport, 


1853. 


1851. 


A. N. Baldwin, 


New Milford, 


1855. 


1851. 


Philo M. Judson, 


Norwich, 


Declined. 


1851. 


Erastus Lester, 


Plainfield, 


1854. 


1851. 


Henry D. Smith, 


Middletown, 


1853. 


1851. 


John H. Brockway, 


Ellington, 


1853. 


1853. 


Phillip Ripley, 


Hartford, 


Died in office,'63 


1853. 


David Patchen, 


Weston, 


1854. 


1853. 


John P. Gulliver, 


Norwich, 


1854. 


1853. 


John S. Yeomans, 


Columbia, 


1856. 


1853. 


James Phelps, 


Essex, 


1855. 


1854. 


Frederick S. Wildman, 


Danbury, 


1858. 


1854. 


Moses Pierce, 


Norwich, 


1856. 


1854. 


John Gallup, 2d, 


Brooklyn, 


1858. 


1855. 


Sylvester Spencer, 


Litchfield, 


Resigned, 1858 


1855. 


Elihu Spencer, 


Middletown, 


Declined. 


1856. 


Moses Culver, 


Middletown, 


1858. . 


1856. 


Thomas Clark, 


Coventry, 


1860. 


1856. 


Wm. P. Benjamin, 


New London, 


Still in office. 


1857. 


Wm. S. Charnley, 


New Haven, 


Declined. 


1858. 


E. W. Hatch, 


Meriden, 


Resigned, 1859 


1858. 


Horace Gaylord, 


Ashford, 


1862. 


1858. 


David P. Nichols, 


Danbury, 


Still in office. 


1858. 


Thomas A. Miller, 


Torringford, 


1859. 


1858. 


Benjamin Douglas, 


Middletown, 


1863. 


1859. 


Hiram Foster, 


Meriden, 


Still in office. 


1859. 


Daniel G. Piatt, 


Washington, 


« u 


1860. 


Henry McCrea, 


Ellington, 


a a 


1862. 


Roswell Brown, 


Hartford, 


it u 


1862. 


William Swift, 


Windham, 


a M 


1863. 


Henry G. Hubbard, 


Middletown, 


Declined. 


1864. 


Benjamin Douglas, 


Middletown, 


Still in office. 



OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTION. 



E. W. HATCH, M. D., 

Superintendent, Treasurer and Physician. 

Teachers. 

SAXTON B. LITTLE, 

Assistant Superintendent and Principal Teacher. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. H. EASTMAN, Miss MARY A. BUTLER, 

Mrs. SUSAN WATSON. 

Matron, 



Farm. 
L. P. CHAMBERLAIN, Farmer. 
BELA ANDREWS, Assistant Farmer. 
E. W. LARRABEE, Gardener. 

Mechanical Department. 

W. C. LOOMIS, Mr. LINSLEY, Chair Department. 
J. B. PORTER, Shoe Shop and Boys' Kttchen. 
Miss A. E.'C. WATSON, Tailor's Shop. 

Watchman, 
E. H. SHUMWAY. 



REPORT 



DIRECTORS 

OF THE 

CONNECTICUT STATE PRISON, 

TO THE 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 

MAY SESSION, 1866. 



grintcil by order of the ^rgtolatu xt. 



HARTFORD: 
CASE, LOCKWOOD AND COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1866. 



OFFIOEBS. 



Directors, 

Marcos Lillie of Coventry. D. H. Willard of Newington. William 

K. Peck of Winsted. 

Warden, 
WILLIAM WILLARD. 

Deputy Warden, 
HORACE FENTON. 

Chaplain, 

Rkv. B. C. PHELPS. 

Physician, 
A. S. WARNER, M. D. 

Clerk, 
ANDREW J7B0TELLE. 

Overseers, 
Johk Fentok, G. W. Griffiths, 

James Wadsworth, Joiin H. Phelps, 

Dwight M. Martin, James Russell. 

Watchmen, 
Joseph Waterman, Loren J. Hastings, 

David Ivks, Ralph F. Hill. 

Gale Keeper, 
Edward J. Hanmer. 

Matrons, 
Miss A. J. Stevens. Mrs. A. L. Cady. 



DIRECTORS 1 REPORT. 



To the Honorable General Assembly, May Session, A. D. 18G6. 

The Board of Directors of the Connecticut State Prison 
respectfully submit their Annual Report : — 

This Institution still continues to maintain its high reputa- 
tion for good order and strict discipline, cleanliness and neat- 
ness in all its departments, combined with a judicious and 
strictly economical system of management in all its financial 
concerns. 

In regard to the discipline of the Prison, we would again 
with much pleasure revert to the good results and practical 
workings of the Law passed by the Legislature in 1862, 
authorizing the Warden, with the approval and consent of the 
Directors, to deduct a certain percentage -of time from the 
sentence of convicts for good and meritorious conduct. 

And we are happy to state that it has thus far proved a 
powerful incentive to many prisoners to good behavior, there- 
by materially diminishing the necessity of punishment, as the 
record kept for that purpose, and often inspected by us, 
plainly shows. 

Cases of insubordination and of non-fulfillment of daily 
tasks assigned to each according to their several abilities, are 
much less frequent than formerly. 

In short, it has far exceeded our most sanguine expecta- 
tions, and we therefore most cheerfully recommend to other 
States a similar enactment for kindred institutions. 

For a statement of the financial condition of the Prison, 
we refer you to the annexed report of the Warden, giving a 
detailed account of the various expenditures, sources of in- 



come, <fcc, &c, from which it will be seen that the income of 
the Prison, for the past year, has been $18,206.76, and the 
expenses have been $17,504.63, thus showing a net gain of 
$702.13, to us a very gratifying result at this time, when so 
few Prisons are self-sustaining. 

Especially so in view of the greatly enhanced prices of all 
kinds of provisions, wearing apparel, bedding, fuel and hos- 
pital stores, all of which are absolutely indispensable ; and 
then the incidental expenses "arc neither few nor small," 
while the price of the labor of convicts has not materially ad- 
vanced, as shown by the re-letting of contracts for said labor, 
to different parties, after a liberal and extensive advertising 
for proposals for the same. 

But we are not to consider the object of a State Prison as 
an investment for money-making purposes, but as a Penal 
Institution, where those convicted of crime, and duly sen- 
tenced by the law, shall be safely confined, and subject to such 
rules and regulations as shall be adopted from time to time, 
and enforced by those having charge of the same. 

Reference being had to the present and future welfare of 
the Prison, as well as the safety of the public, they should 
receive kind and gentle treatment from all the officers of the 
Prison ; should be daily supplied with wholesome and suffi- 
cient food, and furnished with suitable and comfortable cloth- 
ing, and well cared for, especially in sickness and distress. 
They should have access to suitable books and tracts, for their 
mental improvement and culture, and have such religious 
and other instruction as shall enable them to become better 
citizens, when their term of sentence expires, and they are 
again permitted to mingle in society. 

The annexed reports of the Chaplain and Physician, will 
give a more full and particular description of the moral, re- 
ligious and physical condition of the inmates of the institu- 
tion than we can give you in this place, and we respectfully 
refer you to them for such information. 

The usual statistical tables, giving the number of prisoners 
during the last year, and now in confinement, with the age, 
color, sex, nativity, crimes for which they were committed, 



term of sentence, &c., &c, will be found on the succeeding 
pages. 

The accounts of the Prison have been kept in a neat and 
orderly manner, and have been duly audited by us, and found 
correct. Vouchers in all cases for expenses are required and 
exhibited. 

The amount appropriated by the last General Assembly for 
repairs and improvements has been judiciously expended. 
The old Engine House has been taken down, thus breaking 
the connection between the shops and the main building, 
leaving us much less exposed in case of fire in the shops. 

A new and convenient Engine* House has been built to ac- 
comodate the shops, on the west side of the yard. The old, 
dilapidated wood-shed in the back yard has been taken down, 
and a new and substantial brick one put in its place. The 
materials for painting the roofs purchased and paid for. 

We would not omit in closing this report, an expression of 
our approval of the manner in which the Warden and his 
subordinate officers have discharged their various and often 
unpleasant duties. 

We would cordially invite all the members of your Honor- 
able Body to visit the Prison during the present session, or at 
any other time as suits your convenience. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

D. H. WILLARD, 

MARCUS LILLIE, <• Directors. 

WM. K. PECK, 

Wethersfield, April 1st, 1860. 



NOTE. 

We regret that we are obliged to record the death of Josiah 
Griswold, Jr., who died on the 2d day of April, 1866. He 
was a faithful and reliable officer, having been for many years 
employed as overseer of one of the boot shops. The State 
has lost a valuable man, and his family a kind and affectionate 
husband, parent and friend. 

We sympathize with them in their loss, and would pay this 
just tribute to his memory. 



WARDEN'S REPORT. 



To the Directors of the Connecticut Slate Prison. 
Gentlemen : 

A kind Providence has brought us to the close 
of another fiscal year, and as we look over its record, we may 
surely find occasion for gratitude in the fact that health, 
quiet, and that good order for which this Institution has 
so long been noted, have marked the year just terminated. 

But two deaths have occurred, and a much smaller amount 
of sickness than is usual. 

The conduct of the convicts has been such that very little 
punishment has been required to maintain our usual disci- 
pline. Commencing the year with 131 convicts, more than 
one-sixth of whom were unproductive, and in the month of 
June running down to 120, leaving a force of less than 90 
men who could be placed on contract, the high prices of 1864 
still ruling, our prospects, financially, looked gloomy indeed. 

The Joint Standing Committee on State Prison, after mak- 
ing a thorough investigation of our affairs, recommended an 
appropriation of $5,770. //„ to enable us to meet our current 
expenses ; $2,000 of which I was obliged to draw in August 
last. 

But about this time our numbers began to increase, which, 
with a slight change in prices for the better, has enabled me 
to refund to the Treasurer the above amount, meet our cur- 
rent expenses, and show a net gain of 702, T W dollars. 

The usual detailed statement of financial matters, statistics, 
&c, will be found appended hereto. 

I cannot close this report without renewing my acknowl- 
edgments to you, gentlemen, and to all the officers who have 
assisted me in the discharge of my official duties. 

WILLIAM WILLARD, 

Warden. 

Wcthersfiehl, April 1st, 1866. 



10 
INCOME. 



SHOE SHOPS. 



Stock on hand March 31st, 1865, $56.10 

Pay of overseers, - - - 1,169.90 



Received for work done, - - 10,698.43 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1866, 66.65 



$1,226.00 





10,765.08 




$9,539.08 


BURNISHING SHOPS. 


(1 new shop.) 


Stock on hand March 31st, 1865, 


$12.45 


Pay of overseers, - 


568.75 



Received for work done, - - 5,063.45 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1866, 38.50 



rule shop. (new.) 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1865, - none. 
Pay of overseers, - - $120.18 



$581.15 



5,101.95 

$4,520.80 



$120.18 



Received for work done, - - 741.97 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1866, 15.70 



757.67 

$637.49 

PROFIT AND LOSS. 

Received from Visitors, ... $581.57 

BOARD ACCOUNT. 

Board of United States Convicts, - - $2,927.82 



11 

EXPENDITURES. 



ACCOUNT. 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1865, $4,716.02 
Officers' Salaries, Board of Clerk, 

Watchman, Gate keeper, &c, 13,918.10 



$18,634.12 



Sundry credits to this account, - 7,189.91 
Stock on hand March 31st, 1866, 4,794.42 



11,984.36 

provisions. $6,649.76 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1865, $687.63 



Amount since purchased, - - 9,210.42 

Sundry credits to this account, - 949.17 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1866, - 964.28 



CLOTHING AND BEDDING. 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1865, - $2,390.63 
Amount since purchased, - 2,070.19 



Sundry credits to this account, - 447.15 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1866, 2,181.67 



HOSPITAL. 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1865, -$125.00 

Amount since purchased, - - 668.55 

Physician's Salary, - - 201.00 



Sundry credits to this account, 302.81 

Stock on hand March 31st, 1866, - 125.00 



$9,898.05 

1,913.45 

$7,984.60 

$4,460.82 

2,628.82 
$1,832.00 

$994.55' 

427.81 
$566.74 



12 



FEMALE DEPARTMENT. 



Pay of Matron?, - - - $333.82 

Received for work done, - 152.40 



$181.42 



TRANSPORTATION OP CONVICTS. 



Paid for the transportation of convicts from the 

different counties the past year, - - $246.15 

INTEREST. 

Balance of interest, .... $43.96 

RECAPITULATION. 

INCOME. 

Shoe Shops, $9,539.08 

Burnishing Shops, - 4,520.80 

Rule Shop, 637.49 

Profit and loss, .... 581.57 

Board of United States convicts, - - 2,927.82 





$18,206.76 


EXPENDITURES. 




Expense Account, 


- $6,649.76 


Provisions, - 


7,984.60 


Clothing and Bedding, - 


- 1,832.00 


Hospital, - 


566.74 


Female Department, - 


181.42 


Transportation of Convicts, - 


246.15 


Interest, - - - - - 


43.96 


Balance gained, - 


702.13 



$18,206.76 



13 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 

Amount of property on hand March 31, 

1865, --- - $7,987.83 
Amount of property on hand March 31, 

1866, .... 8,186.22 



Cash on hand March 31, 1865, - - 14.78 

" " " " 1866, - 1,921.21 



$198.39 



1,906.43 



Due from Prison March 31, 1865, - 130.64 
No indebtedness " " 1866, 130.64 

Book accounts March 31, 1865, - 403.67 

" " " " 1866, - 2,204.11 



$1,800.44 



Paid for advertising applicants for par- 
don by order of General Assembly, 

Paid for Prison Library by order of Gen- 
eral Assembly, - 

Paid Prisoners' Aid Society by order of 
General Assembly, - 

Paid for repairs and improvements by 
order of General Assembly, 



Received from State Treasurer for re- 
pairs and improvements, - - $1,500.00 
Sold from stock account, - 3,978.00 

$5,478.00 

Balance net gain, - - - $702.13 




14 
STATISTICAL TABLES. 



Number of Prisoners in confinement March 31, 1865, received 

since, Deaths, Discharges, SfC, 8cc. 
Whole number in confinement March 31, 1865, 131 

Since received, ..... 140 

271 

Discharged by expiration of sentence, 47 

" by order of General Assembly, - 4 

" " " Secretary of Navy, - 22 

Died, - - - - 2 

Escaped from outside gang, - - 1 

76 

Leaving in confinement, March 31, 1866, - - 195 

Of this number there are for first offense, - 181 

" " " second offense, - 11 

" " " third offense, - 1 

" " " fourth offense, - 2 

195 

Number received from each County. 
Hartford County, - 33 Fairfield County, - 32 

New Haven County, - 36 Litchfield " - - 15 

New London " - 13 Middlesex " - 1 

Windham " - 2 Tolland " - - 9 

United States Prisoners, - - 54 

195 

The one hundred and forty received during the year ending 

March 31, 1866, were from 

Hartford County, - 25 Fairfield County, - 12 

New Haven " - 22 Litchfield " - 3 

New London " - 8 Middlesex " 1 

Windham " - 1 Tolland " - - 3 

United States Prisoners, 65 



140 



15 

Color and Sex. 

"White Males, - - - 

Colored " ... 

White Females, - 

Colored " ... 

Occupation. 

Females, in making and mending clothes, 
cooking, etc., 

Sticking hair pins, assorting seeds, &c, 

Males, making boots and shoes, 
" burnishing silver-plated ware, 
" making rules, bevels, &c, 

State shoe-maker, ... 

General repairs, 

Lumbers, waiters, and out door men, - 

Aged, infirm and ciippled, 

Idiotic, - 

Insane, - 

Invalids, - 

Hospital nurse, - 



161 

18 

11 

5 



-195 



12 

4 

90 

46 

16 

1 

1 

10 

4 

2 

4 

4 

1 



-195 



Americans, 
Foreigners, 

Ireland, 

England, 

Germany, 

Scotland, 

Pennsylvania, 

New Jersey, 

Georgia, 

Maine, - 

Vermont, 

Michigan, 

Maryland, - 



108 
87 



50 Connecticut,- - 
17 Massachusetts, 
7 New York, 
Rhode Island, 
North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 
Virginia, 
Mississippi, 
Prussia, 
Canada, 
Baltimore, 



-195 
40 
12 
30 

2 



16 



Holland, 


- 


1 Sweden, 


1 


Illinois, 




1 Alabama, 


1 


New Brunswick, 


- 


3 Madeira, - 


1 


Italy, 




1 Louisiana, 


1 


Long Island, 


- 


2 North America, 


1 


Nova Scotia, 




1 Tennessee, 

AGE. 


195 


Under 20 years, there 


are 


. 


23 


From 20 to 30 years, 


there 


are 


- 104 


" 30 to 40 " 


« 


. 


35 


" 40 to 50 " 


u 


- 


- 28 


Over 50 years, 


u 


. 


5 



195 

Prisoners pardoned by the General Assembly, May Session, 

1865. 



NAMES. 


NATIVITY 




CRIMES. 


Morris Nichols, Connecticut 


> 


Murder, 2d degree. 


Albert Northrop, 


a 




Beastiality. 


Benjamin Scott, New York, 




Attempt at Murder. 


Sarah Sandly, New Jersey 




Adultery. 




SENTENCES. 




For six 


months, - 


1 For 8 years and 6 months, 1 


" 1 


year, - 


14 " 


10 


" • " - - 11 


" 1 


" and 6 months, 


4 " 


12 


" and 9 months, 1 


« 2 


« 


- 45 " 


13 


1 


" 2 


" and 3 months, 


1 " 


15 


« - 2 


" 2 


H 6 « 


- 1 " 


20 


1 


" 3 


a 


31 " 


24 


" - 1 


" 3 


" and 6 months, 


5 " 


Life 


17 


" 4 


" 


10 " 


10 years and $50 fine, 1 


" 4 


" and 4 months 


1 " 


10 


" " $10 " 1 


" 5 


" 


- 12 " 


2 


" " $6 « 1 


" 6 


U 


4 Until further orders from 


« 7 


a 


10 


Superior Court, - 1 


« 8 


c< m 


6 




195 



17 



Acquitted on grounds of insanity but confined by 

order of Superior Court, - - - - 1 

Adultery, ..... 5 

Arson, ------- 3 

Attempt at Rape, ----- 6 

Assault with intent to kill, ' - - -2 

" " '" " " and commit a Rape, - 1 

" " " " commit a Rape, - - 1 

Attempt at Rape and stealing from person, - 1 

Attempt to break jail, ----- 2 

Assisting prisoner to break jail and escape, placing 

obstructions on R. R. track, &c, &c, - - 1 

Burglary, - - - - - - 32 

Bigamy, ------ 1 

Burglary and breaking jail, - ... 1 

Burglary and theft, ... - 1 

Desertion, - - - - - 29 

" and scandalous conduct, - - 5 

" and fraud, ----- 6 

" and assaulting superior officer, - - 1 
Deserting his post in time of battle, disobeying the 

lawful orders of his superior officers, &c, &c, - 1 

Disobedience of orders, - 6 

Forgery, ...... 2 

Horse stealing, theft and breaking jail, - - 1 

" " and adultery, 1 

Horse stealing, - ... - - 8 

Highway robbery, - - - - 1 

Embezzlement, - 1 

Incest, ------- 1 

Mutinous conduct, ----- 1 

Murder, ______ 1 

" 2d degree, - 12 

" commuted, ----- 3 

Manslaughter, ----- 9 

Passing counterfeit money, - - - - 12 

Robbing U. S. mail, ... - 1 
2 



18 

Robbing U. S. mail and forgery, - - - 1 

Rape, - . 2 

Robbery, ------ "a 

Placing obstructions on R. R. track, - - l 

Sleeping on his post, - - - . \ 
Scandalous conduct, tending to the destruction of 

good morals, &c, ----- 2 

Treating with contempt their superior officers, - 2 

Theft, ------- 17 

Stealing from person, - 6 



195 



19 



PRISONERS UNDER SENTENCE FOR LIFE. 



Nativity. 



: Where 
convicted 



Lucina Coleman. 


50 


Hartford, Ct. 


Hartford. 


Sept. 25, 1849, Murder, 2d degree 


John Brown, 


35 Ireland, 


Tolland, 


Nov. 3, 1S49, Murder, " " 


Wm. 0. Chap in. 


32 


Massachusetts 


Hartford, 


Feb. 8, 1849, Rape. 


Henry Mennasseth. 


4- 


Farmingtou, 


Litchfield. July S. 1857, Murder. 


Wm. H. Calhoun, 


20 


Nassau, N. Y. 


Litchfield, 


July 8, 1857, Murder. 


Isaac Randolph, 


45 


Pennsylvania, 


N. Haven, 


July 16, 1856, Murder, 2d degree. 


Benj. Roberts, 


40 


New Milford, 


Hartford, 


Dec. 29, 1858, Murder, " 


John P. Warren. 


21 


Coventry. Ct. 


Tolland. 


Dec. 14, 1859. Murder, " 


Curtis Dart, 


52 


Connecticut. 


Litchfield, 


May 10, 1860. Murder, 


Thos. Wilson, 


- 


Ireland, 


Hartford, 


July 31, 1860,'Murder, " 


James Cuff, 


33 


Ireland, 


Windham. 


Nov. 22, 1860, Murder, 


Mort. S. Videtoe, 


36 


Massachusetts 


Litchfield, 


Dec. 31, 1860, Murder, " 


Hannah Donnovan, 


19 


Watertown, 


Litchfield, 


Sept. 25, 1861, Murder, 


Lucius J.Woodford 


44 


Winsted, Ct. 


Litchfield, 


April 21, 1862,Murder, " 


Philip Bossert, 


29 


Germany, Bridgeport 


Dec. 4, 1863. Murder. 


Chas. Gilbert, 


25 


Connecticut, Hartford, 


May 4, 1865, Murder, 2d degree. 


Chas. J. Allen, 


2S 


Connecticut, 


Litchfield, 


Sept. 30, 1865, Murder, ". 



CHAPLAIN'S REPORT. 



To the Directors of the Connecticut Stale Prison. 
Gentlemen : 

The duties of the Chaplain during the past 
year, have been attended, in some respects, with marked 
success. 

I have never known more attention to the word, and in- 
terest in the Chapel services, than during the past year. 

Almost every week, for several months past, some of these 
unfortunate men have been found earnestly directing their 
attention to the Scriptures, and anxiously inquiring the way 
to eternal life. To such I have endeavored to be' faithful in 
giving such instructions and encouragement as their condi- 
tion seemed to require. 

It would be difficult to decide how many of the above have 
experienced a decided change of life, as there is little oppor- 
tunity here to test the virtue of their professions, from the 
entire absence of those temptations to which they are subject 
when outside of prison discipline. 

I am happy to say that there is a good degree of interest 
among the men in reading their Bibles. I have been par- 
ticular to supply the convicts with reading, by changing their 
books weekly. In consequence of the increased price of 
books, I have not been able to supply them with so much 
reading matter as I should have been pleased to, but by con- 
siderable use of the old books we have succeeded very well. 

The American Bible Society have made the Prison a dona- 
tion of Bibles and Testaments, a portion of which were pocket 
editions, to be presented to the prisoners when their term of 
service should expire. 



22 

For school-books, and replenishing the library, I have ex- 
pended eighty-eight dollars and fifty cents. 

I have services in the Female Department every Sabbath 
afternoon, and Bible-classes in the Chapel at 9 A. M., for 
such of the men as choose to attend. The excellent warden 
and his deputy are ever present to assist in this noble work. 

Of 166 men who have been questioned upon the following 
subjects, 82 were convicted for crimes committed while under 
the influence of intemperance; 60 had never attended Sabbath 
School; and of the 106 who had left off attendence at the aver- 
age age of 24, one continued his attendence until he was 30, 
two until 23, four until 20, and three until 18. 

Thirty of the above cannot write, and twenty-seven cannot 
read. Such as require instruction are supplied with books 
and assistance. 

Respectfully submitted, 

B. C. PHELPS, Chaplain. 

Wethersfield, April 1st, 1866. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Directors of the Connecticut State Prison : 
Gentlemen : 

In reviewing the last year, a very marked feature in the 
Sanitary history of the Prison, is an unusual absence of seri- 
ous Chronic disease. 

There is at present not a single case of proper pulmonary 
consumption under treatment. 

Only two deaths have occurred, both from acute disease. 
One from typhoid fever, October 21st ; and one December 26th, 
from peritonitis. 

In the first case, the attack from the beginning was of a sin- 
gularly serious type. At first it was complicated with pneu- 
monia, and afterward with a very profuse hemorrhage from 
the bowels. 

In the other case, also, the attack was one of unusual vio- 
lence. The most energetic treatment afforded little relief. 
The patient died in forty-eight hours. 

There was but little serious sickness during the year. A 
more than usual tendency to disease of an intermittent type 
was observable in the summer and autumn. 

There are about the usual number of insane convicts. One 
is kept in the hospital, although an unsafe man to be placed 
in the midst of sick and unprotected men. But it had been 
found utterly impossible to make him in any degree comfort- 
able in any other way, with the means at our convenience' 



24 

Three others, wholly incapable of any employment in the 
shops, are confined in their cells. 

In addition to the case already mentioned, there are several 
patients in the hospital ; one with a serious disease of stomach 
and bowels, two with chronic diarrhea, and one with asthma. 

The above is respectfully submitted. 

A. S. WARNER. 

Wethersfield, April 1st, 1866. 



ABSTRACT 



RETURNS CONCERNING JAILS, 



AND OF THE 



ACCOUNTS OF THE COUNTY TREASURERS, 



YEAR ENDING MARCH 31st, 1866. 



Compiled foj- the Secretary of State. 



HARTFORD: 
PRESS OF CASE, LOCKWOOD AND COMPANY 

1866. 



Office of Secretary of State, 1 
May 1st, 1866. j 

To the Honorable General Assembly: 

In compliance with a requirement of Chapter III, Title 
LI, of the Revised Statutes of this State, the Secretary of 
State has prepared and herewith transmits an Abstract of the 
Returns concerning Jails, and the Abstract of the County 
Treasurer's Report, for the year ending March 31st, 1866. 

The whole number of commitments during the year is 
1,576, (exclusive of fifteen transferred from Bridgeport Jail 
to Danbury, for trial;) being 383 more than in the preceding 
year. The average number of prisoners in confinement at 
one time, in all the Jails in the State, except in the County 
of Tolland, (from which county the returns are, in this par- 
ticular, defective, and in others, incorrect,) is 199.7, about 
forty-two less than in the preceding year. The number in 
confinement in all the Jails, April 1st, 1866, was 216: being 
one hundred and five more than on April 1st, 1865. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

J. H1MMOND TRUMBULL, 

Secretary of State. 



ABSTRACT OF RETURNS 



Returns concerning JAILS,/or the County of HARTF ORD, 
for the year ending March 31.^, 1866. 

[Certified by W. H. Fuller, Edwin Welles, and Willis Dewey, County 
Commissioners.] 

Number of prisoners in Jail, April 1st, 1865, 22 

Committed during the year, ... 335 — 407 

Discharged during the year, ... 365 

Number remaining in Jail, April 1st, 1866, - 42 

COLOR AND SEX. 

White, Males, 285 Females, 67 Total, 352 

Colored, " 30 " 3 

315 70 



33 

385 



Over 21 years, Males, 212 Females, 59 
Under 21 years, " 103 " 11 



Total, 271 
114 



NATIVITY, AC. 

Natives of this State, 81 

Natives of other States, - - - - 64 

Natives of other countries, - 240 

Who have been married, .... 189 

Natives of this State, who can not read or write, - 7 

" of other States, " " " " - 4 

" of other countries, " " - 159 

Who have been strictly temperate, - - - 78 

" " " moderate drinkers, - - - 187 

" " " habitually intemperate, - - 120 

" " " in prison before, 93 



For Murder, - 3 

Assault, - - 43 

Assault, with intent to 

kill, - - 3 
Setting fires, - 4 
Robbery, - 10 
Stealing from the per- 
son, - - 8 



Larceny, - - 118 

Horse Stealing, 5 

Burglary, - 15 

House breaking, 6 

For obtaining goods on false 

pretence, - 5 

Making or Passing 

Counterfeit Money, 5 



Forgery, - 1 


Vagrancy, 


15 


Adultery, - 5 


Drunkenness, 


30 


Fornication, - 1 


As Common Drunkards, 


22 


Bastardy, - - 2 


For Resisting Officer, - 


1 


As Common Prostitutes, 20 


Contempt of Court, 


1 


For Keeping House of 111 


All other offenses, 


59 


Fame, - 1 







Frequenting House of 


Total, - 


303 



111 Fame, - 2 

DISCHARGED. 

By bail or recognizance, 12 Sent 
By payment of fine and 

costs, - - 137 

By expiration of sentence, 130 
By State's Attorney, - 4 
By County Commissioners, 1 
Sent to court and not re- Total, - 

turned, - - 44 

Average number in confinement during the year, - 

RECEIPTS. 

Received from the State for board of Prisoners, $4,346.71 

Due from the State for board of Prisoners, - 2,170.09 

From the United States, .... 56.18 

From Earnings of Prisoners, - - - 388.81 

Key Fees, ..... 187.00 

Received or due from other sources, - - 219.93 



to State Reform 
School, - - 7 

Sent to State Prison, - 17 
By process not specified 
above, - - 13 

365 

411 



Total amount received and due, 


- 


- $7,368.72 


EXPENDITURES. 




For Provisions, - 


. 


. 


- $3,070.06 


Clothing, 




- 


48.25 


Bedding, 


- 


- 


362.83 


Fuel, - 




- 


- 748.42 


Lights, 


- 


- 


25.00 


Medicines, 




- 


77.00 


Medical Attendance, 


. 


. 


102.00 


Salary of Jailor, 




. 


- 850.00 


Salary of Assistants, 


. 


- 


922.00 


Chaplain, 




. 


52.00 


County Commissioners, 


- 


- 


216.00 


All other expenses, - 




- 


- 757.15 



Total expenditures, 



$7,230.71 



Returns concerning J AILS, for the County of NEW HA VEN, 
for the year ending March 31.?*, 1866. 

ICcrtifietl by Archibald E. Rice, County Commissioner.] 

Number of prisoners in Jail, April 1st, 1865, 31 

Committed during the year, ... 557 — 588 

Discharged during the year, ... 508 

Number remaining in Jail, April 1st, 1866, - - 80 



COLOR AND SEX. 






White, Males, 403 
Colored, " 36 


Females, 100 

18 


Total, 


503 
54 


439 


118 

AGE. 




557 


Over 21 years, Males, 
Under 21 years, " 


363 Females, 83 
76 u 35 


Total, 


446 
111 


. 


NATIVITY, &C. 




557 



Natives of this State, ----- 166 

Natives of other States, ... - 144 

Natives of other countries, ... - 247 

Who have been married, - 289 

Natives of this State, who can not read or write, - 14 

" of other States, " " " - 18 

" of other countries, " " - - 94 

Who have been strictly temperate, - 47 

" " " moderate drinkers, .... 322 

" " " habitually intemperate, - - 188 

" " " in prison before, - - - 215 





COMMITTED 






As Insane, - 


4 




Burglary, - 


- 17 


For Murder, 


- 3 


For 


Obtaining Goods 


on 


Assault, 


125 




false pretence, 


6 


Setting Fires, - 


- 1 




Forgery, 


- 2 


Stealing from 


the per- 




Rape, - 


3 


son, - 


4 




Adultery, - 


- 1 


Larceny, 


- 121 




Fornication, 


5 


Horse Stealin 


g, 4 




Lewd Conduct, 


- 17 



As Common Prostitutes, 3 As Common Drunkards, 6 

For Keeping House of 111 For Blasphemy, - 2 

Fame, - 2 Resisting Officer, 5 

Frequenting House of Contempt of Court, 1 

111 Fame, - 13 All other offenses, 19 

Vagrancy, - 11 

Drunkenness, - 182 Total, - 557 

DISCHARGED. 

By bail or recognizance, 9 Sent to court and not rc- 
By payment of fine and turned, - - 13 

costs, - - 180 Sent to State Reform 

By expiration of sentence, 228 School, - - 13 

By State's Attorney, - 40 Sent to State Prison, 21 

Transferred to other Jails, Died, - - - 2 

for trial, - - 2 

Total, - - 508 

Average number in confinement during the year, - 78^1 ? 



Received from the State, for board of Prisoners, 


$7,992.85 


From the United States, 


. 


105.65 


From Earnings of Prisoners, 
Due from Labor of Prisoners, 


1 " • 


- 667.85 


Due from the State for board ( 


)f Prisoners, 
lue, - 


2,045.00 


Total amount received and < 


$10,811.35 


EXPENDITURES. 




For Provisions, - 


. 


$4,261.43 


Clothing, 


- 


- 179.96 


Bedding, - 


. 


879.26 


Fuel, - 


- 


- 700.63 


Lights, 


. 


19.96 


Medicines, 


- 


33.50 


Medical Attendance, 


. 


28.50 


Salary of Jailor, 


- 


- 800.00 


Salary of two Assistants, 


. 


800.00 


Chaplain, 


- 


- 125.00 


County Commissioners, 


. 


200.00 


All other expenses, - 


- 


- 389.03 



Total expenditures, - - - $8,417.32 



10 



Returns concerning JAILS, for the County of NEW LON- 
DON, for the year ending March 31s*, 1866. 

[Certified by Griswold E. Morgan, Franklin Potter, and Amos F. Royce, County 
Commissioners.] 

NEW LONDON JAIL. 



Number of prisoners in Jail, April 1st, 1865, - 10 

Committed during the year, - - - 90 — 100 

Discharged during the year, 87 

Number remaining in Jail, April 1st, 1866, - 13 



White, Males, 
Colored, " 



COLOR AND SEX. 



51 Females, 27 
8 4 



Total, 



78 

12 



59 



31 



90 



AGE, 



Over 21 years, Males, 48 Females, 23 
Under 21 years, " 11 " 8 



NATIVITY, &C. 

Natives of this State, ... 
" of other States, 
" of other countries, 

Who have been married, 

Natives of this State, who cannot read or write, 
" of other States, " " " 

" of other countries, " " " 

Who have been strictly temperate, 
" " " moderate drinkers, - 
" " " habitually intemperate, - 

W T ho have been in prison before, 



Total, 71 
19 

90 



20 

none. 
22 
10 

none. 

11 

- 3 



11 



COMMITTED. 




For Murder, - 1 


For Attempt at Rape, - 


2 


Assault, 7 


Keeping House of 111 




Assault, with intent to 


Fame, 


2 


kill, - - 1 


Vagrancy, 


15 


- Stealing f 'rn the person, 10 


Drunkenness, - 


11 


Burglary, - 8 


As Common Drunkards, 


3 


Obtaining Goods on 


For Poisoning, 


1 


false pretence, - 1 


All other offenses, 


25 


Forgery, - - 1 




— 


Rape, - - 2 


Total, 


00 


DISCHARGED. 




By bail or recognizance, - 2 


Sent to State Reform 




By payment of fine and costs, 21 


School, 


3 


By expiration of sentence, 45 


Sent to State Prison, 


6 


By County Commissioners, 1 


Escaped and not retaken, 


1 


Transferred to other Jails, 


Died, - 


1 


for trial, - 6 







Sent to court and not re- 


Total, - - . 


87 


turned, - - 1 







Average number in confinement during the year, - 12 T v 



Received from the State, for board of Prisoners, $1980.80 

From Earnings of Prisoners, ... 080.90 

Due from Labor of Prisoners, - 224.88 

Received from City of New London, - - 169.20 

Due for board of Prisoners, - 331.01 



Total amount received and due, - $3392.29 

EXPENDITURES. 

For Provisions, .... $1132.71 

Bedding, 13,00 

Fuel, ..... 208.45 

Lights, ..... H.89 

Medicines and Medical Attendance, - 21.47 

Salary of Jailor, .... 350.00 

Salary of Assistants, - - - 330.00 

County Commissioners, ... 112.50 

All other expenses, .... 615.47 



Total expenditures, - - - $2795.49 



12 



Returns concerning JAILS, for the County of NEW LON- 
DON, for the year ending March 81st, 1866. 

[Certified by Griswold E. Morgan, Franklin Potter, and Amos F. Roycc, 
County Commissioners.] 

NORWICH JAIL. 

Number of prisoners in Jail, April 1st, 1865, - 12 
Committed during the year, - - - 129 — 141 

Discharged during the year, - - 117 

Number remaining in Jail, April 1st, 1866, - 24 

COLOR AND SEX. 



White, Males, 89 Females, 31 
Colored, " 6 " 3 


Total, 120 
9 


95 34 


129 


AGE. 




Over 21 years, Males, 78 Females, 19 
Under 21 years, " 13 " 19 


Total, 97 
32 




129 


NATIVITY, AC. 




Natives of this State, ... 
" of other States, ... 
" of other countries, 


- 41 
14 

- 74 



Who have been married, 65 

Natives of this State, who cannot read or write, - 4 

" of other States, " " " 4 

•' of other countries, " " " 41 

Who have been strictly temperate, 1m, . . , 

« « « moderate drinkers, The return is here 
« « « habitually intemperate, ) defi <^- 

Who have been in prison before, 34 



13 



COMMITTED. 



For Murder, - - 1 

Stealing f'm the Person, 7 



Larceny, 

Horse Stealing, - 

Burglary, 

Making or Passing 

Counterfeit Money, 
Rape, 

Attempt at Rape, 
Keeping House of 111 

fame, 



For Frequenting House 

of 111 Fame, - 2 

Vagrancy, - 4 

Drunkenness, - 35 

As Common Drunkards, 6 

For Resisting Officer, - 4 

All other offenses, - 34 



Total, 



- 129 



DISCHARGED. 

By bail or recognizance, - 5 Sent to court and not re- 



payment of fine and costs, 39 
expiration of sentence, 51 



State's Attorney, - 4 

County Commissioners, 2 
Transferred to other Jails, Total, 

for trial, - - 7 



turned, - -6 

Sent to State Prison, 2 

Escaped and not retaken, 1 



Average number in confinement during the year, 



117 



19A 



Received from the State, for board of Prisoners, $2700.85 

From Earnings of Prisoners, ... 1210.65 

Received from sale of Cow and Copper, - 86.13 

Due from State, for board of Prisoners, - - 563.65 



Total amount received and due, 


- $4561.28 


EXPENDITURES. 




For Provisions, - 


11644.64 


Clothing and Bedding, 


121.45 


Fuel, - - - - 


402.30 


Medicines, - 


45.09 


Medical Attendance, -' 


6.04 


Salary of Jailor, - 


450.00 


Salary of Assistants, ... 


298.50 


County Commissioners, 


125.00 


All other expenses, .... 


1154.82 



Total expenditures, 



$4247.80 



14 



Returns concerning 1 JAILS, for the County of FAIRFIELD, 
for the year ending March 31st, 1866. 

[Certified by Lyman Kccler, Joshua Lord, find William T. Craw, County 
Commissioners.] 

BRIDGEPORT JAIL. 

Number of prisoners in Jail, April 1st, 1865, - 13 
Committed during the year, ... 184 — 197 
Discharged during the year, - - 162 

Number remaining in Jail, April 1st, 1866, - 25 

COLOR AND SEX. 

White, Males, 134 Females, 43 Total, 177 
Colored, " 5 " 2 " 7 

139 45 184 

AGE. 

Over 21 years, Males, 120 Females, 37 Total, 157 
Under 21 years, " 20 " 7 " 27 



184 



NATIVITY, &C. 



Natives of this State, - - - - - 43 

" of other States, .... 46 

" of other countries, - - - - 95 

Who have been married, .... 104 

Natives of this State, who cannot read or write, - 13 

" of other States, " f* ** 9 

" of other countries, " " " - 37 

Who have been strictly temperate, 4 

" " " moderate drinkers, - - - 73 

" " " habitually intemperate, 97 

Who have been in prison before, - - - 67 



15 



COMMITTED. 



As Insane, - 1 For Keeping House of 111 

For Manslaughter, - 1 Fame, - - 1 

Assault, - - 42 Drunkenness, - 45 

Larceny, - 59 As Common Drunkards, 1 

Burglary, - 2 For all other offenses, - 27 

Making or Passing 

Counterfeit Money, 3 Total, - - 184 
Lewd Conduct, - 2 

DISCHARGED. 

By bail or recognizance, 17 Sent to court and not re- 
payment of fine and turned, - - 3 
costs, - - 14 Sent to State Reform School, 1 
expiration of sentence, 31 Sent to State Prison, - 5 
Transferred to other Jails, By process not specified 
for trial, - - 16 above, - - 75 

Total, - - 162 

Average number in confinement during the year, - 15| 



Received from the State for board of Prisoners, 82,035.83 
From Earnings of Prisoners, - 30.78 

Due from State for boarding Prisoners, - 516.78 



Total amount received and due., 


$2,583.39 


EXPENDITURES. 




For Clothing, - 


- .$14.11 


Bedding, - 


44.73 


Fuel, ----- 


- 218.00 


Medicines, - 


24.17 


County Commissioners, 


- 146.42 


All other expenses, see Treasurer's account. 





Total expenditures, 



16 



Returns concerning JAILS, for the County of FAIRFIELD, 
for the year ending March 31.<?£, 1866. 

[Certified by Lyman Keelcr, Joshua Lord, and William T. Craw, County 
Commissioners.! 



DANBURY JAIL. 

Number of prisoners in Jail, April 1st, 1865, none 

Committed during the year, ... 74 — 74 

Discharged during the year, 71 

Number remaining in Jail, April 1st, 1866, - 3 

Brought from Bridgeport Jail, for trial, 15 



COLOR AND SEX. 

White, Males, 76 Females, 8 Total, 84 

Colored, " 3 " 2 " 5 



70 



10 



Over 21 years, Males, 46 
Under 21 years, " 16 



Females, 8 



nativity, &c. 

Natives of this State, - 

" of other States, • - 

** of other countries, --.-•- 

Who have been married, - 

Natives of this State, who cannot read or write, 
" of other States, " " " 

" of other countries, " " " 

Who have been strictly temperate, - 
" " u moderate drinkers, 
" " " habitually intemperate, 

Who have been in prison before, 



Total, 54 
20 

74 



34 

6 

3'4 

24 



none. 

- 10 

11 

- 15 

43 

- 25 



17 





COMMITTED. 




Larceny, - 
Horse Stealing, - 
Burglary, - 
Adultery, 
Drunkenness, 


- 25 For Resisting Officer, 

2 All other offenses, 

2 

1 Total, - 

- 23 

DISCHARGED. 


3 
■ 16 

74 



By bail or recognizance, 6 Sent to court and not re- 

By payment of fine and turned, - -6 

' costs, - - - 26 Sent to State Reform School, 1 

By expiration of sentence, 10 Sent to State Prison, - 7 

By State's Attorney, 3 By process not specified 

By County Commissioners, 15 above, - - 2 

Transferred to other Jails, — 

for trial, - - 6 Total, - - 86 
Transferred to Bridgeport 

Jail on sentence, - 4 

Average number in confinement during the year, - 7£ 

RECEIPTS. 

Received from the State, for board of Prisoners, $981.68 
Total amount received and due, - $981.68 

EXPENDITURES. 



For Clothing, - - 


- $16.00 


Bedding, - 


16.00 


Fuel, ..... 


- 120.00 


Medical Attendance, 


20.00 


All other expenses, see Treasurer's account, 


- 79.30 



Total expenditures, - - $251.30 



18 



Returns concerning- JAILS, for the County of WINDHAM, 
for the year ending- March 31st, 1866. 

[Certified by Jarcd Chollar, Sanford Hoyden, and Lyndon T. Button, County 
Commissioners.] 

Number of prisoners in jail, April 1st, 1865, 6 

Committed during the year, ... 40 — 46 

Discharged during the year, - 38 

Number remaining in jail, April 1st, 1866,- - 8 

COLOR AND SEX. 



White, Males, 30 Females, 
Colored, " 2 " 


7 
1 


Total, 


37 
3 


32 


8 




40 


AGE. 








Over 21 years, Males, 26 Females 
Under 21 years, " 6 " 


, 6 

2 


Total, 


32 

8 



40 

NATIVITY, &C. 

Natives of this State, - - - - 9 

Natives of other States, 9 

Natives of other countries, - - - - 22 

Who have been married, 19 

Natives of tins State, who cannot read or write, - 1 

" of other States, " " none. 

" of other countries, " " 7 

Who have been strictly temperate, - - - 5 

" " " moderate drinkers, - - 21 

" " " habitually intemperate, - - - 14 

Who have been in prison before, 7 



19 



COMMITTED. 



For Assault, - - 8 For Forgery, - - 1 

Assault, with intent to • Vagrancy, - 1 

kill, - - 1 Drunkenness, - 9 

Robbery, - - 1 Resisting Officer, - 3 

Larceny, - - 12 All other offenses, - 3 

Horse Stealing, - 1 — 

Total, - - 40 

DISCHARGED. 

By bail or recognizance, - 4 Escaped and not retaken, 2 
By payment of fine and costs, 12 By process not specified 

By expiration of sentence, 1G above, - - - 1 

Sent to State Prison, 3 — 

Total, - - 38 

Average number in confinement during the year, - 6 r § ¥ 



Received from the State for board of Prisoners, - $943.31 

Due from the State, for board of Prisoners, - 237.46 

From Earnings of Prisoners, ... 761.35 
Key Fees, received by Sheriff, $31.00. 

Received for oxen sold, .... 292.50 

" " produce sold, ... 66.35 

" " board, .... 15.69 



Total amount received and due, $2,316.69 

EXPENDITURES. 



For Provisions, 

Clothing, - - - 

Fuel, - 

Lights, 

Medicines, 

Salary of Jailor, - 

Chaplain, 

County Commissioners, 
All other expenses, 

Total Expenditures, 



- §006.52 


30.55 


82.05 


5.09 


1.04 


475.00 


25.00 


69.00 


- 745.40 


- $2,039.(5 



20 



Returns concerning JAILS, for the County of LITCH- 
FIELD, for the year ending March 31s*, 1866. 

[Certified by Aaron Keyes and J. G. Minor, County Commissioners.] 

Number of prisoners in jail, April 1st, 1865, - 9 

Committed during the year, ... 31 — 40 

Discharged during the year, 32 

Number remaining in jail, April 1st, 1866, - - 8 



COLOR AND SEX. 








White, Males, 23 Females, 


4 


Total, 


27 


Colored, " 3 " 


1 


« 


4 


26 


5 




31 


AGE. 








Over 21 years, Males, 22 Females, 


3 


Total, 


25 


Under 21 years, " 4 " 


2 


« 


6 



31 



NATIVITY, <fcC. 



Natives of this State, ----- 17 

" of other States, - - 4 

" of other countries, - - - 10 

Who have been married, - 17 

Natives of this State, who cannot read or write, - none. 

" of other States, " " 1 

" of other countries, " " 2 

Who have been strictly temperate, - - 8 

" " " moderate drinkers, ... none. 

" " "* habitually intemperate, - - 23 

Who have been in prison before, ... 8 



21 



COMMITTED. 



For Murder, 
Assault, - 
Larceny, 
Horse Stealing, 
Burglary, 
Obtaining Goods 
false pretence, 



For Drunkenness, - 
Violation of Liquor 

Law, 
All other offenses, 

Total, 



DISCHARGED. 



By bail or recognizance, - 2 

By payment of fine and costs, 7 

By expiration of sentence, 4 

By State's Attorney, - 10 

Transferred to otber Jails, 
for trial, - 1 

Sent to court and not re- 
turned, 2 

Average number in confinement during the year, 



31 



Sent to State Prison, - 3 

Escaped and not retaken, 1 
By process not specified 

above, - - - 1 

Died, 1 



Total, 



- 32 



11 



Received for Rent, .... 
Due for Rent, -.--.- 


167.27 
48.23 


Total amount received and due, 

EXPENDITURES. 

For Clothing, - 

Bedding, - 

Medical Attendance, 

County Commissioners, - 
All other expenses, ... 


- $215.50 

$48.75 

- 64.40 

- 36.25 

- 122.66 
105.85 



Total Expenditures, 



|437.91 



Returns concerning JAILS, for the County of MIDDLE- 
SEX, for the year ending March 31s/, 1866. 

[Certified by Amasa Day, and William It. Clark, County Commissioners] 

Number of prisoners in jail, April 1st, 1865, - 6 
Committed during the year, ... 45 — 51 

Discharged during the year, - - 44 



Number remaining in Jail, April 1st, 1866, 

COLOR AND SEX. 



White, 
Colored, 


Males, 43 
3 


Females, 


5 




46 


AGE. 


5 


Over 21 y 


ears, Males, 41 


Females, 


5 



NATIVITY, &C. 



Total, 48 
" 3 

51 



Total, 46 
5 



51 



Natives of this State, .... 16 

Natives of other States, - - - 2 

Natives of other countries, 36 

Who have been married, - - - 21 

Natives of this State, who cannot read or write, - 3 

" of other States, " " none. 

" of other countries, " " 5 

Who have been strictly temperate, - 4 

" " " moderate drinkers, 41 

" " " habitually intemperate, - - 6 

Who have been in prison before, 22 



23 

COMMITTED. 

For Assault, - 16 As Common Drunkards, 1 

Burglary, - 2 All other offences, 11 

Vagrancy, - - 6 — 

Drunkenness, - 15 Total, - - 51 

DISCHARGED. 

By payment of fine and costs, 11 Sent to court and not re- 
By expiration of sentence, 2 turned, - - 3 

By State's Attorney, - 7 Sent to State Prison, - 1 
By County Commissioners, 7 Escaped and not retaken, 2 
By Inspectors, - - 11 — 

Total, - - 44 

Average number in confinement during the year, - 8 

RECEIPTS. 

Received from the State, for board of Prisoners, $1,050.12 

From Earnings of Prisoners, - - - 170.37 

Key Fees, 27.00 

Due from the State for board of Prisoners, - 135.72 



Total amount received and due, - $1,383.21 

EXPENDITURES. 

For Provisions and Lights, - - - $520.89 

Clothing, 14.40 

Fuel, - - 112.50 

Medicines, 

Medical Attendance, 

Salary of Jailor, - 437.43 

County Commissioners, from July 4th, 1865, to 

April 1st, 1866, .... 126.12 

All other expenses, .... 160.75 



42.05 



Total Expenditures, - - $1,414.04 



24 

Returns concerning JAILS, for the County of TOLLAND, 
for the year ending March 31s£, 1866. 

[Certified by Joseph P. Barrows, and S. T. Preston, County Commissioners.] 

Number of prisoners in jail, April 1st, 1865, - 1 

Committed during the year, - - - 41 — 42 

Discharged during the year, - - 36 

Number remaining in jail, April 1st, 1866, - - 6 

COLOR AND SEX. 

White, Males, 31 Females, 3 Total, 34 
Colored " 5 " 2 " 7 

36 5 41 



Over 21 years, Males, 26 Females, 5 Total, 31 
Under 21 years, "9 "1 « 10 



NATIVITY, &C. 



41 



Natives of this State, - - - - - 6 

Natives of other States, .... 22 

Natives of other countries, - - - - 13 

Who have been married, 19 

Natives of this State, who cannot read or write, - 3 

" of other States, " " " 7 

" of other countries, " " - 2 

Who have been strictly temperate, 5 

" " " moderate drinkers, - - - 31 

" " " habitually intemperate, 5 

Who have been in prison before, - 7 



25 



COMMITTED. 



For Assault, with intent For Drunkenness, - 1 

to kill, - - 1 *A11 other offences, 18 

Stealing from the Per- — 

son, - - 12 *Total, 42 

Larceny, - - 10 

DISCHARGED. 

By writ of habeas corpus, 1 Sent to State Prison, - 3 

By bail or recognizance, 4 Sent to State Reform 

By payment of fine and School, - 3 

costs, - - - 3 Escaped and not retaken, 1 

By expiration of sentence, 2 -\By process not specified 

By State's Attorney, - 3 above, 19 

Sent to court and not re- — 

turned, - - 2 fTotal, • - 41 
Average number in confinement during the year, 

[Here the return is deficient ] 



Received from the State, for board of prisoners, - $697.68 

Key Fees, 10.00 

Total amount received and due, - $707.68 

EXPENDITURES. 

For County Commissioners, - - - $120.75 



Total Expenditures, - - $120.75 



♦Including one recommitted by the Judge. 
tThe returns here show discrepancy. 



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27 



COLOR, AGE, SEX, NATIVITY. 



White, Males, 
" Females, 
Total, 



Colored, Males, - 
" Females, 

" Total, - 



Minors, Males, 
" Females, 



Adults, Males, 
" Females 



Natives of this State, 
" other States, 

" other Countries, 



23 4; 

! 

4 6 

27 48 



445 
332 
8C5 



* Including those transferred from Bridgeport Jail to Danbury for trial. 



28 





^ 


8 
> 


| 

o 


.a 


o 


i- 


j! 


-j 


K 






For what Offence committed. 


| 




►J 

is 


'S 


•a 


3 
.13 


-r 


* 


■9 


1 


| 






<B 




3 


•c 












o 




n 


x 


£ 


Y, 


« 


a 


* 


i-9 


s 


P 


H 


A? Insane, - 




4 






1 












5 


For Murder, 


3 


3 


1 


1 








2 






10 


Manslaughter, 










1 










i 


2 


Assault, 


43 


125 


7 




42 




8 


4 


16 




246 


Assault, with intent to kill, 


3 




1 








1 








6 


Setting Fires, - 


4 


1 


















5 


Robbery, ... 


10 












1 








11 


Stealing from the person, 


8 


4 


10 


7 












12 


41 


Larceny, * 
Horse Stealing, 


IIS 


121 




20 


69 


25 


12 


15 




10 


386 


5 


4 




3 




2 


1 


1 






16 


Burglary, - 
House Breaking, 


15 


17 


8 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 




50 


6 




















6 


Obtaining Goods on false 
























pretence, - 


5 


6 


1 










2 






14 


Making or Passing Coun- 
























terfeit Money, 


6 






2 


£ 












10 


Forgery, ... 


1 


2 


1 








1 








5 


Rape, ... 




3 


2 
















6 


Attempt at Rape, 






2 
















3 


Adultery, - 


6 


1 








1 










7 


Fornication, 


1 


5 


















6 


Bastardy, - 


2 




















2 


Lewd Conduct, 




IT 






2 












19 


Common Prostitute, 


21 


i 


















23 


Keeping House of 111 Fame, 


1 


2 


2 




1 












7 


Frequent'g House of 111 Fame, 


2 


18 


















17 


Vagrancy, - 


10 


11 


15 








1 




6 




52 


Drunkenness, - 


30 


182 


11 


3; 


45 


23 


9 


1 


15 


1 


340 


Common Drunkards, 
Violation of LiquovLaw, 


22 


6 


3 




1 








1 




39 
















1 






1 


Poisoning, - 






1 
















1 


Blasphemy, 




2 


















2 


Resisting Officer, - 


1 


6 








8 


8 








16 


Contempt of Court, 


1 


1 


















2 


All other offenses, - 


69 


It 


25 


84 


27 


.21-1 


3 


11 


MS 


217 




385| 5671 90 


12'J 


184 


74| 40 


31 


rli 


*4S 


| 1683 



* Including one recommitted by Judge. 



20 



Abstract of the Treasurer's Account, for the County of 
Hartford, for the year ending March Zlst, 1866. 

[Certified by W. H. Fuller, Edwin Welles, and Willis Dewey, County 
Commissioners.] 

RECEIPTS, AND FROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ.: 

Received for board of Prisoners, - - - $4,346.00 

Received for rent, .... 50.00 

Received on deposit for other persons, - - 337.50 

Received for labor of Prisoners, - - 388.81 
Due from State for board of Prisoners, after sentence, 2,170.09 

Received from S. Stocking, (Loan to County,) - 700.00 

Received from other sources, - - - 285.00 



Total Receipts, - - - $8,278.00 



EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ.: 

For order of Commissioners, - - - $4,346.91 

For rent, ..... 220.00 

For Commissioners' fees, - 216.00 

For Treasurer's fees, - - - - 75.00 

Due from Wait N. Hawley, former Treasurer, - 284.65 

Due from Wait N. Hawley, interest, - - 17.07 



Total Expenditures, ■ - - $5,159.63 

Balance remaining in the Treasury, - - $3,118.37 

Indebtedness of the County, - - - $700.00 



30 



Abstract of the Treasurer's Account, for the County of 
New Haven, for the year ending March 31s£, 1866. 

[Certified by Archibald E. Rice, County Commissioner.] 
RECEIPTS, AND FROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ.: 

For board of Prisoners in New Haven County Jail, $8,010.50 
Total Receipts, - - - 88,010.50 

EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ. \ 

Paid Jailor's bills for Prison expenses, on Com- 
missioners' orders, - $6,614.61 
Paid for blank book, .... 7.50 
Paid County Commissioners for services, - - 200.00 
Paid County Treasurer, fifteen months services, 187.50 
Paid cost of introducing water and gas into County 

Prison, ----- 660.86 

Paid town of New Haven, for use of Court-room, 250.00 



Total Expenditures, - - §7,920.47 

Balance remaining in the Treasury, - - $3,222.22 

Indebtedness of the County, - - - 8306.00 



31 



Abstract of the Treasurer's Account, for the County of 
New London, for the year ending March 31st, 1866. 

[Certified by Griswold E. Morgnn, Franklin Potter, and Amos F. Royce, County 
Commissioners.] 

RECEIPTS, AND FROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ.: 

Received from the State for board of Prisoners, - $4,687.15 
Received from earnings of Prisoners, - 1,891.55 
Received from loan made by County Commission- 
ers, during current year, - - 2,000.00 
Received from other sources, - - - 255.33 

Total Receipts, - - - 88,834.03 

EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ.: 

Expended in Norwich Jail, - - - $4,247.80 

Expended in New London Jail, - - 2,808.09 

Interest for the year ending March 31st, 1866, - 396.50 

Repairs on buildings in Norwich, - - 556.47 

Treasurer's fees, ending March olst, 1865, - 150.00 
County Commissioners' fees, ending March 31st, 

1865, - - - - 250.00 

Office rent for Clerk of County, * - - - 220.32 

Storing old records, - 30.00 
Amount overdrawn from the State, on board bill 

for the year ending March 31st, 1865, - -438.00 



Total Expenditures, - - $9,097.18 

Ealance remaining in the Treasury, - - nothing. 

Indebtedness of the County, - - - $10,030.94 



32 



Abstract of the Treasurer's Account, for the County of 
Fairfield, for the year ending March 31st, 1866. 

[Certified by Lyman Keeler, Joshua Lord, and William T. Craw, County 
Commissioners.! 

RECEIPTS, AND FROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ.: 

From State, for board of Prisoners, • - $3,017.51 

Earnings of Prisoners, ... 30.78 

Sale of baskets, - - - • - 160.00 

Cash in Treasury, .... 18.57 

Due from State, for board of Prisoners, • - 516.78 



Total Receipts, - - - $3,743.64 

EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ.: 

For board of Prisoners, - $3,017.51 

Interest, ..... 70.00 

Bedding, 50.73 

Clothing for Prisoners, - - - 30.01 

Repairs of Court Houses, - 159.43 

Repairs of Jail buildings, ... 74.81 

Water for Jails, ..... 48.00 

Furniture for Jails, .... 3.50 

Medicine and medical services, ... 44.17 

Commissioners, - - - 146.42 

Treasurer, - - - - 20.00 

Jail Inspectors, .... 60.00 

Insurance, - - - - - 15.00 

Stationery, Postage, &c, - . - 5.00 

Fuel, 338.00 



Total Expenditures, - - $4,082.58 

Balance remaining in the Treasury, - - $18.57 

Indebtedness of the County, - - - $2,226.68 



Abstract of the Treasurer's Account, for the County of 
Windham, for the year ending March Zlst, 1866. 



[Certified by Jared Chollar, Sanford Boyden, and Lyndon T. Button, County 
Commissioners.! 



RECEIPTS, AND FROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ.: 

Rent of basement in the Court House, - - $12.00 

Cash of Jailor, .... 913.28 

Total Receipts, - - - $925.28 

EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ.: 



Printing and Postage, 


- 


$3.06 


Repairs on Court House, . 


. 


3.30 


Lights for Court-room, 


- 


.82 


Court seal and press, - 


. 


19.62 


Insurance on Court House, 


- 


30.00 


Salary of Jailor, 


. 


475.00 


Rent of land, 


- 


60.00 


Commissioners' fees, - 


. 


69.00 


Inspector's fees, 


- 


38.00 


Chaplain's salary, 


. 


25.00 


Interest on County debt, - 


• - 


25.44 


Salary and commission of Tr 


easurer, - 


32.05 



Total Expenditures, - - $781.29 

Balance remaining in the Treasury, - 

Indebtedness of the County, - - - $223.32 

3 



34 



Abstract of the Treasurer's Account; for the County of 
Litchfield, for the year ending March 31s<, 1866. 

[Certified by Aaron Keyes and J. G. Minor, County Commissioners.] 
RECEIPTS, AND FROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ. : 

Of towns on assessment, - >488.59 

E. 0. Peck, Jailor, ... - 35.00 

For use of Court-room, ... - 9.00 

From Litchfield, for outside repairs, - - 26.92 

Of H. B. Graves, office rent, - - - 41.00 



Total Receipts, - - - $600.51 

EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ.: 

By County Treasurer, advanced in payment of 

orders, - - - - $348.82 

On C. L. Perkins' orders, - - - 20.68 

On Norman Wetmore's orders, - 5.50 

On A. C. Smith's orders, - - - 32.54 

George Prescott, for repairs, - *- 19.89 
Insurance, ---.--, 71.77 

Cash for Stamps, ----- 3.31 

On D. E. Bostwick's order, - - - 12.50 

On Aaron Keyes' order, - , - - - 10.00 

On G. A. Hickox's order, - - - 25.21 

For one dozen pails for Prison, - - - 4.50 

For bedding, 44.00 



Total Expenditures, 
Balance remaining in the Treasury, 
Indebtedness of the County,* 



*On January 1st, 1S66. Since that time, some bills have accrued, the exact 
amount of which has not yet been settled, or orders given therefor. 



35 



Abstract of the Treasurer'' s Account, for the County of 
Middlesex, for the year ending March 31st, 1866. 

[Certified by Amasa Day and Wm. R. Clarke, County Commissioners.] 
RECEIPTS, AND FROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ.: 

Balance in the Treasury, April 1st, 1865, - - 8534.39 

Amount of County tax, - - - 1,002.08 



Total Receipts, - - - 11,536.47 

EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ. : 

For printing abstract of Treasurer's account, - $2.50 
For repairs on Court House, and County Clerk's 

office, and furniture at Middletown, - - 132.33 

For Sheriff's bill of time and expenses, - 5.00 

For balance of Jailor's account, - - - 119.08 

For Farrier's bill, .... 10.00 
For Commissioners' services and expenses, from 

July 4th, 1864, to July 4th, 1865, - - 239.36 

For wagon for farm at Haddam, - - 75.00 

For flour and meal, - 46.33 
For debe-nture bill of Representatives at County 

meeting, ----- 86.29 

For Treasurer's salary, - 30.00 

For swine for County farm, - - - 16.00 



Total Expenditures, - - $761.81 

Balance remaining in the Treasury, - - 1774.5* 

Indebtedness of the County, 



36 



Abstract of the Treasurer' 1 s Account, for the County of 
Tolland, for the year ending March 31st, 1866. 

[Certified by Joseph P. Barrows and S. T. Preston, County Commissioners.] 
RECEIPTS, AND PROM WHAT SOURCES, VIZ. : 

Taxes, loans and rents, - $16,259.08 



Total Receipts, - - - $16,259.08 

EXPENDITURES, AND FOR WHAT PURPOSES, VIZ.: 



Paid outstanding debts, 

Built a vault or safe, 

Repaired buildings, and paid 
all necessary bills as ordered 
by County Commissioners, y 



Total Expenditures, 
Balance remaining in the Treasury, 
Indebtedness of the County, 



•$15,229.72 

$15,229.72 

$1,029.36 



ANNUAL REPORT 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT, 



EOR THE YEAR ENDING 



MARCH 31, 1866. 



printed by ot&tt of the &ttfkfflm. 



HARTFORD: 
A. N. CLARK & CO., STATE PRINTERS. 

1866. 



GENERAL HEAD-QUARTERS STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



Adjutant-General's Office, ) 
Hartford, May 1st, 1866. ) 

lo His Excellency William A. Buckingham, 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief : 

Sir — I have the honor to transmit herewith the Annual 
Report of this Department for the year ending March 31st, 
1866. 

With the highest respect, I am 

Your Excellency's obedient servant, 
HORACE J. MORSE, 

Adjutant- General. 



REPORT. 



General Head- Quarters State of Connecticut. 

Adjutant-General's Office, ) 
Hartford, April 1st, 1866. \ 

His Excellency Wm. A. Buckingham, 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief : 

Sir : — At the date of my last report to your Excellency, 
the war was drawing to a close ; very soon after, the great 
combinations of our Generals accomplished the desired end, 
the armies of the rebellion were overthrown, the power of 
the National Government vindicated, its authority recognized, 
and — the war ended. 

Upon the surrender of the rebel armies to our victorious 
troops, the Government ceased recruiting, and on the 13th of 
April, it was ordered that no more men be enlisted. This was 
followed by a proclamation from your Excellency under date 
of April 17th, directing that the State bounties should be no 
longer paid. This action so immediately following the date 
of the last report, of course leaves very little to be said about 
recruiting, raising troops, quotas, credits and collateral sub- 
jects, which have heretofore first received attention in the 
reports from this Department. 

A few men were enlisted into United States service from 
this State after April 1st, 1865. For the purpose of giving a 
complete tabular statement of the number of troops furnished 
by this State, I insert here the summary of quotas and credits 
given in the last report, with such additions and corrections 
as are demanded. 



adjutant-general's report. 



SUMMARY OP QUOTAS AND CREDITS. 

The quotas assigned to this State under the several calls 

for troops are as follows, viz. : 

On call of 1861, for 75,000 three months men, 780 

" " 1861, for 500,000 three years men, 13,057 

" " July, 1862, for 300,000 " " " 7,145 

" " " 1862, for 300,000 nine months men, 7,145 
" " Feb., 1864, for 500,000 three years men, 7,919 

" " Mch., 1864, for 200,000 " " " 3,168 

« " July, 1864, for 500,000 " " " 8,408 

" " Dec, 1864, for 300,000 (no assignment rec'd.) 



Total, 47,622 

The State has furnished : 

One Squadron Cavalry, ' - - 162 

*One Battalion " - - - - 324 
Three Batteries Artillery, .... 446 

fTwenty-eight Regiments Infantry, - - 25,503 

Fourteen Companies Infantry, (Colored ) - - 1,468 

Recruits for above organizations, (White,) - 10,951 

" " " (Colored,) - 173 
From U. S. Draft of 1863 : 

Drafted Men held to service, - - 248 

Furnished Substitutes, - 2,213 

Paid Commutation of $300, - - 1,459 

Veteran re-enlistments in the field, - 3,647 

Volunteer enlistments in U. S. Navy, - - 2,135 
Enlistments in U. S. Army and Veteran Reserve Corps, 1,044 

Substitutes for enrolled men not drafted, - - 3,849 

Drafted men, draft of 1864, ... 15 

Substitutes for drafted men, draft of 1864, - - 89 

Recruits obtained in Rebel States, 1,156 



Total, 54,* 



* Afterward increased to a full regiment. 

t Two of these afterward changed to Heavy Artillery. 



adjutant-general's report. 7 

Reducing the above credits to the standard of three years, 
the account of the State stands as follows : 

- equal to 195 

1,400 

176 

" 16 

" 44,556 

34 

" say, 1,804 



Three months men. 


, 2,340, 


Nine months men, 


5,602, 


One year men, 


529, 


Two years men, 


25, 


Three years men, 


44,556, 


Four years men, 


26, 


Not known, 


1,804, 



54,882 " to 48,181 

It will be noticed that in the above statement are given 
eighteen hundred and four (1,804) men, term of service not 
known. This is the credit allowed by the Naval Commission, 
and the term of service is to be determined by the Navy De- 
partment. In the statement these men are counted as three 
years men. Should the average term of service prove to be 
for a less period than this, the credit to the State will be re- 
duced in proper proportion. 

Thus the State has furnished equal to forty-eight thousand 
one hundred and eighty-one (48,181) three years men, from 
which deduct the total quota, also reduced to the three years 
standard, viz. : forty-one thousand four hundred and eighty- 
three, (41,483) and the State has a surplus of six thousand 
six hundred and ninety-eight (6,698) in three years men, 
without reference to its quota under the call of December, 
1864. 

Under this last call no troops were required to be furnished 
from this State. In fact, at the time no quota was assigned. 
Your Excellency was informed that the surplus under former 
calls more than filled the demand under this, and the State 
was exempt from any draft. 

I am still unable to give the quota of the State under this 
last call. In reply to my request to the Provost-Marshal- 
Gcneral that I be furnished with a statement of such quota, 
the following letter was received : 



8 ADJUTANT- GENERAL'S REPORT. 

WAR DEPARTMENT, 

Provost-Marshal- General's Bureau, ) 
Washington, D. C, March 1st, 1866. ) 

Gen'l H. J. Morse, 

Adjutant-General State of Connecticut, 
Hartford. 
General: 

In reply to jour communication of 27th ult., requesting 
to be informed " the quota assigned to the State of Connecticut under 
the call of December 19th, 1864, without any additions or deductions 
for surplus or deficiencies on previous calls," I am directed by the Pro- 
vost-Marshal-General to inform you that there was no quota assigned 
to the State of Connecticut, from the fact that there was no deficiency. 

I am, General, Very Respectfully, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

GEO. E. SCOTT, 

Major Vet. Res. Corps, 

It is therefore impossible to ascertain just how the State 
would have stood had an assignment of this quota been made. 

Instead of recording the labors of the Department in rais- 
ing troops and sending them into the field, it is my more 
pleasant and agreeable duty to report the return of our vol- 
unteers to the State. 

Immediately after the order stopping all enlistments, the 
Government commenced the reduction of the Volunteer 
forces. First, all patients in hospitals not requiring further 
medical treatment, all paroled prisoners of war in parole 
camps or on furlough, all enlisted and drafted men at the 
several rendezvous were discharged ; and immediately follow- 
ing this, orders were issued for the discharge of organizations 
in the order designated by the War Department. The troops 
have been mustered out of service, sent to their respective 
States, paid off and discharged with a rapidity, ease and 



ADJUTANT- GENERAL'S REPORT. 9 

facility, second only in wonder to the promptness and energy 
with which the volunteers first sprang to arms and entered 
the service of their country. 

The following organizations from this State were in United 
States service at the date of my last report, and have been 
mustered out at the dates stated : 



Organization. 


Date of Muster out. 


Place of final Discharge. 


1st Reg 


't Cavalry, 


August 2, 1865, New Haven, 


Conn. 


1st Squ 


idron Cavalry, 


June 23, " 


New York State. 


1st Reg 


't Heavy Artillery, 


September 25, " 


Hartford, Conn. 


2d " 


" " 


August 18, " 


New Haven, 


Conn. 


1st Light Battery, 


June 11, " 




" 


2d " 


" 


August 9, " 


« u 


" 


3d Independent Battery, 


June 22, « 

July 19, 


" " 


" 


5th Reg't Infantry, 


Hartford, 


" 


6th " 


" 


August 21, " 


New Haven, 


" 


7th " 


" 


July 20, 


« 


" 


8th " 


" 


December 12, " 


Hartford, 


« 


9th " 


" 


August 3, " 


New Haven, 


" 


10th « 


u 


August 25, " 


Hartford, 


« 


11th " 


" 


December 2], " 


" 


" 


12th « 


" 


August 12, " 


" 


" 


14th " 


" 


May 31, " 


" 


" 


loth " 


" 


June 27, " 


New Haven, 


" 


16th " 


" 


June 24, " 


Hartford, 


« 


17th " 


« 


July 19, « 


New Haven, 


« 


18th " 


» 


June 27, " 


Hartford, 


« 


20th " 


u 


June 30, " 


New Haven, 


» 


21st " 




June 16, " 


It u 


'< 


29th " 


" Colored, 


October 24, " 


Hartford, 


" 


30th " 
31st " 


[nf., Col'd, part of ) 
U. S. " Troops, \ 


November 7, " 


Hartford, 


" 



This covers all the volunteer troops from this State, except 
the veteran 13th Battalion which is still in service, stationed 
at Atlanta, Ga. 

I have deemed it proper, for the purpose of giving in one 
volume a complete record of the part borne by Connecticut 
Volunteers in the war, to insert here a register of all com- 
missioned officers connected with each organization from the 
date of entry into service to date of muster out, together with 
a brief statement of all the battles or engagements in which 
each regiment or battery has participated. I shall also give 



10 adjutant-general's report. 

reports in detail, so far as received, of all engagements not 
given in previous reports. 

In presenting the history of each organization, I shall ob- 
serve the following order: 

1st. Give a complete register of all commissioned officers, 
with casualties. 

2d. Reports of engagements in detail which have not been 
inserted in former reports. 

3d. A succinct statement of the formation of the organiza- 
tion, the part it has taken in the several campaigns, the battles 
in which engaged, the number of casualties, &c. 

Tbe labor of preparing and arranging this has been per- 
formed by Capt. Jas. W. Cooper, Ass't Adj't-General, and I 
take pleasure in saying that I believe in most cases this history 
will be found complete in all important particulars. Every 
endeavor has been made to have it correct. All the informa- 
tion on file in this office, in official reports on muster-rolls 
and monthly returns, or tha.t could be obtained from any 
source considered official, has been collated, and is here pre- 
sented. Where the history is incomplete it is because the 
officers have failed to give account, cither in the way of offi- 
cial reports or by statements on monthly returns or muster- 
rolls, of the movements and history of their commands. 

No praise of the gallant deeds shown by the record of our 
volunteers, or eulogy of the brave men who performed them, 
is required at my hands. Tbe record speaks for itself. On 
the page of history, in the story of their lives, will be found 
the eulogy of these brave officers and men who have so nobly 
met death on the battle-field, or who, wounded and dying, 
have endured so much in the hospitals, or those who in long, 
lingering captivity, subject to every hardship and indignity, 
have remained true to their principles and their co\mtry. 
Many of them are among us now, and with their maimed, 
scarred and worn forms, speak more eloquently than can lan- 
guage, of what they-have done and suffered. Others are gone — 
have given up their lives for the cause, — and from the gen- 
eral officer, killed at the head of his army, to the true, patri- 
otic enlisted man, Connecticut mourns them all. 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S REPORT. 



11 



FIRST REGIMENT CAVALRY. 



Name and Rank. 



Date of 
Commission. 



Colonels. 
William S Fish, 
Erastus Blakeslee, 
Brayton Ives, 

Lieut. Colonels. 
Win. S. Fish, 
Charles Farnsworth, 
Eraatas Blakeslee, 
Brayton Ives, 
Edw'd W.Wl.itaker, 

Majors. 
Henry Boardman, 
Jndson M. Lvon, 
Wm. S. Fish, 
Charles Farnsworth, 
Erastus Blakeslee, 
Brayton Ives, 

GeWge 0. Marcy, 

Bravton Ives, 
Edw'd W.Whitaker, 
Leonard P. Goodwin 
Leonard P. Goodwin 
Henry L. Johnson, 
John B. Morehouse, 

Adjutants. 
Charles Farnsworth, 
Erastus Blakeslee, 
George O. Marcy, 
H. J. 0. Walker, 
Jas. L. Richardson, 
Quarter-Masters. 
William C. Harris, 
Henry W.Robertson 

Chaplains. 
Edwin Warriner, 
Theodore J. Holmes, 

Cominissary. 
Chas. B. Dyer, 

Surgeon. 
Geo. A. Hurlburt, 
1st Asst. Surgeons. 
George C. Jarvis, 
Thos. E. Buck, 

2d Asst. Surgeon. 
Herbert M. Bishop, 

Captains. 
Henry Boardman, 
Charles Farnsworth, 
William S. Fish, 



Mystic, 
Plymouth, 

New Haven, 

Mystic, 
Norwich, 
Plymouth, 
New Haven, 
Ashford, 

Hartford, 

Woodstock, 

Mystic, 

Norwich, 

Plymouth, 

New Haven, 

Bridgeport, 
New Haven, 
Ashford, 
Plymouth, 
Plymouth, 

Fairfield, 



Aug. 22,1863 Dism'd by order of C.M.,Apr.21,'64. 
May 27,1864 Must. out~,Oct.26,'64 ; term expired. 
Jan. 11.1865 " Aug. 2, 1865. 



Mch. 21,1863 Promoted Col. Aug. 22, 1863. 

Jan. 18,1864 P.cs. and disch.(as Capt.)May 27/64. 

May 28,1864 Promoted Col. May 27, 1864. 

May 27,1864} " " Jan". 11, 1865. 

Jan. 1 1, 1865. Bvt. Brig. Gen; Must, out Aug. 2, '65. 



Oct. 
Nov. 
Aug. 
Mch. 
July 
Feb. 

Feb. 

April 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Feb. 



18,1861 Resigned Nov. 18,1861. 
18,1861 " Aug. 15, 1862. 

15,1862!PromotcdLt. Col. March 21, 1863. 
21,18631 " " Jan. 18, 1864. ■ 

14,1863| " " May 23, 1864. 

4,1S64 Com. rev'kd Mch. 23, ; 64, must, in de- 
clared invalid by War Dept. 
17,1864 Dismissed Nov. 21.1864. 
12,1864lPromoted Lt. Col. May 27, 1864. 
14,1864 " " Jan. 11, 1865. 

24,1864 Must, out (as Capt.) Oct. 26, 1864. 
16,1864 Hon. discharged June 26, 1865. 
13,1865JDeclined commission, Feb. 15, 1865. 
Must, out Aug. 2, 1865. 



ln,l si;;. 



Norwich, 


Oct 


19.1S61 


Plymouth, 


Nov. 


26,1861 


Bridgeport, 


IV' I.. 


28,1862 


Mystic Br'ge, 


Oct. 


8,1863 


Norwich, 


Dec. 


31,1864 


Mystic, 


Oct. 


8,1863 


Manchester, 


Nov. 


7,1864 



Meriden, 
E. Hartford, 



Hartford, 

Glastonbury, 



Portland, 
Portland, 



Dec. 
Mch. 



Promoted Captain Nov. 26, 1861. 

Feb. 28, 1862. 

Nov. 25, 1862. 
Must, out Oct. 28, '04; term exp'd. 
Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 

Must, out Oct. 26, '64 ; term exp'd. 
Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 



3,1861 Resigned March 10, 1864. 

7.1S64 Resigned and disch. March 25, 1865. 



Hartford, 
Norwich, 
Mystic, 



Oct. 8,1863,Honorably discharged June 9, 1865. 



Jan. 9,1864 Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 



Dec. 11,1861 Promoted Surg. 7th C.V., Oct.10,'62 
Oct. 10,1862 Mustered out Ang. 2, 1865. 



Jan. 19,1865 Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 

Oct. 18,1861 Promoted Major Oct. 18, 1861. 

Nov. 26, 1861 1 " " March 21, 1863. 

Oct. 18,1861) " " Aug. 15, 18G2. 



12 adjutant-general's report. 

First Regiment Cavalry — Continued. 



Name and Rank. 



Residence. 



Date of 
Commission. 



Captains. 
L. A. Middlebrook, Bridgeport, 

Andrew Bowen, Woodstock, 

Erastus Blakeslee, Plymouth, 
Albert H. Niles, Hartford, 
George O. Marcy, Bridgeport, 
Howell Atwater, New Haven, 
Edwin W. French, Mystic, 
Leonard P.Goodwin, Plymouth, 
Wm. E. Morris, Litchfield, 

Elbridge Colbura, Ansonia, 
Joab B. Rogers, Norwich, 

John B. Morehouse, Fairfield, 
Addison G. Warner, Putnam, 
Joseph Backus, Hebron, 

Jason D. Thompson, East Haven, 
Marcus B. Sterling, Fairfield, 
Manton 1). Upson, Fair Haven, 
Edw'd W.Whitaker.Ashford, 

New London, 
Guilford, 
E. Hartford, 
Henry F. Phillips, Norwich, 
Wm.'C. Spellman, Hartford 



('has. H. Briggs, 
Uriah N. Parmelee, 
William E. Riley, 



James R. Strain, Stamford, 
John R. Skidmore, Bridgeport, 
Bcnj. B. Tattle, Bridgeport, 
Edwin M. Neville, Watcrbury, 
James Wheeler, Bridgeport, 

\st Lieutenants. 
Albert II. Niles, Hartford, 

Howell Atwater, New Haven, 
Chas. B.Williams, Jr. Stonington, 
Richard K.Crawford, Bridgeport, 
Henry W. Burr, iColchester, 
Wm.'E. Morris, Litchfield, 
Edwin W. French, Mystic, 
Wm. G. Bunce, Hartford, 
Elbridge Colburn, JAnsonia, 
Leonard P. Goodwin, Plymouth, 
Harrison.!. O Walker Mystic Br'dg, 
Joab B Rogers, Norwich, 

Jason 1). Thompson, East Haven, 
Amos Clift, Jr., Mystic River, 
Manton 1). Upson, Fair Haven, 
Chas. II. Briggs, New London. 
Joseph Backus, Hebron, 

John B. Morehouse, Fairfield, 
Marcus B. Sterling, Fairfield, 
Coley James, " Wilton, 

.lames 11. Kane, Norwich, 

William Strong, Fair Haven, 

Samuel VV. Hawley, Bridgeport, 
William T. Cook," Mystic, 
John Bristol, Derby, 

Jesse M. Lord, Hartford, 



Oct. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Mch. 

Mch. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

April 

May 

June 

June 

Sept. 

Sept. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
June 

Oct. 
Oct. 

Get. 
Oct. 

Dec. 

Dec. 
May 
Aug. 
Dec. 

Jan. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
on. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. . 
Jan. 



,1861 Resigned Nov. 21, 18G2. 
,1861 Resigned and disch. Feb. 28, 1862. 
,1862 Promoted Major July 14, 1863. 
,1862 Died March 15, 1863.- 
,1862 Promoted Major Feb. 17, 1864. 
,1863 Resigned Jan. 19, 1864. 
1863 Must, out Oct. 26, '64 ; term exp'd. 

Promoted Major Sept. 24, 1864. 

Dishonorably discharged June 16/64 

Died of disease May 11, 1864. 

Honorably discharged Feb. 2, 1865. 

Promoted Major Feb. 10, 1865. 

Killed in action, June 1, 1864. 
" " " June 10, 1864. 

Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 

Dismissed March 7, 1864. 

Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 

Promoted Major Sept. 14, 1864. 

Disch. (as 1st Lieut.) Jan. 20, 1865. 

Killed in action April 1, 1865. 



,1863 

,1863 
,1863 
,1863 
,1863 
,1864 
,1864 
,1864 
,1864 
,1864 
864 
,1864 
1864 



23, 

5, 

22, 

22,1864 Honorably discharged June 28, 1865. 

24, 

24, 

13 

30, 



864 
,1864 
864 
,1864 
186a 
1865 
1865 

1861 

l-i', | 

IS.',] 

1861J 
1861 
1861 

1 862 

1*62 
IS I', -i 
18631 

,1863! 

,1863 
1863 
1S63 



Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 
2, 
2, 
2, 



Promoted Captain Aug. 15, 1862. 
Jan. 26, 1863. 
Died Dec. 2, 1861. 
Resigned and disch. Dec. 6, 1861. 
May 10, 1862. 
Promoted Captain Oct. 8, 1863. 

March 15, 1863. 
Resigned Dec. 1, 1S62. 
Promoted Captain Oct. 8, 1863. 

March 25, 1863. 
" Adjutant Oct. 8, 1863. 
Captain Oct. 12, 1863. 
Jan. 18, 1864. 
Mustered out Aug. 2, 1 - 5. 
1863 Promoted Captain Feb. 5, 1664. 
1863 " " May 5, 1864. 

1863 " " Jan. 12, 1864 

1863 " " Dec. 15, 1863. 

1863 " " Jan. 18, 1S64. 

I S64 Honorably discharged Sept. 23, 1864. 

1864 Mustered out Aug. 2, lt-65. 

1864 Disch. by War Dept. April 20, 1»64. 
1864 Honorably discharged Aug. 16, 1864. 
1864 " " Oct. 25, 1864. 

1864 Mustered out Aug. 2. 1865. 
1864 Honorably discharged Feb. 17, 1864. 



adjutant-general's report. 13 

First Regiment Cavalry — Continued. 



Name and Rank. Residence. 



Date of 
Commission. 



Remarks. 



1st Lieutenants. 
James W. Gore, Hartford, 
James R. Straut, Stamford, 
Alfred V. Burnham, Stonington, 



Wm. E. Riley, E. Hartford, 

Wm. C. Spel'lman, Hartford, 
HeDry T. Phillips, Norwich, 
Edwin M. Neville, Waterbury, 
John W. Clark, Bridgeport, 

Benj. B. Tuttle, Bridgeport, 
Aaron S. Lanfare, Branford, 
Elias S. Brown, Ledyard, 

Frank D.Brinsmade, Trumbull, 
James Wheeler, Bridgeport, 

Lester W. Cowles, Hartford, 

2d Lieutenants. 
Erastus Blakeslee, 
Elbridge Colburn, 
Chas.P. Williams, Jr 
Win. E. Morris, 
Henrv W. Burr, 
Wm. G. Bunce, 
Edwin W. French, 
George 0. Marty, 
Marcus B. Sterling, 
HarrisonJ.O. Walker 
Leonard P. Goodwin, 
Joab B. Rogers, 
Chas. 11 Briggs, 
Joseph Pack us, 
Amos Clift, Jr., 
John B. Morehouse, Fairfield, 
Manton D. Upson, Fair Haven, 
Colev James, Wilton, 

Wm. T. Cook, Mystic, 

Wm. Strong, Fair Haven, 

Samuel W. Hawley, Bridgeport, 
Horace H. Gore, Preston, 
John Bristol, Derbv, 

Allen F. Phillips, Woodstock, 
James R. Straut, Stamford, 
Levi E. Tyler, Preston, 

Edwin M. Neville, Waterbury, 
Wm. E. Riley, E. Hartford, 

Edward B. Dyer, Derby, 
Lewis L. Stuart, Newtown, 
John W. Clark, Bridgeport, 

Wm. C. Spellman, Hartford, 
Francis M. Bliss, 
Henry F. Phillips, Norwich, 
Chas! Bradley, Middlebury, 

Edw'd H. Latimer, Chesterfield, 
Uriah N. Parmelee, Guilford, 
Benj. B. Tuttle, Bridgeport, 
Alfred V. Burnham, Stonington, 
John R. Skidmore, Bridgeport, 



Jan. 
Feb. 

April 
I April 
May 
May 
jJune 
June 
[Sept. 
| Sept. 
'Nov. 
I Dec 
'Feb. 
Feb. 



21,1864 

26,1864 

23,1864 

29,1864 

5,1864 

5,1864 

23,1864 

23,1864 

24,1864 

24,1864 

30,1864 

31,1864 

9,186.') 

9,1865 



Plymouth, 

Aiisonia, 

Stonington, 

Litchfield, 
Colchester, 
Hartford, 
Mystic, 
Bridgeport, 
Fairfield, 

Mystic Br'dg.'May 
Plymouth, iSept. 
Norwich, Dee. 

New London, Jan. 
Hebron, Mch. 

Mvstie River, Mch. 



Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

I >ct. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Feb. 



Mch 
Mch. 

Sept. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
'Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
New Canaan, Jan. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Mch. 
May 



1861 
1861 

861 

S61 
1 86 ! 

861 
1861' 
1862 
1862 
L862 
1863 
L863 
1863 
,1863 
,1863 
,186.3 
,1863 
,186.3 
,1S63 
,1863 
,1863 

1863 



Disch. by War Dcpt. April 23, 1864. 
Promoted Captain Nov. 17, 1664. 
Dismissed Nov. 14, 1864. 
Promoted Captain June 22, 1864. 
Sept. 24, 1864. 

" " Sept. 24, 1864. 

" " Feb. 9, 1865. 

Killed in action March 15, 1865. 
Promoted Captain Feb. 9, 1865. 
Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 

" 2, " 
Honorably discharged June 29, 1865. 
Promoted' Captain Jure 19, 1865. 
Honorably discharged May 15, 1865. 

Promoted Adjutant Nov. 26, 1861. 
1st Lieut. Dec. 1, 1862. 
Oct. 18, 1861. 



Dec. 14, 1861. 

Dec. 14, 1861. 

Aug. 15, 1862. 

Mav 10, 1862. 
Adjutant Feb. 28, 1862. 
1st' Lieut. Oct. 12, 1863. 

March 15, 1863. 

Jan. 26, 1863. 

March 25, 1863. 

Oct. 8, 1863. 



Sept. 23, 1863. 
Oct. 12, 1863. 
Oct. 8, 1S63. 
" Jan. 2, 1864. 
" Jan. 18, 1864. 
12,186.3 " " " 18 " 

12.1S63 " " " 18 " 

12.1863 Commission revoked Feb. 6, 1864. 
2,1863 Promoted 1st Lieut. Jan. 18, 1864. 

5.1863 Resigned April 26, 1864. 
2,1864:Promoted 1st Lieut. Feb. 26, 1864. 

12,1864!Honorably discharged Mav 5, 1865. 
13,1864'Promoted 1st Lieut. June 23, 1864. 

18.1864 " " April 29, 1864. 
18,1864 Honorably discharged March 6, 1865. 
18,1864| " " Oct. 4, 1864. 
18,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. June 23, 1864. 
18,1864] " " May 5, 1864. 
18,1 864 Commission revoked Feb. 8, 1864. 
18,1864,Promoted 1st Lieut. May 5, 1864. 

5.1864 Commission revoked March 23, 1864. 
5,1864'DiedFeh 14, 1864. 

17,1864 Promoted Captain, June 22, 1864. 

26,18641 " 1st Lieut. Sept. 24, 1864. 

31,1864 " " April 23, 1864. 

5,1864l " Captain Nov. 30, 1861. 



14 adjutant-general's report. 

First Regiment Cavalry — Continued. 



Names and Rank. 



2d Li etite ■mi hi 's. 
Wm. H. Havens, 
Aaron S Lanfare, 
Thomas G. Wells, 
Stephen H. Marcy, 
Hugh B. Brock way, 
James Wheeler, 
James W. Crisscy, 
James M. Knowles, 
Lester W. Cowles, 
Elias S. Brown, 
Wm. P. Ford, 
James Bradley, 
Stephen N. Hinman, 
John Andrews, 
Frank D.Brinsmade, 
Perry Tomlinson, 



Residence. 



Montville, 

Branford, 

Hartford, 

New Haven, 

New Haven, 

Bridgeport, 

Southington, 

New Milf'ord, 

Hartford, 

Ledyard, 

Norwich, 

Norwich, 

Woodstock, 

Southington, 

Trumbull, 

Bristol, 



Date of 

Commission. 



May 
June 
June 
June 
June 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 



Remarks. 



5,1864 Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 
22,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Sept. 24, 1864. 
22,1864 Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 
23,1864JCommission revoked July 6, 1864. 
23,1864 Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 
24,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Feb. 9, 1865. 
24,1-64 Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 
24,1864 " " " 2, " 

10,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Feb. 9, 1865. 
17,1864 " " Nov. 30, 1864. 

30,1864 Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 
30,1864 " " " 2, " 

30,1864 " " " 2, " 

30,1864 " " " 2, " 

30,1864.Promoted 1st Lieut. Dec. 31, 1864. 
19, 1865 'Mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. 



BREVET COMMISSIONS 
Issued to Officers of 1st Conn. Cavalry. 



Name and Rank. 


Brevet Rank. 


Date of 
Brevet Commission. 


Lieut. Col. Edward W. Whitaker, 
2d Lieutenant Thos G. Welles, 
Thos. G. Welles, 


Brigadier-General. 

Major. 

Captain. 


March 13, 1865. 
April 9, 1865. 
September 29, 1864. 



New Haven, Conn., Aug. 22, 18G5. 
Brig. Gen. H. J. Morse, 

Adjutant- General Connecticut. 
General : 

In accordance with your request, I have the honor to forward to 
you a Report of the operations of the First Connecticut Cavalry, from 
the beginning of the last Spring Campaign, to the time of its muster- 
out and final discharge. 

On the morning of Feb. 27th, 1865, the Regiment, commanded in 
my absence by Maj. L. P. Goodwin, broke camp, and in company 
with the 3d and the 1st Cavalry Divisions, started from Winchester, 
up the valley, under Gen. Sheridan. The enemy was first met at 



adjutant-general's report. 15 

Waynesboro, March 2d. The 1st Connecticut, with two other regi- 
ments was dismounted by Gen. Custer, and put upon the rebel flank. 
Although the men could move but slowly, owing to the depth of mud, 
still they advanced with so much enthusiasm that the enemy broke, 
when the rest of the Division charged mounted, and put them com- 
pletely to rout. In this affair, our side lost but nine in killed, wound- 
ed and missing, while our captures consisted of 1303 prisoners, 150 
wagons, 800 horses and mules, 11 guns, and 18 battle-flags. The 
next day the column moved to Charlottesville, and after a halt of two 
days, marched through New Market, Columbia, Frederick's Hall, 
King William's Court House, and Ashland, — destroying railroads, 
bridges, and the James River Canal — arriving at White House after 
a march of three weeks from Winchester. At Ashland the 1st Con- 
necticut was deployed as skirmishers, in anticipation of an attack from 
Longstreet's infantry. While waiting, Lt. Col. Whitaker took Capt. 
Neville's squadron on a reconnoissance, to ascertain the foree and ex- 
act position of the enemy. A skirmish resulted, in which three of 
the squadron were killed, — Lieut. J. W. Clark, Sergts. Frank New- 
hall and John Geiger — all good soldiers, and highly valued by their 
comrades. 

After recruiting for a few days at White House, Gen. Sheridan 
marched across the James River, and encamped near Petersburg, 
where I rejoined my regiment. The Corps was allowed but two 
days rest. On the morning of March 29th it marched as far as 
Ream's Station, and halted for the wagon-train to come up. 

The rain fell heavily, and the bad roads so impeded the wagons 
that the march was not resumed till the next afternoon. We halted 
at night again, on Stony Creek, and the 1st Connecticut was put on 
picket. The following morning I was ordered by Gen. Custer to 
take my regiment back on the road, and assist the wagons forward. 
After working nearly the whole day in the falling rain and deep mud, 
we were hurried to Dinwiddie Court House, formed line of battle, 
and remained under arms ail night. At sunrise the next day, April 
1st, the 1st Connecticut, in company with the rest of the 1st and 3d 
Brigades of Custer's Division, was dismounted, and advanced against 
the enemy. The rebels retired slowly till they reachel Five Forks, 
where they made a desperate stand. Through the inefficiency of our 
Brigade Commander, Col. A. C. M. Pennington, the Brigade was 
allowed to advance too far, and to come on a concealed force of the 
enemy, who opened on us, at short range, with a heavy fire of artillery 
and musketry. Among those lost in my Regiment, at this time, was 



16 adjutant-general's report. 

Capt. U. N. Parmelee, who was struck and instantly killed by a shell, 
while leading on his men. A braver officer I never knew, while his 
high principle and genial disposition had made him both loved and 
respected throughout the regiment. 

During the afternoon our line charged the enemy's breastworks 
three successive times. Twice we were repulsed. The thick woods, 
the long march, the lack of rations, (we had been' without food for 
thirty-six hours,) the heavy and incessant fire to which we were ex- 
posed, all united to test severely the bravery and discipline of our 
troops. But they bore all without flinching, and charged for the third 
time so vigorously that the rebels threw down their arms and fled or 
surrendered themselves. In addition to many prisoners taken by the 
1st Connecticut at this time, two guns were captured by Maj. Good- 
win and Lieut. Lanfare. These were the only pieces of artillery 
taken by Custer's Division in the battle of Five Forks. After a 
short pursuit of the flying enemy, we went into bivouac for the night. 
Our loss in killed and wounded during the day was quite severe, as 
you have learned by the official reports already forwarded to your office. 

The two following days we pushed on after the rebels, who every- 
where left behind them marks of their rapid flight, such as wagons, 
caissons, ammunition and unburied dead. At Sweat-house Creek on 
the evening of April 3d, Custer's Division had a sharp engagement, 
in which we were temporarily checked, but soon forced the enemy to 
another hasty retreat. At the close of the fight, I was directed to 
picket, with my regiment, the road to Bevil's Bridge. We marched 
all through the next day and night, and at daylight April 5th, reached 
Jetersville, where Gen. Sheridan's command was joined by the 2d 
and 6th Army Corps, under Gen. Meade. 

The next day, at an early hour, the Cavalry Corps moved out 
toward Harper's Farm, and Gen. Custer attacked the wagon train of 
Lee's army. The 1st Connecticut was in the advance of the Divi- 
sion, and was the first to charge. In this charge we routed the guard 
of the train, and took many prisoners. The regiment then became 
separated. I led the right battalion into a piece of woods near the 
rear of the train, where the rebels had a number of guns defended 
by infantry. We captured five pieces of artillery with their caissons, 
besides men, horses, and two battle-flags. Maj. Morehouse, with the 
left battalion, went toward the head of the train, burning wagons and 
capturing men, horses and mules. But the rebels received heavy re- 
inforcements, and forced us to retire a short distance. They then 
threw up breastworks and awaited our attack. About 3 P. M., a 



adjutant-general's report. 17 

portion of Col. Pennington's Brigade was ordered to charge these 
works. It was a rash order. Not more than a third of the brigade 
was present ; both men and horses had been on the move since day- 
light, the enemy was strongly entrenched, and we could reach the 
works only by advancing over an open field. I had but a handful of 
my regiment with me, the balance being in charge of captured guns, 
prisoners, &c, and otherwise detached. However, at the sound of 
the bugles, our men galloped forward bravely. But when we got 
within easy range of the entrenchments, we received such terrible 
volleys, that both men and horses were cut down in squads. It was 
impossible to withstand the storm of lead, and we were driven back. 
In less than three minutes after the "charge" was sounded, one-fifth 
of the men and horses I led in, were killed outright, (my own horse 
among them,) all lying in one spot that could be covered by a radius 
of a rod. It is but just to say that when we subsequently went over 
the field to bury the dead, none were found lying so near the hostile 
works as those who belonged to the 1st Connecticut. About sunset 
these works were again charged by the 1st and 3d Cavalry Divisions, 
acting in conjunction with the 6th Army Corps, and were carried, 
with a loss to the enemy of over 5000 prisoners. 

The following day I was directed to take to Burkesville all the 
prisoners captured the day before, having as guard two regiments 
besides my own. This duty discharged, I hastened to rejoin the 
Cavalry Corps. On the night of April 8th, I camped near Army 
Head-Quarters, and the next day acted as escort to Gen. Grant when 
he went to receive the surrender of Lee's army. 

The subsequent doings of the 1st Connecticut are briefly told; we 
went nearly to Danville with Gen. Sheridan, then to "Washington, 
where the regiment was inspected, and its condition found so praise- 
worthy that it was selected to do provost duty in the city. A battalion 
was sent to participate in the ceremonies of laying the corner-stone 
of the National Monument at Gettysburg, on the 4th of July. 

August 3d, the regiment left Washington for New Haven to be 
finally discharged. In behalf of many of the men who wished to 
purchase their horses, I asked permission to take them with us to the 
State, which was granted, a favor given to no other cavalry regiment. 

On the. 17th and 18th of August, all the officers and men were 
paid, and received their discharges, and the 1st Connecticut Cavalry 
ceased to exist. 

9 



18 adjutant-general's report. 

It is not for me to eulogize it. The names on its battle-flags, the 
lists of killed and wounded, and the reports of the Generals who saw 
it fight, will tell how manfully its officers and men did their work. 

Very truly your serv't, 

BRAYTON IVES, 

Late Col. 1st Conn. Cavalry. 



Hartford, Conn., Feb. 26, 1866. 
Brig. Gen. H. J. Morse, 

Adjutant- General State of Conn. 
General : 

I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations 
of the 1st Connecticut Cavalry Volunteers, during the respective peri- 
ods it was under my command. 

On my return from Gen. Sherman's command in Alabama, whither 
I had been ordered Oct. 1st, 1864, on the staff of Gen. Wilson, I 
assumed command of the regiment at Martinsburg, Va., Nov. 20th, 
relieving Capt. Morehouse, then under orders to march to Pleasant 
Valley, Md., for remounting. Reaching Pleasant Valley the 23d of 
Nov., I was given by the chief of cavalry three days in which to turn 
over old property and entirely refit and remount the regiment, and 
return to the front. 

Lt. Col. Ives reported and assumed command of the regiment on 
the 25th of November. 

On the 18th of Dec, the regiment being encamped with the Divi- 
sion on the source of the Opequan Creek, a reconnoissance in force 
was ordered. Lt. Col. Ives being assigned to the command of the 
camp, the regiment, under my command, marched with three days 
rations, at 6 A. M., the 19th of Dec, in the rear of the column of 
the entire division, under Gen. Custer, and reached Woodstock, Va., 
at night. My command was thrown on picket duty, the night passing 
quietly, with exception of an attack by the enemy's scouts on a por- 
tion of the line covered by Capt. Neville's company. 

On the 20th the march was resumed, successfully driving the ene- 
my's cavalry, in small force, until Lazy Spring, Va., was reached, 
and the expedition halted for the night. 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S REPORT. 19 

During the night a storm of sleet set in, covering the saddle- equip- 
ments, arms and blankets of the command with ice. 

At 5 A. M., the 21st, a division of the enemy's cavalry under 
Roper, circuited the pickets of the 2d New York (Harris Light) 
Cavalry, and charged boldly into our bivouac and on to the Head- 
Quarters of Gen. Custer. Though some regiments did not stand 
firmly under the excitement of the sudden charge, and a temporary 
contusion ensued, the First Connecticut stood firm among dazzling 
camp fires, facing the flashes of the enemy's rifles. The enemy was 
driven from our bivouac by the dawn of light, and we were assigned 
the important duty of covering the rear and left flank, in the retro- 
grade movement decided upon by Gen. Custer. 

In this affair the officers and men of the regiment deserve especial 
credit for the remarkable coolness and firmness with which they stood 
the charge of the enemy under the peculiar disadvantages. Neither 
the recent arousing from an icy bivouac, the dazzling of fires in the 
darkness of the storm, the demoralization witnessed in other com- 
mands, nor the fiendish yell of the enemy, nor all combined, could 
shake for a moment the solid ranks of the First Connecticut, formed 
and moving to a charge under the enemy's fire. 

Returning to Woodstock, the expedition halted there for the night 
of the 21st. The First Connecticut formed in line in an open field, 
without fuel or shelter, both men and animals suffering from the severe 
cold, increasing in intensity each hour. 

On the 22d, at 5 A. M., our march was resumed down the valley, 
during the whole of the most intensely cold day I ever experienced 
in the service. 

We bivouacked that night within a few miles of the camp we had 
left on the morning of the 19th ; without fuel, forage or rations, with 
forty men suffering from severe frost bites, and the whole command 
greatly exhausted from fatigue, exposure and short supplies. 

Men and officers all patiently endured the hardships of the trip 
without a murmur. The distance traversed was one hundred and 
twenty miles in four days. The loss of the 1st Conn, on the 21st 
was fortunately none. Other regiments of the division lost consid- 
erably in prisoners. 

Lt. Col. Ives assumed command on the 23d of December. 

On the 4th of Feb., 1865, I was by special order of Gen. Sheri- 
dan's Chief of Cavalry, assigned to command of three hundred picked 
men ; an expedition for the capture of Harry Gilmor. 

A difficult march of all day and night over the Alleghanies, of 



20 adjutant-general's report. 

seventy miles, thirty of which were within the enemy's line, enabled 
me to reach and surprise Maj. Gilmor in vicinity of his camp. I 
returned successfully, having accomplished the object of the expedi- 
tion, making a march of one hundred and forty miles in a little over 
forty-eight hours. 

My thanks were here due especially to the men of the 1st Conn., 
under Lieuts. Brown and Knowles, who repulsed each attack of Gil- 
raor's band, that harassed us for thirty miles on our return. Also to 
Surgeon Hurlburt, 1st Conn., who accompanied me witli an ambu- 
lance, saving the wounded and exhausted from falling into the hands 
of the enemy. 

On the 12th of Feb., 1865, I was detached from my regiment by 
the Chief of Cavalry, and ordered to report to Maj. Gen. Custer as 
Division Inspector. 

On the 28th of Feb., 1865, Gen. Sheridan started on campaign for 
the spring. Col. Ives being absent on leave, I applied for the com- 
mand of my regiment, and to be relieved from staff duty, which was 
not granted except conditionally, on occasion of an engagement. For 
this reason the regiment was commanded on the march during this 
raid by Maj. L. P. Goodwin. 

At the battle of Waynesboro, March 1st, 1865, the 1st Conn, was 
one of the three regiments given me to turn the enemy's flank, which 
was successfully performed, Maj. Goodwin gallantly leading his men 
in the dismounted charge against the enemy's infantry behind barri- 
cades. 

March 13th, as Gen. Sheridan neared Richmond, I was given the 
command of my regiment in advance, and routed Gen. Early with 
his escort of two hundred and forty men, scattering all not taken pris- 
oners, to the woods. 

Passing to within nine miles of Richmond, we moved northward to 
Ashland, when the 2d New York Cavalry was sent to re-enforce me 
while destroying railroad depot, &c. 

On the next day, the 14th of March, the regiment was in line, 
confronting the enemy, who was feeling us at Ashland. Gen. Sheri- 
dan, desiring to learn the force of the enemy about to intercept his 
column, ordered an attack to develop his strength. Gen. Custer di- 
rected me to charge his lines, to discover, if possible, any infantry. 
Leaving a greater portion of the regiment as reserve, and taking 
Capt. E. M. Neville's squadron, I succeeded in pressing in the enemy's 
cavalry to their reserve, and on to a strong infantry command of 
Longstreet's corps, and returned with report, whereupon the column 
was immediately returned to the north side of the North Anna river. 



adjutant-general's report. 21 

I regret to report the loss, in this last charge, of Lieut. J. W. Clark, 
killed ; a brave and faithful officer, who was loved and respected 
equally by subordinates and superiors. 

The regiment was not again engaged before the army of the Poto- 
mac was reached, where Col. Ives returning, assumed command. 

I am, General, 

Very Eespectfully, 

Your Obt. Serv't, 

E. W. WHITAKER, 
Late Lt. Col. 1st Conn. Cavalry Vols., 

and Brevet Brig. Gen. of U. S. Vols 



The 1st Connecticut Cavalry was originally a Battalion of 
four companies, and was recruited, one company from each 
Congressional District, in the fall of 1861. The battalion 
left We>t Meriden, Conn., for Wheeling, Va., on the 20th 
day of February, 18G3, numbering three hundred and forty-six 
(346) officers and men. In the spring of 1863 the organization 
was increased from a battalion to a regiment, and was soon 
recruited to the maximum of twelve full companies. This 
regimeut has always been a popular one with the men who 
have enlisted from Connecticut as recruits, and its ranks were 
readily filled with good and efficient soldiers. The muster- 
out rolls account for two thousand six hundred and eleven 
(2,611) officers and men. 

The battalion was first assigned to service under General 
Rosecrans, in the " Mountain Department," and was subse- 
quently attached to the Army of Virginia, under General 
Pope. After nearly a year of almost constant activity, the 
battalion was assigned to duty as Provost Guard in the city 
of Baltimore, Md., and it was while on this duty that the or- 
ganization was increased to a full regiment. 

In February, 1863, the regiment was attached to the Army 
of the Potomac, and took active part in all its movements 
until the 8th of August, 1864, when it was transferred to the 



22 



ADJUTANT-GENERALS 



Army of the Shenandoah. Under General Sheridan the reg- 
iment performed gallant service, gaining a well-merited rep- 
utation, and doing honor to the State that sent it into the 
field. 

The following are some of its 

ENGAGEMENTS. 

McDowell, Va., May 8th, 1862. ' Loss in wounded, 2 en- 
listed men; missing, 4 enlisted men. Total loss, 6. 

Franklin, Va., May 11th and 12th, 1862. 

Slrasburg,Va., June 1st, 1862. Loss in wounded, 1 enlist- 
ed man. 

Harrisburg, Va., June 6th, 1862. Loss in prisoners, 1 en- 
listed man. 

Cross Keys, Va., June 8th, 1862. Loss in wounded, 1 en- 
listed man ; missing, 8 enlisted men. Total loss, 9. 

Port Republic, Va., June 9th, 1862. 

Bolivar Heights, Va., July 14th, 1863. Loss in missing, 
(mostly prisoners,) 1 field officer, 24 enlisted men. Total 
loss, 25. 

Waterford, Va., August 7th, 1863. Loss in killed, 1 en- 
listed man ; prisoners, 6 enlisted men. Total loss, 7. 

Craig's Church, Va., May 5th, 1864. Loss in wounded, 7 
enlisted men ; missing, 2 commissioned officers, 35 enlisted 
men. Total loss, 44. 

Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May 8th, 1864. Meadow 
Bridge, Va., May 12th, 1864. Hanover Court House, Va., 
May 31st, 1864. Ashland, Va., June 1st, 1864. Aggregate 
loss in these engagements, killed, 1 commissioned officer, 4 
enlisted men ; wounded, 6 commissioned officers, 12 enlisted 
men ; missing, 24 enlisted men. Total loss, 47. 

Near Old Church Tavern, Va., June 10th, 1864. Loss in 
killed, 1 commissioned officer ; wounded, 1 enlisted man ; 
missing, 8 enlisted men. Total loss, 10. 

In the field, Va., from June 15th to June 28th, 1864. Loss 
in killed and wounded, 6 enlisted men ; missing, 5 enlisted 
men. Total loss, 11. 



adjutant-general's report. 23 

Reams Station, Va., June 29th, 1864. Loss in killed, 3 
enlisted men ; wounded 6 enlisted men ; missing, 46 enlisted 
men. Total loss, 55. 

Winchester, Va., August 16th, 1864. 

Near Kearney sville, Va., August 25th, 1864. Loss in 
wounded, 2 enlisted men ; missing, 4 enlisted men. Total 
loss, 6. 

Winchester, Va., September 19th, 1864. 

Front Royal, Va., September 21st, 1864. 

Cedar Run Church, Va., October 17th, 1864. Loss in 
missing, 3 commissioned officers, 35 enlisted men. Total 
loss, 38. 

Cedar Greek, Va., October 19th, 1864. 

Near Woodstock, Fa., November 20th, 1864. 

Waynesboro, Va., March 2d, 1865. 

Ashland, Va., March 14th, 1865. Loss in killed, 1 com- 
missioned officer, 2 enlisted men. Total killed, 3. 

Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865.. (Total loss not report- 
ed.) 

Sweat House Creek, Va., April 3d, 1865. 

Harper's Farm, Va., April 6th, 1865. 

casualties. 

Killed in action, - - - - 24 

Died of wounds, ... 8 

Died of disease, .... 125 

Discharged prior to muster out of regiment, 436 

Missing at muster out of regiment, - - 59 

652 



21 adjutant-general's report, 



FIRST SQUADRON CAVALRY. 

This squadron consisted of two companies recruited in this 
State in August, 1861, and attached to the 2d Regiment 
New York Cavalry, (Harris Light Cavalry,) as Companies 
" C " and " P." All officers since' the organization of the 
squadron have been commissioned by the Executive of the 
State of New York, and it is therefore impossible to publish 
a register of officers, as in case of the other Connecticut 
organizations. No official reports of operations have been 
received, and the file of muster-rolls and returns is so incom- 
plete, that a reliable history of events or summary of opera- 
tions can not be here given. 

On the 23d of December, 1863, forty-one (41) of the orig- 
inal members of the squadron re-enlisted as veterans, and 
were assigned to different companies of the regiment without 
reference to the original squadron, and since that date no 
reports of any kind have been received from the regiment. 
The 2d New York Cavalry is reported by the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of New York, as having been mustered out on the 23d 
day of June, 1865. 



adjutant-general's report 



25 



FIRST REGIMENT HEAVY ARTILLERY. 



Name and Rank. 



Date of 
Commission. 



Colonels. 
Levi Woodhouse, 
Robert O. Tyler, 
Henry L. Abbot, 
Lieut. Colonels. 
Nelson L. White, 
Thos. S. Trumbull, 
George Ager, 

Majors. 
Nelson L. White, 
P. L. Cunningham, 
Henry W. Birge, 
Lev. G. Hemingway, 
Thos. S. Trumbull", 
Elisha S. Kellogg, 
George B. Cook, 
Albert F. Brooker, 
George Ager, 
Henry H. Pierce, 
Charles 0. Brigham, 
Samuel P. Hatfield, 

Adjutant. 
Thos. S. Trumbull, 

Quarter-Master. 
Geo. A. Washburn, 

Chaplains. 
Edward A. Walker, 
Samuel F. Jarvis, 

Surgeon. 
Samuel W. Skinner, 
1st Asst. Surgeons. 
Samuel W. Skinner, 
Edward Bentley, 
Jonathan B.Stevens, 
H. Clinton Bunce, 
Jeremiah C.Morton 
John 8. Delavan, 
Nathaniel Matson, 

2d Asst. Surgeons. 
Wm. Soule, 
Eli F. Hendrick, 
Henry A. Hoyt, 
Nathaniel Matron, 
Wm. H. Thompson 

Captains. 
Lev. G. Hemingway 
Elisha S. Kellogg, 
Roland S. Bnrlumk, 
Joseph C. Dunford, 



Hartford, 
Hartford, 
U. S. Army, 

Danburv, 
Hartfoid, 
Derby, 

Danbury, 

So. Norwalk, 

Norwich, 

Hartford, 

Hartford, 

Derby, 

New London 

Woleottvillc, 

Derby, 

Hartord, 

Boston, Mass 

Middletown, 

Hartford, 



New Haven, 
Salisbury, 

Windsor Lks, 

Windsor Lks 

Norwich, 

Norfolk, 

Glastenbury, 

New York, 

Albanv, N. Y 

Shodack,N.Y 

Jewett City 
Danbury, 
New Haven 
Shodack.N.Y 
Fair Haven 

Hartford, 
Derby, 
Suffield, 
New London, 



May 8,1861 
Aug. 29,1861 
Jan. 19,1863 



Discharged Aug. 29, 1861. 
PomotedBrig. Gen. Nov. 19, 1862. 
Bvt. Maj. Gen. Must, out Sept. 25/65 



May 15,1861 Must'd outNov. 19,1864, term exp'< 
Nov. 29,1864 Died of disease March 30, 1865. 
April 25,1865JMustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 



Mav 9, 
May 15, 
May 31, 
Nov. 13, 
Mch. 1, 
Mch. 1, 
Jan. 22, 
Sept. 5, 
Nov. 29, 
April 25, 
May 13, 
May 13, 



May 28,1861 



Promoted Lt. Col. May 15, 1861. 
Resigned Mav 30, 1861. 
Promoted Col. 13th C. V. Nov. 2,'61. 
Discharged disability, Aug, 17,1864. 
Promoted Lt. Col. Nov. 29, 1864. 
Prm'd Lt. Col. 19th C.V. Aug.l 1/62 
Honorably discharged May 4, 1865. 
Honorably discharged May 4, 1865. 
Promoted Lt. Col. April 25, 1865. 
Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 
" " " 25, 1865. 
" " 25, 1865. 

Promoted Major March 1, 1862. 



May 14,1861 Transf. to Co.Bas lstLt.Feb.2 

May 29,1861 Resigned July 17, 1862. 
Nov. 14,1862 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 

June 5,1861 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 

May 22,1861 Promoted Surgeon June 5, 1861. 

June 5,1861 Promoted Brig. Surg. Oct. 4, 1561. 

Oct. 4,1861 Resigned Sept. 1, 1862. 

Oct. 10,1862 Resigned Oct. 27, 1863. 

Dec. 1,1863 Declined and Commission revoked. 

April 7,1864 Honorably discharged Mch. 31, 1865. 

April 28,1865 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 

Oct. 23,1861 Prom'd Purg. 21st C. V. Sept. 3, '62. 
Sept. 3,1862 Transf. to 15th C. V. Jan. 5, 1863. 
Jan. 5,18i>3 Resigned Dec. 7, 1863. 
April 7,1 864 Promoted 1st Asst. Surg. Apr. 28/65. 
June 12,1865 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 

May 11,1861 Promoted Major Nov. 13, 1861. 

May ll,186ll " " Mch. 1, 1862. 

May 11,1861 Resigned Feb. 6,1863. 

May 11,1861 " Oct. 26, 1861. 



26 adjutant-general's report, 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



Name and Rank. 



Residence. 



Date of 
Commission 



Remarks. 



Captains. 
Oscar A. Dennis, New Haven, May 
Nich. S. Hallenbeck.New Haven, |May 
Robert G. Williams, Middletown, 'May 
Cyrus C. Clark, iMiddletown, May 
Sanford H. Perkins, Wolcottville, May 
Darius W. Siprell, Hartford, ,May 
George B. Cook, New London, Oct. 
Edwin C. Dow, New Haven, Oct. 
Thomas S. Gilbert, Derby, Nov. 

Theo. H. Rockwood, New Haven, Dec. 
Joseph Perkins, Hartford, 

Uriah Wallace, 'Bridgeport 



Oliver Burke, 
George Harmon, 
Albert F. Brooker, 
Geo. A. Washburn, 
George Age 



Feb. 
Feb. 

April 
Mch. 



Hartford, 
jNew Haven 
.Wolcottville, May 
lHartford, [May 
iDerby, 'May 



Daniel R. Hubbard, Middletown, June 

Edward P. Allen, 

Franklin A. Pratt, 

Edward A. Gillette, 

Chas. 0. Brigham, 

Henry H. Pierce, 

John H. Burton, 



Hartford, Aug 

Hartford, 'Aug. 

Hartford, jNov. 

Boston, Mass. Jan. 

Hartford, Feb. 

New Haven, Aug. 
Wilbur F. Osborne, Birmingham, Dec. 

Samuel P. Hatfield, Middletown, Dec. 

Charles E. Bulkeley, Hartford, Dec. 

William G. Pride, Derby, April 

William A. Lincoln, New Haven, jOct. 

Charles R. Bannan, Waterbury, 'Oct. 

John M. Twiss, Hartford, Oct. 

George D. Sargeant, Middletown, (Nov. 



Glenroy P. Mason, 
George Dimock, 
William C. Faxon, 
Bela P. Learned, 
Cornelius Gillette, 
William H. Rogers, 
Frank D. Bangs, 
1 st Lieutenants. 
William G. Fitch, 
Thomas Gilbert, 



Hartford, (Nov. 
New London, Nov. 



Stonington, 

Norwich, 

Hartford, 

Derby, 

Hartford, 
Derby, 



Noi 

Dec. 
May 

May 
May 

I 

May 
May 
May 



Willis A. Pomeroy, Suffield, 
George B. Cook, JNcw London, May 
Theo. H. Rockwood, New Haven, May 
Edwin C. Dow, New Haven, May 

Elijah W. Gibbons, JMiddletown, May 
John A. Turner, Middletown, May 
Albert F. Brooker, .Wolcottville, May 



Oliver Burke, 
George Ager, 
Edward H. Mix, 
Thomas J. Mills, 



Hartford, May 
.Derby, ; Oct. 

Wolcottville, Oct. 
|New London, Oct. 



George W. Harmon, New Haven, Oct. 
Daniel R. Hubbard, jMiddletown, Nov. 



11,1861 Resigned Dec. 11, 1861. 

11,1861 " Oct. 26, 1861. 

11,1861 " Mch. 24, 1862. 

11,1861 Prom'd Maj. 14th C. V. Aug. 4, '62. 

13,1864! " " " " June 7, '62. 

13,1861 Resigned May 26, 1862. 

26,1861 Promoted Major Jan. 22, 1863. 

26.1861 Must'd out Oct. 26, 1864, term exp'd. 

13,1861 Resigned, Nov. 1, 1862. [Dec. 12,'63. 

11.1861 Disc'd to accept app't in U. S. C. T. 
5,1862 Resigned Dec. 3, 1863. 

5,1862 " May 23, 1862. 

24.1862 " " 23,1862. 
24,1862 " Dec. 7, 1863. 
23,1862 Promoted Major Sept. 5, 1864. 
23,1862 Prom'd Maj. 16th C. V. July 22, '62. 
26,1862 Promoted Major Nov. 29, 1864. 

18.1862 Resigned for disability Sept. 20, 1864. 
8,1862 Resigned Aug. 4, 1863. 

8,1 862Must'd out Nov. 11,1 864, term exp'd. 
20,1862! " " " 4,1864, " 

22.1863 Promoted Major May 13, 1865. 
9,1863; " " Apr. 25, 1865. 

27,1863 Must'd out Dec. 23, '64, term exp'd. 
15,1863 " " Nov, 4, '64, 
15,1863 Promoted Major May 13, 1865. 

21.1863 Died of disease Feb. 13, 1864. 
1,1864 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 

25.1864 " " " 25, 1865. 
25,1864' " " " 25, 1865. 
31,1864 " " " 25, 1865. 
11,1864 " " " 25,1865. 
11,1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

29.1864 " " " 25, 1865. 
29,1864j " " " 25, 1865. 
29,1864| " " " 25, 1865. 
16,1865! " " " 25, 1865. 
16,1865. " " " 25, 1865. 

16.1865 " " " 25, 1865. 

1861 App't 2d Lieut. U. S. A. Nov. 16/61. 

1861 Promoted Captain Nov. 13, 1861. 

1861 Discharged Oct. 15, 1861. 

1861 Promoted Captain, Oct. 26, 1861. 

1861 " " Dec. 11,1861. 

1861 " " Oct. 26, 1861. 

1861 Resigned May 6, 1862. 

1861, " Nov. 6, 1861. 

1861 Promoted Captain, May 23, 1862. 

1861 " " Apr. 24, 1862. 

1861 1 " " May 23, 1862. 

1861 Resigned Feb. 6, 1862. 

1861 " Dec. 27, 1861. 

1861 Promoted Captain Mch. 24, 1862. 

I86l| " " June 18, 1862. 



adjutant-general's report. 27 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. % 



Name and Rank. 



Residence. 



Date of 
Commission. 



Remarks. 



1st Lieutenants. 
Chas. M. Robins, 
Edward P. Allen, 
Franklin A. Pratt, 
Walter D. Ives, 
John II. Burton, 
Jos. H. Cummings, 
Wilbur F. Osborne, 
Edward A. Gillette, 
Chas. O. Brigham, 
Thomas D. Oliver, 
Stephen Baldwin, 
Henry II. Pierce, 
Samuel P. Hatfield, 
Herman Glafeke, N 
Geo. A. Washburn, 
Chas. E. Bulkley, 
Roswell S Douglass 
William H. Brown, 
William G. Pride, 
Albert C. Raymond 
William A. Lincoln 
Edward B. Smith, 
John M. Twiss, 
George D. Sargeant 
Louis W. Jackson, 
Andrew Knox, 
Bela P. Learned, 
Charles R. Bannan, 
Chas. II. Whittlesey. 
Glenroy P. Mason, 
George Dimock, 
Frank J. Jones, 
Lewis G. Logan, 
James R. Bunce, 
Henrv A. Pratt, 
Nel-o*n B. Gilbert, 
William C. Faxon, 
Paul Harwood, 
Geo. M. Williams, 
Robert A. Sedgwick 
Cornelius Gillette, 
William H. Rogers, 
George L Turner, 
Charlea II. Owen, 
Wm. W. Pardee, 
Ebenezer P. Mason 
Joseph Talcott, 
Henry 1). Patterson 
Robert Lewis, 
John O'Brien, 
Frank D. Bangs, 
John Odell, 
Thomas D. Cashin, 
Chas. A. Tiuesdell, 
George F. Bill, 



Nov. 
Dec. 

Feb. 
Dec. 



Hartford, 

Hartford, 

Hartford, 

Hartford, 

New Haven, IMch. 

Waterbury, |Mch, 

Birmingham, IMch. 

Hartford, Mch. 

Boston, Mass. Mch. 



[Hartford, 


Mch. 


Derby, 


Mch. 


Hartford, 


Mch. 


Middletown, 


Mch. 


Hartford, 


Mch. 


Hartford, 


May 


Hartford, 


Feb. 


s, Lowell, Mass. 


Mch. 


New Haven, 


Feb. 


Derby, 


Mch. 


, Meriden, 


Mch. 


i, New Haven, 


Mch. 


Lichfield, 


Mch. 


Hartford, 


May 


i, Middletown, 


May 


Hartford, 


May 


Danbury, 


May 


[Norwich, 


May 


Waterbury, 


May 


, New Haven, 


June 


Hartford, 


Aug. 


New London, 


Aug. 


Norwich, 


Jan. 
Jan. 


[Washington, 


; Hartford, 


Jan. 



Chester, 
Stonington, 
New Haven, 



Sept. 
Aug. 
Nov. 



New London, Dee. 



, Sharon, 
Hartford, 



Dec. 

Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch 
April 
Oct. 



Suffield, 
Hartford, 
Bridgeport 
Litchfield, 
W. Hartford, |Oct. 
Naugatuck, Oct. 
East Berlin, Oct. 
New Haven, [Oct. 
Derby, Oct. 

New London, Oct. 
Windsor Lks.Oct. 
Hartford, Oct. 
Hartford, [Nov. 



,1861 Must, out Sept.18,'61, ap. Lt. U.S.A. 

1861 Promoted Captain Aug. 8, 1862. 
1862J " " " 8, 1862. 

,1861 Resigned March 24, 1862. 

,1862 Promoted Captain Aug. 27, 1863. 

1862,Died Aug. 28, 1864. 

1862,Promoted Captain Dec. 15, 1863. 
,1862 " " Nov. 20, 1862. 

,1862 " " Jan. 22, 1863. 

,1862 Resigned Mch. 24, 1862. 
,1862j " May 6, 1862. 

1862 Promoted Captain Feb. 9, 1863. 
1S62 " " Dec. 15, 1863. 
1862 Resigned May 6, 1862. 

1S61 Promoted Captain May 23, 1862. 

1862 " " Dec. 21, 1863. ' 

,1862 Must'd out Nov. 12, '64, termexp'd. 

1862 " Mch. 12, '65, 

,1862 Promoted Captain April 1, 1864. 

1862 Cashiered Jan. 13, 1863. 
,1862 Promoted Captain Oct. 25, 1864. 

1862 Resigned Oct. 26,1863. 

1862 Promoted Captain Oct. 31, 1-864. 
,1862 " " Nov 11, 1864. 

2 Must'd out Mch 11, '65, term exp'd. 
,1862[ " " 15, '65, 

1862 Promoted Captain Dee. 29, 1864. 

1862' " " Oct. 25, 1864. 

1862 Ap. Capt. & A. A. G. Vols. May 15,'63 

1862 Promoted Captain Nov. 11, 1864. 

1862 " " " 29, 1864. 

1863 Resigned July 27, 1863. 

1863 Must'd out Oct. 22, '64, term exp'd. 
186.3 Resigned June 23, 1864. 
1863 Must'd out Mch. 18, '65, term exp'd. 
1863 Dismissed Jan. 15, 1864. 
1863 Promoted Captain Nov. 29, 1864. 
,1863, Resigned June 16, 1864. 
,1863 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 

1863 Honorably discharged Mch. 15, 1864. 

1864 Promoted Captain May 16, 1865. 
1864 " " " 16, 1865. 
1S64 Died Aug. 21, 1864. 

,1864 Honorably discharged Dec. 15, 1864. 
,1864 Must'd out Mch. 11, '65, term exp'd. 
1864 Honorably discharged May 15, 1865. 
1864 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 
1864 1 " " " 25, 1865. 
18641 " " " 25, 1865. 
1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

1864'Promoted Captain May 16, 1865. 
1864 Killed in action March 25, 1865. 
1864[Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 
1864[Honorably discharged Apr. 26, 1865. 
1864jMustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 



28 adjutant-general's report 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



Name and Rank. 



Date of 
Commission, 



\st Lieutenants. 
Sfcer'g A. Woodruff, 
Lewis B. Sturgis, 
Thomas J. Beers, 
William Guernsey, 
Isaac N. Westervelt 
Martin L. Church, 
John E. Tarbell, 
Azro Drown, 
Charles W. Smith, 
Hobart W. Deming, 
Welles W. Reed, 
Charles W. Filer, 
William B. Atwood 

2d Lieutenants. 
Charles M. Robins, 
George Ager, 
William Soby, 
Thomas J. Mills, 
Edwin F. Hendricks 
George M. Harmon 
Edgar C. Beman, 
Daniel R. Hubbard, 
Edward II. Mix, 
Alfred S. Dickinson 
Dexter W. Clark, 
Henry II. Pierce, 
Jos. II . Cummings, 
Franklin A. Pratt, 
Edward A. Gillette, 
Charles ' >. Brigham 
Walter D. Ives, 
John II. Burton, 
Stephen Baldwin, 
Edward P. Allen, 
Herman Glafcke, 
Wilbur F. Osborne, 
Thomas D. Oliver, 
Samuel P. Hatfield 
Frank J. Jones, 
Benj. Taylor, Jr., 
Albert C. Raymond 
William G. Pride, 
John M. Twiss, 
Roswell S.Douglass 
Edward B. Smith, 
William A. Lincoln 

<■ :_"■ I). Sargeant 

John II. Tingley, 
Andrew Knox, 
Charles R. Bannan, 
Bela P. Learned, 
( reorge M. Williams 
Paul Harwood, 
Chas II. Whittlesey 
Edward L. Tyler, ' 



Harwiuton, 
New Haven, 
New Haven, 
Plymouth, 
Cromwell, 
New Haven, 
Sumcld, 
E. Haddam, 
iFarmington, 
Hartford, 
Hartford, 
New Haven, 
Plymouth, 

Hartford, 

Derby, 

Suffield, 

New London 

New Haven, 

New Haven, 

Middletown, 

Middlctown, 

Wolcottville, 
,: Hartford, 

Torrington, 

Hartford, 

Waterbury, 

Hartford, 

Hartford, 
, Boston, Mass 

Hartford, 

New Haven, 

Derby, 

Hartford, 

Hartford, 

Birmingham, 

Hartford, 
, Middletown, 

Norwich, 

Hartford, 
, Meriden, 

Derby, 

Hartford, 
/Lowell, Mass 

Litchfield, 
, Xew Haven, 
, Middletown, 

Norwich, 

Danbury, 

Waterbury, 

Norwich,' 
, New London, 

New Haven, 
, New Haven, 
{Norwich, 



Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Dec. 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 

May 

May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
July 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Sept. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
Feb. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Feb. 
Mch. 



1864 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 

1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

1865 " " " 25, 1865. 
1865 " " " 25, 1865. 
1865 " " " 25, 1865. 
1865 " " " 25, 1865. 
1865 " " " 25, 1865. 
1865 " " " 25, 1865. 
1865 " " " 25, 1865. - 
1865 " " " 25, 1865. 

1861 Promoted 1st Lieut. Nov. 13, 1861. 
1861 " " Oct. 26,1861. 

1861!Resigned Sept. 30, 1861. 
1861 Promoted 1st Lieut. Oct. 26, 1861. 
1861 Resigned Nov. 2, 1861. 
1861 Promoted 1st Lieut. Oct. 26, 1861. 
186rAppointed A. C. S. Nov. 17, 1861. 
1861 Promoted 1st Lieut. Nov. 1, 1861. 
186l| " " Oct. 16,1861. 

1 86 1' Resigned Dec. 18,1861. 
1861 Commission revoked Oct. 5, 1861. 
186l'Promotcd 1st Lieut. Mch. 1, 1862. 
1861 " " " 1,1862. 

1861 " " Feb. 6,1862. 

1861 " " Mch. 1, 1862. 

1861 " " " 1,1862. 

1861 " " Dec. 27, 1861. 

1861 " " Mch. 1,1862. 

1861 " " " 1, 1862. 

1861 " " Dec. 11,1861. 

1861 " " Mch. 1,1862. 

1861 " " " 1,1862. 

1862 " " " 1,1862. 

1861 " " " 1,1862. 
L862 " " Jan. 1,1863. 
1862App'd Lieut. U. S. A. Apr. 23, 1862. 

1862 Promoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 24, 1862. 
1862 " " " 12, 1862. 
1862 " " May 6,1862. 
1862 " " Mch. 12, 1862. 
1862 " " " 24, 1862. 
1862 " " " 24, 1862. 
1862 " " Mav 6,1862. 
1862 Resigned Dec. SI, 1862." 

1862 Promoted 1st Lieut. May 23, 1862. 

1862 " " " 26,1862. 

1862 " " " 26,1862. 

1862 " " Dec. 18, 1868. 

1862 " " Nov. 27, 1863. 

1862 " " June 18, 1862. 

1862 1 Rcsigned Apr. 9, 1864, for disability. 



adjutant-general's report, 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



29 



Name and Rank, j Residence. 



Date of 
Commission 



Chester, 
Sharon, 
Stonington, 
Hartford, 



New London, 
'Washington, 
I Hartford, 

New Haven, 

Plymouth, 

Hartford, 

Derby, 

Plymouth, 

Litchfield, 

Hartford, 

'; Suffield, 
/Bridgeport, 
,W. Hartford, 



2d Lieutenant. 
Henry A. Pratt, 
Nelson B. Gilbert, 
Robert Sedgwick, 
William C. Faxon, 
Lewis W. Jackson, 
Charles W. Gleason, Bridgeport, 
Glenroy P. Mason, Hartford, 
George Dimoek, 
Lewis G. Logan, 
James R. Bunce, 
Walter. F. Smith, 
William Charnley, 
William B. Ells,' 
William H. Birge, 
Frank D. Bangs, 
Edwin Post, 
Ebenezer P. Mason, 
Cornelius Gillette, 
William H. Rogers 
George L. Turner, 
William W. Pardee 
Joseph Talcott, 
Frederick L. Pond, Plymouth, 
Isaac N. Westervelt, Cromwell, 
Aaron R. Day, Bridgeport, 

Henry D. Patterson, Naugatuck, 
Robert Lewis, East Berlin, 

Arthur H. Twining, Hartford, 
Benjamin Andrews, Sutiield, 
John O'Brien, New Haven, 

Thomas D. Cashin, Windsor Lks 
John Odell, 
Alfred L. Morgan 
George F. Bill, 
Philip Manix, 

Chas. A. Truesdell, Hartford, 
Eben P. Hall, .Suffield, 

Ster'g A. Woodruff, Harwinton, 
Thomas J. Beers, New Haven 
Wm. R. Guernsey, 
Lewis B. Sturgis, 
Martin L. Church, 
Henry W. Loomis, 
WmJLH.Binghare 
John E. Tarbell, 
Azro Drown, 
Charles W. Smith, 
Hobart W. Deming, Hartford 
Welles W. Reed, Hartford, 
Charles W. Filer, New Haven, 
William B. Atwood, Plymouth, 
William B. Burgiss, Killingly, 
Gardner Reynolds, Suffield, 
James H. Casey, East Haven, 
William S. Maloney, New Haven, 



New London 
Middletown, 
Hartford, 
Hartford, 



jPlymouth, 
[New Haven, 
!New Haven, 
) Watcrtown, 
E. Haddam, 
Suffield, 
E. Haddam, 
Farmington, 



Mch. 24 
Mch. 1, 
Feb. 18, 
Mch. 1, 
Feb. 5, 
Feb. 5, 
Mch. 12, 
Mch. 12, 
Mch. 24, 
Mch. 24, 
May 6, 
Dec. 
May 
Dee. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 

Jan. 

JFeb. 
July 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 25 
Dec. 18 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 18 
■Dec. 18 
Dec. 18 
April 1 
[April 1 
April 1 
April 1 
[April 1 
April 1 
April 18 
Oct. 25 
Oct. 25 
Oct 25 
Oct. 25 
[Oct. 25 
[Oct. 25 
Oct. 25 
Oct. 25 
Oct. 2 



1862 Promoted 1st Lieut. Feb. 9, 1863. 
1862 " " Sept. 5,1863. 

1862 " " Dec. 18, 1863. 

1862 " " Aug. 27, 1863. 

1862 " " May 6, 1862. 

1862 Resigned June 4, 1862. 
1862 Promoted 1st Lieut. Aug. 8, 1862. 
1862 " " " 8,1862. 

1862 " " Jan. 9,1863. 

1862 " " " 22, 1863. 

1862 Dismissed Nov. 15, 1862. 
1862 Resigned Sept. 5,1863. 
1862 Ap. Capt. 19th C. V. Aug. 16, 1862. 
1862Resigned May 5, 1864. 
1S62 Promoted 1st Lieut. Oct.- 25, 1864. 
1862 Resigned Nov. 10, 1863. 
,1862 Promoted 1st Lieut. Oct. 25, 1864. 
,1862 " " Mch. 16, 1864. 

1862 " " " 16,1864. 
,1862 " " " 16,1864. 
,1862 " " Apr. 1,1864. 

1863 " " Oct. 25, 1864. 
1863 Mustered out Oct. 19, 1864. 

,l863Promoted 1st Lieut. Dec. 29, 1864. 
,1863Must'd out Oct. 26, '64, term exp'd. 
,1863Promoted 1st Lieut. Aug. 25, 1864. 

1863 " " Oct. 25, 1864. 

,1863 Must'd out Oct. 26, '64, term exp'd. 

1863 " " 29, '64, 

,1863 Promoted 1st Lieut. Oct. 25, 1864. 
,1863 " " " 27,1864. 

,1863 " " " 31, 1864. 

1863 Must'd out Oct. 26, '64, term exp'd. 

1863Promoted 1st Lieut. Nov. 11, 1864. 
,1863 Must'd out Oct. 29, '64, term exp'd. 
,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Oct. 27, 1864. 
,1S64 Killed in action July 12, 1864. 
,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Nov. 11, 1864. 



,1.-64 
,1864 

,1864 
,1864 
,1864 



" 29,1864. 

" " " 29, 1864. 

" " " 29, 1864. 

" " May 16, 1865. 

Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 



1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. May 16, 1865. 



,1 

,1864 
,1864 
,1864 
,1864 
864 



16,1865. 
16,1865. 
16,1865. 
16, 1865. 
16,1865. 
16, 1865. 



Oct. 31,1864 Honorably discharged June 20, 1865 

Oct. 31,1864'Musteredout Sept. 25, 1865. 

jOct. 31,1864 " " " 25, 1865. 

Oct. 31,1864 " " " 25, 1865. 



30 adjutant-general's report. 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



Name and Rank. 


Residence. 


Date of 
Commission. 1 


Remarks. 


■2d Lieutenants. \ 




| 




Austin S. Humphrey Hartford, 


Oct. 


27,1S64 Honorably 


discharged June 20, 1865. 


George H. Couch, Hartford, 


Oct. 


27,1864 Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 


Chas. A. Crittenden, Clinton, 


Nov. 


11,1864 Honorably 


discharged Aug. 28, 1865. 


John W. Miller, Derby, 


Nov. 


11,1864 Mustered out SepL 25, 1S65. 


James J. Bergin, New Haven, 


Nov. 


11,1864 


" 25, 1865. 


Wm. H. Battcrson, Stratford, 


Nov. 


ll,1864Honorably discharged July 1, 1865. 


James P. Elliott, [Manchester, 


Nov. 


29,1864Mustered out Sept. 25, 1865. 


Charles N. Silliman, Chester, 


Nov. 


29,1864 


** 25, 1865. 


Henry E. Taintor, Windham, 


June 


6,1865 


« < 


" 25, 1865. 


Hayden D. Palmer, Torrington, 
Elbridgc E. Paddock New Haven, 


June 


6,1865 


" « 


' " 25, 1865. 


June 


6,1865 


« < 


' " 25, 1865. 


Henry Baker, Bridgeport, 


June 


6,1865 


" ' 


" 25, 1865. 


George L. Fox, 


Middlctown, 


June 


6,1865 


« i 


" 25, 1865. 


William H. Higgs, 


Hartford, 


June 


6,1865 


" ' 


" 25, 1865. 


George F. Larkin, 


New Haven, 


June 


6,1865 


" ' 


" 25, 1865. 


Ansel H. Couch, 


Danbury, 


June 


6,1865 


" ' 


' " 25, 1865. 


Dan'l W. Raymond, 


Middlctown, 


June 


6,1865 


" ' 


' " 25, 1865. 


Edw'd H. Chipman, Hartford, 


June 


6,1865 


' " 25, 1865. 



BREVET COMMISSIONS 
Issued to Officers of 1st Regiment Heavy Artillery. 



Name and Rank. 


Brevet Rank. 


Date of 
Brevet Commission. 


Colonel Henry L. Abbot, 


Major General, 


March C 


, 1865. 


" Henry L. Abbot, 


Brigadier 


General, 


August 1, 1864. 


Major George Agcr, 


Lieutenant Colonel, 


April 9 


1865. 


Captain Henry H. Pierce, 


Major, 




March 13, 1865. 


" John M. Twiss, 


" 




March 13, 18G5. 


" Charles 0. Brigham, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 


" Charles R. Bannan, 


" 




April 9 


186 s . 


" George Dimoek, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 


William C. Faxon, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 


Samuel P. Hatfield, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 


" Bcla P. Learned, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 


" William A. Lincoln, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 


" Glenroy P. Mason, 


" 




April 9, 


1865. 


" George D. Sargeant, 


" 




April 9, 


1865. 


William G. Pride, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 


1st Lieutenant Frank D. Bangs, 


Captain, 




April 9 


1865. 


' 


' Robert E. Lewis, 


" 




March 13, 1865. 




' E. P. Mason, 


" 




March 13, 1865. 




H. A. Pratt, 


" 




March 13, 1865. 




Geo. F. Bill, 


" 




April 9 


1865. 




Thos. D. Cashin, 


•• 




April 9, 


1865. 




' Cornelius Gillette, 


" 




April 6, 


1865. 




' John O'Brien, 


" 




April 9, 


1865. 




' William II. Rogers, 


" 




April 9, 


1865. 




S. A. Woodruff, 


" 




April 9, 


1865. 



adjutant-general's report. 31 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



Name and Rank. 


Brevet Rank. 


Date of 
Brevet Commission. 


2d Lieutenant C. A. Silliman, 

" Wm. H. H. Bingham, 
" James H. Casey, 
" Azro Drown, 

A. H. Couch, 
" Gardner Reynolds, 

Charles W." Smith, 


1st Lieutenant, 


March 13, 1865. 
March 25, 1865. 
March 25, 1865. 
March 25, 1865. 
April 9, 1865. 
April 9, 1865. 
April 9, 1865. 



Head-Quarters First Conn. Artillery,") 
Camp Tyler, Hartford, Conn., Oct. 1st, 1865. ) 
Brig. Gen. H. J. Morse, 

Adjutant- General of Connecticut, 
General : 

I have the honor to submit the following report upon the operations 
of my command from March 1st, 1865, to the'final discharge of the 
1st Conn. Artillery on Oct. 1, 1865. 

The organization of the siege artillery brigade, detailed in my last 
report, remained unchanged, except that on March 21st, the 7th New 
York Independent Battery, Capt. Regan, was added ; thus giving me 
eighteen (18) companies, aggregate about 2700 men with 206 guns. 
Of these, eight (8) companies were serving on the lines of the Army 
of the Potomac, and ten (10) companies on those of the Army of the 
James. This command constituted the entire siege artillery in front 
of Richmond. 

ASSAULT ON FORT STEDMAN. 

On March 25th, an event occurred which illustrated the advantages 
of the system of fortifications adopted by Col. J. C. Doane, Chief 
Engineer Army of Potomac. This system consists, in general terms 
of a series of field works, each capable of containing a battery of 
artillery and an infantry garrison of two or three hundred men. 
These works are closed at the gorge, well protected with abattis and 
palisading, often supplied with bomb-proofs and placed at intervals of 
about 600 yards, on such ground as to well sweep the line in front 
with artillery fire. They are connected by strong, continuous infantry 
parapets, with obstacles in front. 

The rebel system differs chiefly from this in having its redoubts 
open at the gorge, and not arranged for independent defence. 



33J adjutant-general's report. 

Hare Hill was situated near the right of our Petersburg line, about 
a mile from the Appomattox river. It was protected by Fort Sted- 
man, with Battery No. 10 on its right, and Batteries No. 11 and 12 
on its left. The next work, closed at the gorge on the side of the 
Appomattox river, was Battery No. 9, situated near the foot of the 
hill. The next work on the left of Hare Hill and its collection of 
batteries, was Fort Haskell, situated on another hill, with a small 
creek between. « 

Fort Stedman was one of the weakest and most ill-conditioned 
works of the line; being unprotected by abattis in rear; being 
masked on its right — just in rear of Battery No. 10 — by numerous 
bomb-proofs, rendered necessary by the terrible fire which habitually 
had place in this vicinity ; and only being about 200 yards distant 
from the enemy's main line. 

The parapet had settled greatly during the winter, and in fine the 
work was much exposed to sudden assault. Company " K," 1st 
Conn. Artillery, served mortar batteries in Batteries 9 and 10, 
and Co. " L," of the same regiment, in Battery 12, and in Fort 
Haskell. 

At about 4 o'clock A. M., of March 25th, three divisions of the 
enemy, under Gen. Gordon, made a sudden and well-arranged attack 
upon the defences of Hare Hill. It was a complete surprise, and 
was successful. Their columns simultaneously swept over the parapet 
between Stedman and Battery 9, over Battery 10, and over Battery 
11, joined in rear of the fort, and carried it almost without opposi- 
tion. From that time to daylight a hand-to-hand fight raged among 
the bomb-proofs, and on the flanks of the enemy's position. He as- 
saulted Fort Haskell again and again, but failed to carry it or Battery 
No. 9. As soon as the light would admit, all my own artillery from 
Batteries 4, 5, 8, 9, and Fort Haskell, and all the light artillery which 
Gen. Tidball, Chief of Artillery, 9th Corps, could concentrate upon 
the position, opened and maintained a terrible fire upon the enemy. 
No reinforcements could join him from his own line, owing to this 
fire. His captured position was entailing deadly loss upon him ; our 
reserves were rapidly assembling, and finally, about 8 A. M., they 
made a gallant charge, which resulted in the recovery of our works 
of all our artillery, (even including my Coehorn Mortars,) and in 
the capture of over 1800 prisoners. The following extracts from the 
rebel papers, show the effects of our artillery fire. " It was found 
that the inclosed works In the rear, commanding the enemy's main 
line, could only be taken at a great sacrifice." " The enemy massed 



adjutant-general's REPORT. ob 

his artillery so heavily in the neighboring forts, and was enabled to 
form such a terrible enfilading fire upon our ranks, that it was deemed 
best to withdraw." " The enemy enfiladed us from right and left in 
the captured works to such an extent that we could no longer hold 
them without the loss of many men," etc., etc. If the enclosed works 
on the right and left had not fixed a limit beyond which the enemy 
found it impossible to extend, I think, from his great superiority in 
numbers, that a disaster might have occurred. 

The loss of the two companies of the 1st Conn. Artillery was 
heavy, amounting to 65 men. Co. " L," after bravely fighting in 
Battery No. 12, (open at the gorge,) until nearly surrounded, was 
then marched by Lieut. Lewis, commanding, to Fort Haskell, where 
it participated in the gallant defense of that work. When the charge 
was made to recover our lines, this company was the first to re-enter 
Battery No. 12, capturing 1 Lieutenant and 12 privates of the 26th 
Georgia regiment, with their battle-flag. The latter was taken by 
private G. E. McDonald, who has received a "medal of honor" for 
its capture. Lieut. Lewis deserves great credit for handsomely 
commanding his company. He speaks in high terms of Lieut. 
Couch and Sergt. McNamar, for coolness and decision during the 
engagement. Lieut. Bingham, commanding a detachment of the 
company permanently stationed in Fort Haskell, also merits commend- 
ation. 

I have received a letter from Capt. J. M. Deane, 29th Mass. Vet. 
Vols., written to call attention to the gallant conduct of private James 
T. Murphy, of Company " L," who volunteered to serve a light gun 
in Fort Haskell, when its officer and all but two of its detachment 
were killed or wounded, and the gun was silenced. Private Mur- 
phy served at the piece with gallantry during the rest of the fight. 
The loss of the company was 2 enlisted men killed, 5 wounded, and 
13 missing. 

The portion of Co. "K" stationed in Battery No. 10, suffered se- 
verely. Capt. Twiss was wounded, and Lieut. Odell killed while gal- 
lantly fighting against overwhelming odds. The command of the 
company devolving on Lieut. Casey, he bravely led the remnant for- 
ward with the charging column, and recovered his mortars. The 
loss of the company was 1 officer and 4 enlisted men killed, 1 officer 
and 2 enlisted men wounded, and 36 enlisted men missing. Lieut. 
Drown, commanding a detachment of the company in Battery No. 9, 
served his pieces with skill, causing great havoc among the columns 
of the enemy, distant about 200 yards. 



34 



adjutant-general's report. 



Lieut. Bangs, commanding Co. " E," in Battery No. 5, maintained 
a well-directed fire upon the enemy in Fort Stedman, although him- 
self subjected to a very severe concentric fire from the batteries 
around him. One shell exploded in his magazine, killing private 
James Smith, but most fortunately not igniting the barrels of powder 
which the magazine contained. 

Major George Ager, commanding the batteries on the Petersburg 
front, skillfully combined their fire, so as to contribute most success- 
fully to the discomfiture of the enemy. 

The following table exhibits the expenditure of siege ammunition 
in this battle : 



Designation 


Commanding 

Officer, 

1st Conn. Art'y. 


ARMAMENT. 


■3 




Smooth Bore. 


Rifled. 


Batteries. 


24 Pdr. 
Coehorn 
Mortar. 


8 inch 

Siege 
Mortar. 


10 inch 
Siege 
Mortar. 


30 Pdr. 

Parrott. 


4 1-2 in. 

Ordn'ce 
Gun. 


Hz* 

VI 


Battery No.4, 
" " 5, 

" " 9^ 

" " 12, 

Fort Morton, 

" Avery, 


Lieut. O'Brien, 
Lieut. Bangs, 
Sergt. Richmond, 
Lieut. Drown, 
Lieut. Lewis, 
Lieut. Patterson, 
Capt. Faxon, 


52 
214 
265 


89 
8 


43 


136 
215 


5 

33 


136 
304 
52 
214 
273 
48 
33 


Total No. of rounds, 


531 


97 


43 


351 


38 


"1060 



•FINAL OPERATIONS IN FRONT OF RICHMOND. 

At about 10 P.. M., of March 29th, the enemy threw up a rocket, 
fired a signal gun, and opened furiously along his entire line on our 
Petersburg front. Apprehending an attack, a heavy cannonade and 
musketry fire was opened and continued for about two hours. The 
expenditures of siege ammunition amounted to 1,079 rounds, during 
this time. 

On the 30th of March all was quiet. On the 31st, I placed two 
4 1-2 inch Ordnance Guns in Fort Davis, and substituted four 30 pdr. 
Parrotts for the four 4 1-2 inch Ordnance Guns in Fort Avery. 
This change was made because the poor Schenkl ammunition now 
issued for the 4 1-2 inch guns is dangerous to fire at long ranges, 
.over our troops. 

On April 1st, I was ordered by Maj. Gen. Hartsuff to open fire on 
the Bermuda front, with a view to develop any movements of the 
.enemy. None had occurred. This fire was continued at intervals. 



adjutant-general's report. 



35 



with the same object in view, up to the evacuation on the night of 
the 3d inst. It involved an expenditure of 1,303 rounds of ammuni- 
tion. 

On April 2d, the general assault upon the enemy's lines was made. 
The following is a list of my guns and mortars in position on that 
day. All my batteries in front of Petersburg were actively engaged 
in supporting our columns, or in annoying the enemy in his offensive 
returns. During the night the bridge across the Appomattox river 
and the lower part of Petersburg were shelled. 





ARMAMENT. 






Field Guns. i Siege Guns & Mortars. 




Designation 

of 

Batteries. 


Sm'th B'd 


Rifled. Sn 


100th Bore 


d. Rifled. 






I 

-7 - 


5 | 

r — 


1 

£ 


1 r 

5(2 


1 

>. o 
S B5 
w | . 

<C jQO I 


1 s 

= — i 


c 

3: 
-A a 


in 

j £'£ c 
.pqfr- 

= riLL 

- 'o ? , 

o o ' 

1 C8|C0|- 


f s 

5~ 

4 
2 

3 
3 

1 

2 

2 

2 

1) 1 

713 


Total. 




;.= :.= 


5p S | S |! 




Fort Brady, 
Battery Sawver, 

" SpofTord, 

" Wilcox & Parsons, 

" Drake, 

" Carpenter, 

" Anderson, 
Marshall, 

" rear of Marshall, 

" McConihe, 

" England, 

" Pruvn, 

" Dutton, 

" Burpee, 

" Converse, 
Fort Cummings, 
Battery No 4, (Petersburg,) 

" " " 5, " 

Fort McGilvery, " 

Battery No. 8", " 

" 9j u 

u » 10i « 

II j 2) H 

Fort Morton, " 
'" Averv, " 
Battery No. 20, " 
Fort Davis, " 
Battery No. 2, (City Point,) 

u u 7j ' u 

" " 8, " 
At Depot, 


2 

2 

2 

4 

1 


2 

2 
4 


1 2 


2 

2 
2 


2 

2 
2 

2 


2 

1 

2 
2 
2 

42 


2 

4 

2 
3 
3 4 

8 2 
4 

4 

4 6 


2 

1 

3 


1 

1 


3 
3 

2 

1 

3 
1 

4 

24 1 
44 1 


7 
4 
6 
4 
5 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
6 
5 
3. 
4 
4- 
6 
3 
7 
1 
2 
3 
7 

10 
6 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

73 


Total, 


11 


8 


1 2 


9 


44 


1 12 S 


6 2010 


6 


200 



36 adjutant-general's report. 

The following ia a list of ammunition expended during the battle. 
At noon I applied for and obtained from the depot Quarter-Master at 
City Point an extra train of 50 wagons, which,in addition to my reg- 
ular train of 50 wagons, was busy all day and night in supplying these 
unusual demands. 





Comdg. Officers, 


24 Pdr. 


8 inch 


10 inch 


30 Pdr. 


4 1-2 ill. 




Battery. 


all of 


Coehorn 


Siege 


Siege 


Ord- 


Total 




1st Conn. Artillery. 


Mortar. 


Mortar. 


Mortar. 


Parrott. 


nance. 




Battery No.4, 


Lt. J. O'Brien, 








235 




235 


" " 5, 


" F. D. Bangs, 




237 




438 




075 


" " 8, 


Sergt. Richmond, 


208 










208 


" " 9, 


Lt. A. Drown, 


312 










312 


" " 10, 


" J. H. Casey, 


308 


210 








516 


" " 12, 

Fort Haskell, 


" R. Lewis, I 
" W.H.Bingham j 


561 


225 






1 


766 


" Morton, 


" H. D. Patterson, 






212 




209 


421 


" Avery, 


Capt. W. C. Faxon, 








640 




640 


Batt'v No.20, 


Lt. H. W. Loomis, 




282 








282 


Fort Davis, 


" W. S. Maloney, 










180 


180 




Total, 


1389 


954 


212 


1313 


389 


4257 



In accordance with instructions from Gen. Tidball, the following 
detail was made from the 1st Conn., Artillery, for special service 
with the assaulting column. 1st Lieut. W. H. Rogers, 2d Lieuts. C. 
W. Smith, G. H. Couch, and G. Reynolds, with 25 enlisted men 
from Company " E," 25 from Company " I," 10 from Company 
" K," 20 from Company " L," and 20 from Company " M ;" total, 
4 officers and 100 enlisted men, all under the command of Lieut. 
Rogers. They were divided into three platoons, each commanded 
by a 2d Lieut. Each platoon was divided into three gun detachments, 
consisting of ten men and a chief of piece. All the detachments 
were armed with their muskets, and provided with lanyards, prim- 
ers, fuzes, priming wires, etc., necessary to the proper serving of cap- 
tured artillery. 

This command joined the assaulting column near Battery No. 20, 
and entered among the first, the enemy's works in front. They imme- 
diately began to serve four captured light 12 pdr. guns upon the re- 
treating masses of the enemy. Two more light 12 pdr. guns were 
moved by them across the work under a heavy fire, and within half 
an hour were opened also upon the enemy. 

These six guns were served most gallantly all day and during the 
night. About 400 rounds, captured with the pieces, were expended, and 
a like amount in addition, which was carried by hand from our lines. 
The men not required to serve the pieces used their muskets effect- 
ively, expending all their own ammunition and much more taken from 



adjutant-general's report. 37 

the prisoners :ind the dead and wounded. They captured about 15 
prisoners in the different assaults, and turned them over to be sent to 
the rear. Too much commendation can not be given to Lieut. Rog- 
ers and to his officers and men for their gallant conduct, which con- 
tributed greatly to the repulse of the many desperate assaults made 
by the enemy to retake the captured works. 

The batteries of the Petersburg front were under the immediate 
command of Major George Ager, 1st Conn. Artillery, and he well 
maintained his reputation for intelligence, gallantry and professional 
skill. The fire of Capt. Faxon from Fort Avery, of Lieut. Patterson 
from Fort Morton, and of Lieut. Maloney from Fort Davis, I noticed 
as being especially effective and well directed. 

To Capt. S. P. Hatfield, 1st Conn. Artillery, my Ordnance Officer, 
great credit is due for good judgment and energy in directing his de- 
partment, which the large and sudden demands from all parts of the 
line, and the unexpected removal of the telegraph office from the 
depot, rendered a matter of serious difficulty. Indeed the conduct of 
the entire command was all that could be desired. 

Before daylight on April 3d, the enemy evacuated his lines, and 
the campaign, so far as actual hostilities were concerned, ended for 
my command. 

The casualties in the regiment between March 1st and April 2d, 
inclusive, were 1 officer and 9 enlisted men killed, 1 officer and 19 
enlisted men wounded, and 49 enlisted men missing. Total, 79. 

In my last report, from prudential reasons, I did not report the 
changes of guns and of troops subsequent to October 31st, 1864. The 
following tables supply this information from that date to the end of 
the siege ; the first showing the movement of guns, and the second 
that of companies when moved without guns. 





adjutant-general's report. 












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42 adjutant-general's report, 



REMOVAL OF ORDNANCE. 

Immediately after the evacuation, my command was actively 
engaged in removing our own and the captured artillery. By the 
night of April 8th, all guns, ammunition, ordnance stores, etc., from 
the Petersburg lines, had been transported to the depot, The guns 
were the following :— 49 of my own train in front of Petersburg, 30 
belonging to the rebel land batteries there, and 22 from their Appo- 
mattox batteries, including Ft. Clifton, also four from their line in 
front of Bermuda Hundred and Chester Station. By the end of the 
month, eleven more from the rebel line near James River, and 34 
from the land batteries near Fort Harrison, north of the James, had 
also been removed, together with about 50 of my own train from 
these portions of the line. Every thing was afloat, and much ord- 
nance had been sent to Old Point and to Washington. Thus the 
total number of guns shipped by my command during the month was 
about 200, besides large quantities of ordnance stores. The district 
in front of Bermuda Hundred was also patrolled and picketed by 
details from my brigade. 

The depot at Broadway Landing was broken up on May 1st. The 
following is a statement of our other depots. 

On April 8th, Major Brooker's (afterward Pierce's) Battalion was 
sent to Chafin's Bluff to organize a depot for the removal of the cap- 
tured ordnance in that vicinity. It remained until the middle of 
June, when this work was completed. Captain C. Gillette, 1st Conn. 
Artillery, was the assistant ordnance officer. 

On April 22d, a depot was established near the rebel battery 
" Semmes," on James River. This was assigned to Major Cook's 
(afterward Brigham's) Battalion. The work was completed early 
in July, and the Battalion removed. Lieut. Jas. P. Elliott, 1st Conn. 
Artillery, was the assistant ordnance officer. 

About May 1st, the rest of the brigade, under Lt. Col. Ager, 
(afterward under Major Hatfield,) was sent to Ft. Drewry (Darling) 
to remove the ordnance from that vicinity, a work which was com- 
pleted early in July. Major Hatfield, ordnance officer of the brigade, 
took personal charge of the shipment at this depot. 

The following table exhibits a complete list of the captured guns 
removed by my command. Very large quantities of ammunition, 
implements, carriages, etc., etc., were also shipped by it ; of which a 
stated return has been made to the Ordnance Department at Wash- 
ington. 



adjutant-general's report 



43 





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Lines of Petersburg, 

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Water Batteries Semmes to Fort Drewry, 

Fort Drewry, 

Land Batteries in rear of Chafin's, 

Water Batteries, Chafin's Bluff. 

Wreck of C. S. Gunboat " Drewry," 





44 adjutant-genebal's report. 

It will be noticed that the armament of the James River rebel 
batteries consisted of the heaviest sea-coast ordnance in use. The 
labor in its removal and shipment was excessive, requiring extensive 
digging, road-making, and wharf-making. It was skillfully and rap- 
idly performed by the officers and men of the 1 st Conn. Artillery, 
the only delay occurring from the want of proper vessels for the 
shipment. 

Among the ordnance removed by us was a 9-inch Dahlgren gun 
taken in good order from the wreck of the rebel gunboat " Drewry," 
which was sunk in the battle of January 24th, by a shell from a 100- 
pdr. Parrott, pointed by Sergt. (now Lieut.) G. L. Fox, of Co. H, 1st 
Conn. Artillery. This gun, it may be fairly claimed, was captured 
by the 1st Conn. Artillery, unaided by other troops. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

The following dates mark the gradual breaking up of the siege 
Artillery Brigade. On April 23d, Companies A and H, 13th N. Y. 
Artillery, were relieved. On May 1st, Companies E and M, 3d Pa. 
Artillery, were relieved. About May loth, the 7th N. Y. Independent 
Battery was relieved. On June 23d, the 3d Conn. Independent 
Battery was mustered out of service. The Brigade was formally 
declared to be dissolved by my order of June 29th, 1865. 

On May 4th, the 1st Conn. Artillery was transferred from the 
Army of the Potomac to the Army of the James, by order of Maj. 
Gen. Halleck. 

On May 6th, I was appointed Chief of Artillery, Department of 
Virginia, with head-quarters in Richmond, and was thus, for the first 
time, separated from the regiment. 

The command was turned over in orders to Lieut. Col. Ager, on 
June 18th. 

On July 11th, the regiment, including myself, was ordered to the 
Department of Washington. 

We started on July 13th, arrived in Alexandria on the 15th, and 
were immediately assigned to the 4th Brigade, Defences south of the 
Potomac, of which I was placed in command. We conducted a 
careful series of experimental firings with the 15-inch gun, shortly 
after our arrival. 

The regiment remained in garrison in the field works, with head- 
quarters at Fort Lyon, until Sept. 27th, when it started for Hartford, 
having been mustered out of the U. S. service on the 25th. 

It arrived on September 29th. After a handsome reception, followed 



adjutant-general's report. 45 

on the next day by a review and drill in the school of the brigade, 
before His Excellency Governor Buckingham, and Maj. Gen. Tyler, 
the 1st Conn. Artillery was finally discharged to date from Oct. 1st, 
1865. 

Since my last report we have lost by death Lieut. Col. Thomas S. 
Trumbull, and Lieut. John Odell. Both merit more than passing 
notice. 

Brave to excess ; possessed of an energy which seemed able to 
overcome not only outward obstacles, but even disease itself, when 
danger called ; well qualified by natural ability, by a fine education, 
and by studious habits, to perform the responsible duties of his high rank 
in the Artillery ; Lieut. Col. Trumbull was everything that T could 
desire as an assistant and as a friend. Although not dying* upon the 
battle-field, he is none the less a martyr to" the cause, for it was to 
exposures and labors undergone in the service that he owed his death. 

Lieut. Odell was a natural soldier, — possessed of bravery of the 
highest character, enthusiastic devotion to duty, and a fine power of 
command over men. He died as he would have wished, with his face 
to the enemy, bravely rallying his men to meet overwhelming odds, in 
the assault on Fort Stedman. 

Thanks to the approval and good offices of our old friend and com- 
mander, Maj. Gen'l Hunt, Chief of Artillery, Army of the Potomac, 
the following brevets have been conferred upon officers of the regiment 
upon my recommendation : 

That of Lieutenant-Colonel upon Major George Ager ; that of Ma- 
jor upon Captains C. O. Brigham, H. H. Pierce, S. P. Hatfield, W. 
G. Pride, W. A. Lincoln^ Jno. M. Twiss, G. D. Sargeant, C. R. Ban- 
nan, G. P. Mason, Geo. Dimock, W. C. Faxon, and B. P. Learned. 

That of Captain upon 1st Lieuts. H. A. Pratt, C. Gillette, W. H. 
Rogers, F. D. Bangs, E. P. Mason, H. D. Patterson, R. Lewis, Jno. 
O'Brien, T. D. Cashin, Geo. F. Bill, and S. A. Woodruff. 

That of 1st Lieutenant upon 2d Lieuts. A. Drown, C. W. Smith, 
W. H. H. Bingham, G. H. Couch, G. Reynolds, J. H. Casey, and C. 
N. Silliman. 

Private G. E. McDonald, Co. L, has in like manner received one 
of the Medals of Honor, voted by Congress for capturing a battle 
flag. 

My Staff and their duties remained the same as stated in my last 
report until the campaign terminated ; except that Lieut. C. W. Filer 
relieved Capt. Learned, as A. A. A. G. To them, and to the officers 



46 adjutant-general's report. 

and men of the regiment, every commendation is due for the prompt 
performance of duty. 

I cannot terminate this report — my last official act as Colonel of 
the brave old regiment which I have commanded for two years and 
seven months — without expressing the admiration and pride with 
which I regard it. Its record under Colonel (now General) R. O. 
Tyler is too well known to require notice at my hands. Subsequent 
to his promotion, when stationed in the Defences of Washington, it 
held confessedly the first rank for discipline and knowledge of its 
duties. During the past campaign its service has been most conspicu- 
ous and honorable, often exacting long continued and very exhaust- 
ing exposure to constant artillery and musketry fire — exposure which 
the Infantry and Light Artillery around it suffered in a much less 
degree, from being frequently relieved by fresh troops. 

In January last, unaided by our navy, it fought the entire rebel 
iron-clad fleet, and contributed materially to its repulse when a suc- 
cess would have been disastrous in the. extreme. 

In the battle of Petersburg Mine, and in the final assault of April 
2d, it played an important part. There have been instances — as at 
Ft. Dutton, Ft. Stedman, and in the assault on the rebel lines near 
Ft. Mahone, when the 1st Conn. Artillery has been brought into hand 
to hand conflict with the enemy — a thing of rare occurrence with its 
arm of service. On such occasions it has always acquitted itself with 
distinction. 

Since the successful issue of the campaign, while other troops have 
been resting, it has been hard at work removing the heaviest of the 
captured ordnance — a work involving so much professional skill that 
few others in the army could have performed it, in any reasonable 
time. During the entire two and a half years, the bickering and per- 
sonal jealousy so common among officers of our volunteer force, have 
been almost unknown with us, the honor of the regiment seeming to 
be the first object of ambition, with both officers and men. To have 
been associated with the 1st Connecticut Artillery will always be one 
of my proudest recollections. 

This being my final report, it seems proper to express what has 
long been my deliberate opinion, namely, that the character and suc- 
cess of the regiment is due in a very great degree to the judicious 
action of His Excellency Governor Buckingham, in laying down the 
principle that promotions in it should be conferred as rewards of 
merit, and not as personal favors. 

The vicious system of appointing officers for political services and 



adjutant-general's report. 47 

influence, which prevails in several of the states, has ruined the effi- 
ciency of many regiments. 

Vacancies in the 1st Conn. Artillery, with hardly an exception, have 
been filled in the following manner : — Each company commander is 
called upon for the name of his most meritorious non-commissioned 
officer ; — field officers add to the list at their pleasure. A board con- 
sisting of all the field officers, including the commanding officer, is 
then convened to carefully examine these candidates. As all the non- 
commissioned officers have been required to recite to their company 
commanders in both Artillery and Infantry text-books, the examina- 
tions are made quite tborough in these branches — usually exceeding 
half an hour to each man. When over, each field officer makes an in- 
dependent list of the candidates, placing them according to his esti- 
mate of their merit. These lists are examined by the regimental 
commander, compared with his own, and his nominations made accord- 
ingly to the Governor. 

In like manner officers of each grade, up to Captain inclusive, 
are examined by this board before being nominated for promotion. 
Without an exception, these nominations have been approved by His 
Excellency the Governor, and the commissions issued accordingly. As 
a general rule, officers are transferred from one company to another 
at each promotion, and non-commissioned officers are always pro- 
moted into a different company. 

This system has caused it to be well understood throughout the 
regiment, that promotion is only to be obtained by merit. A laud- 
able ambition is thus excited, the advantages of which are shown in 
the regimental record and in the character of the officers, who as a 
body are superior to those of any other volunteer regiment with 
which I am acquainted. Notwithstanding the fine material of which 
the regiment is composed, it would have been impossible with- 
out such officers to have maintained strict discipline during the last 
campaign, when for more than a year the regiment was scattered over 
a front often exceeding seventeen miles in extent, frequently subdi- 
vided into small fragments of companies, and constantly receiving 
raw recruits. When it was collected after the evacuation, I was sur- 
prised myself to see how it had borne this test, the men preserving 
almost the same cleanliness and soldierly appearance which bad so 
distinguished them in garrison. This result can only be attributed to 
the high character of the officers of all grades, which naturally fol- 
lows from the wise and patriotic course of His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor, in appointing them. 



48 adjutant-general's report. 

Lest it be supposed that natural partiality to the regiment, colors 
my judgment in relation to the effects of this system, the following 
extract from a recent letter received from Major-General Barry is 
added. His well-known reputation as an artillery officer must give 
great weight to his opinion with all judges. 

" As Chief of Artillery successively of the two principal armies of 
the U. S. during the four years of war, now happily ended, I have 
enjoyed personal opportunities for observation. You will on this ac- 
count value my opinion when I assure you that the 1st Conn. Artil- 
lery, in intelligence and the acquirements and services of its special 
arm, stands unrivaled in the armies of the United States." 
I am, General, 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

HENRY L. ABBOTT, 

Colonel 1st Conn. Artillery, 

Bvt. Major- General, Vols. 



Consolidated List of Casualties in First Conn. Artillery, 
from March 1st, 1865, to April, 1865. 

Casualties reported, March 2%th, 1865. 

KILLED. 

Company E. 
Private, James Smith, March 25th. 

Company K. 
1st Lieut., John Odell, March 25th. 
Privates, William Kaske, March 25th. 

Charles McPantan, March 25th. 

Company L. 
Private, Herman Foote, March 25th. 

WOUNDED. 
Company I. 

Captain, John M. Twiss, March 25th, slightly. 



Corporal, Patrick O'Brien, March 25th, since dead. 



adjutant-general's report. 49 

Privates, William Gallagher, March 25th. 

Patrick Duff, March 25th, since dead. 
Patrick J. Tracy, March 25th, slightly. 

Company L. 
Privates, Ira "Wakefield, March 25th. 
Andrew Kitchen, March 25th. 
John McGuire, March 25th. 
Elbert N. Norton, March 25th. 
Thomas Fury, March 25th, slightly. 

Casualties reported, March 29th, 1865. 

KILLED. 
Company I. 

Private, Levi Somers, March 28th. 

WOUNDED. 
Company I. 
Privates, R. B. Tucker, severely, in the hand, knee, thigh and groin, 
March 28th. 
Benjamin F. Reed, slightly in the foot, March 28th. 

Casualties reported, April &h, 1865. 

KILLED. 
Company L. 

Corporal, Charles Gray, April 2d. 

WOUNDED. 
Company D. 

Private, Emanuel Anthony, seriously wounded in arm, at Battery 
Anderson, April 2d, by premature explosion of cartridge 
in the gun. 

Company I. 

Privates, Richard B. Tucker, wounded by accidental explosion of shell, 
since died, March 29th. 
Levi W. Slauson, slightly wounded in hand by spherical 
case shell, in action before Petersburg, April 2d. 
4 



50. adjutant-general's report. 

Private, Francis Scallin, slightly wounded in breast by piece of 
spherical case shell, in action before Petersburg, April 2d. 

Company K. 

Privates, David B. Date, April 3d. 

Michael O'Rourke, April 3d. 

Company L. 

Qorporal, Leonard Comstock, slightly in hand by shell, before Peters- 
burg, March 29th. 
Privates, James T. Murphy, slightly wounded in arm by powder, be- 
fore Petersburg, March 29th. 

John Davis, slightly wounded in arm by musket-ball, at 
Battery before Petersburg, March 30th, 1865. 

James Fitzgerald, seriously wounded in leg by shell, in ac- 
tion before Petersburg, April 3d. 

Herman Niland, slightly wounded in leg by musket-ball, in 
action before Petersburg, April 3d. 



The First Regiment Heavy Artillery was organized as the 
Fourth Regiment Infantry, in the spring of 1861, and left 
for the seat of war, June 10th, 1861. It served as an in- 
fantry regiment until January 2d, 1862, when by special 
orders from the War Department, it was changed from in- 
fantry to heavy artillery, with the designation of First Regi- 
ment Connecticut Heavy Artillery. 

Soon after this the regiment was recruited to the artillery 
maximum, and on its muster-out rolls, are borne the names of 
thirty-three hundred and sixty-seven (3,367) officers and 
men. This number increased by four hundred and thirty-five 
(435) re-enlistments in the field, makes an aggregate of three 
thousand eight hundred and two (3,802) credited to this one 
organization. 

As an artillery regiment it was first assigned to duty in the 
forts comprising the " Defences of Washington," but upon 
the commencement of the Peninsular Campaign in 1862, the 
regiment accompanied the army under General McClellan, 
with a siege train of seventy-one pieces of artillery. 



adjutant-general's report. 51 

After having taken a most active part in that severe and 
arduous campaign, and having gained a well-earned reputa- 
tion for its efficiency, energy and success, in the management 
of the heavy guns of the army, the regiment returned to the 
Defences of "Washington, and again resumed the occupation 
of the forts about the capital. With the exception of Com- 
panies B and M, which were attached to the Reserve Artil- 
lery of the Army of the Potomac, the regiment remained in 
the performance of garrison duty, until the spring of 186-i. 

On the 10th of May, 1861, the regiment, after organizing a 
siege train, was ordered to Bermuda Hundred, Va., and was 
immediately assigned to active service as siege artillery of 
the Army of the Potomac and Army of the James. In this 
capacity it served until the evacuation of Petersburg and 
Richmond by the rebel forces in April, 1865 ; and full reports 
of its extensive operations during the year can be found in 
this and my preceding report to your Excellency. 

On the 11th of July, 1865, the regiment returned again to 
the Defences of Washington, and on the 25th of September, 
1865, was mustered out, after having been in the United 
States service four years and four months. 

The regiment has taken part in the following 

engagements. 

Siege of Yorktown, Va., from April 30th to May 4th, 1862. 

Hanover Court House, Va., May 27th, 1862. 

Gaines' Mill, Va., from May 31st to June 20th, 1862. 

Chickahominy, Va., June 25th, 1862. 

Golding's Hill, Va., June 27th, 1862. 

Malvern Hill, Fa., July 1st, 1862. 

Siege of Fredericksburg, Va., from December 11th to De- 
cember 15th, 1862. (Batteries B and M.) 

Before Fredericksburg, Va., from April 28th to May 6th, 
1863. (Battery M.) 

Before Fredericksburg, Va., from June 5th to June 13th, 
1863. (Battery M.) 

Kelly's Ford, Va., November 7th, 1863. (Battery M.) 



52 adjutant-general's report. 

Orange Court House, Va., November 30th, 1864. (Bat- 
tery B.) 

Siege of Petersburg and Richmond, Va., from May, 1864, 
to April, 1865. (Eleven months of active operations.) 

Fort Fisher, N. C, January 14th and 15th, 1865. 

Since its organization it has met with the following 

CASUALTIES. 

Killed in action, - - - - 26 

Died of wounds, 23 

Died of disease, - 161 

Discharged prior to muster out of regiment, 1071 

1281 



adjutant-general's report. 



53 



SECOND REGIMENT HEAVY ARTILLERY. 



Name and Rank. 



Date of 
Commission. 



Colonels. 
Lcverett Wessells, 
Elisha S. Kellogg, 
James Hubbard, 
Ranald S. Mackenzie 
James Hubbard, 

Lieut. Colonels. 
Elisha S. Kellogg, 
Nathaniel Smith, 
James Hubbard, 
Jeffrey Skinner, 
Wm.B. Ells, 

Majors. 
Nathaniel Smith, 
James Hubbard, 
Wm. B. Ells, 
James Q. Rice, 
Jeffrey Skinner, 
Edward W. Jones, 
Chester D.Cleveland 
Augustus H. Fenn, 

Adjutants. 
Chas. J. Deming, 
Bushrod H. Camp, 

Quarter-Master. 

Bradley D. Lee, 

Chaplains. 

Jona.A Wainwright, 

Winthrop H. Phelps, 

Surgeon. 
Henry Plumb, 

\st Asst. Surgeons. 
Jeremiah W. Phelps, 
John \V. Lawton, 
Robert G. Hazzard, 
2d Asst. Surgeons. 
John W. Lawton, 
Robert G. Hazzard, 
Judson B. Andrews, 
Chas. Tomlinson, 

Captains. 
William Bissell, 
James Hubbard, 
James Q. Rice, 
William B. Ells, 
Jeffrey Skinner, 
Edward W. Jones, 
Edward F. Gold, 
George S. Williams, 



Litchfield, 
Derby, 
Salisbury, 
U. S. Army, 
Salisbury, 

Derby, 
Woodbury, 
Salisbury, 
W. Winsted, 
Plymouth, 

Woodbury, 
Salisbury, 
Plymouth, 
Goshen, 
W. Winsted, 
New Hartford 
Barkhamsted, 
Plymouth, 

Litchfield, 
Harwinton, 



Torrington, 
Barkhamsted, 



Torrington, 
Naugatuck, 
New Haven, 

Naugatuck, 
New Haven, 
New Haven, 
New Haven, 

Litchfield, 
Salisbury, 
Goshen, 
Plymouth, 
W. Winsted, 
New Hartford 
Cornwall, 
New Milford, 



July 
Oct. 
June 
June 
Jan. 

Aug. 
Nov. 
May 
Jan. 
June 



Aug. 
Nov. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
May 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Jan. 

Aug. 
Sept. 



28,1862 
23,1 

9,1864 
28,1864 

7.1865 



1,1862 
12,1863 



Aug. 1,1862 



Sept. 
May 



8,1862 



Aug. 16,1862 



Sept. 
Oct. 
July 

Aug. 
Oct. 
July 
Aug. 

Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 

Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 



5,1862 
28,1862 
21,1863 

16,1862 

28,1862 

21,1863 

1,1 

1,1 

1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1 



Resigned Sept. 15, 1863. 

Killed in action June 1, 186'A. 

Declined Commission. 

Pomoted Brig. Gen. Dec. 2S, 1864. 

Bvt. Brig. Gen. Must, oui Aug.18/65. 

Promoted/ Coloael Oct. 23, 1863L 
Resigned for disability May 6, 1864. 
Promoted Colonel Jan. 7, 1865. 
Mustered out Ang. 18, 1865. 
Com. vacated as- Lt. Col. H. declined. 
[Com. as Col. 
Promoted Lt. Col. Nov. S, 1863. 
Promoted Lt. Col. May 13, 1864. 
Honorably discharged Dec. 24, 1864. 
Killed in action Sept. 19, 1864. 
Promoted Lt. Col. Jan. ?, 1865. 
Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 

'" " 18, 1865. 

" " 18, 1865. 

Resigned July 30, 1863. 
Discharged for disability, No,y. 5, '64. 

Promoted Captain Feb. 17,1864. 

Resigned Jan. 20, 1863^ 
Mustered out Aug. 18> 1865. 

Honorably discharged Aug. 12, 1865. 

Resigned Sept. 15, 1862. 

Must, out toent. U. S. A. Apr. 4/63. 

Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Promoted 1st Asst. Surg. Oct. 28, '62. 
Promoted lst.Asst.Surg. July 21/63. 
Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Mustered out June 5, 1865a 

Resigned July 21, 1863\ 
Promoted Major Nov. 5, 186& 
'*• Feb. 17, 1864.' 
" « Feb. 6, 1864, 

« " May 13, 1864, 

" Oct. 8, 1864. 
Resigned and disch'd Feb. 21, 1865. 
Resigned M,ch. 1.6, 1864,. 



54 



adjutant-general's report. 

Second Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



Name and Rank. 



Residence. 



Date of 
Commission. 



Remarks. 



Captains. 
Eli Spcrrv, 
Edward 0. I'eck, 
Luman Wadhams, 
William T. Spencer, 
Wm. H. Lewis, Jr., I 
Bradley D. Lee, 
Edward W. Marsh, 
James Dcanc, 
Benj. F. Hosford, 
Frederick M. Berry, 
Augustus H. Fenn, 
Walter Bnrnham, 
Orrin H. Knight, 
Alex. B. Sluimway, 
Robert A. Potter, 
Morris H. Sanford, 
Chester D. Cleveland 
Gad N. Smith, 
Daniel E. Marsh, 
Hubbard E. Tuttle, 
James N. Coe, 
Theodore F. Vaill, 
Michael Keller, 
Henry S. McKinney, 
Orlow J. Smith, 
Henry Skinner, 

ls( Lieutenants. 
Luman Wadhams, 
Frederick A. Cook, 
Wm. T. Spencer, 
Win. H. Lewis, Jr. 
Benj. F. Hosford, 
James Deane, 
Gideon 1). Crane, 
Frederick M. Berry, 
Lyman Tcaier, 
Augustus H. Fenn, 
Walter Bumham, 
Orrin H. Knight, 
Alex. B. Shumway 
Robert A Potter, 
Morris H. Sanford, 
Chester D.Cleveland 
Wilbur W. Birge, 
John M. Gregory, 
James N. Coe, 
Oliver P. Loomis, 
Wm. McK. Rice, 
Gad X. Smith, 
Theodore F. Vaill, 
Philip E. Chapin, 
Edwin S. Hubbard, 
Franklin J. Cnndee, 
Warren Alford, 
James P. McCabe, 



Woodbury, 

Litchfield, 

Litchfield, 

Torrington. 

Watertown, .- 

Barkhams!ed,Feb. 

New,Milford, Feb. 



Aug. 

Sept. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Nov. 



Canaan, 

W. Winsted, 

Kent, 

Plymouth, 

Washington, 

Salisburv, 

Litchfield, 

Plymouth, 

Torrington, 

Barkhamstcd 



Feb. 
Mch. 
Mch 
Mch. 
April 
June 
July 
Aug. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Cornwall, INov. 

New Milford,jJan. 

Torrington, Jan. 

W. Winsted, Feb. 

Litchfield, Mch. 

Sharon, 

Woodbury, 

Winchester, 

Winchester, 



Mch. 
Mch. 

Mch. 
Mch. 



Litchfield, 

Goshen, 

Torrington, 

Watertown, 

W. Winsted, 

Canaan, 

Woodbury, 

Kent, 

Sharon, 

Plymouth, 

Washington, 

Salisburv, 

Litchfield, 

Plymouth, 

Torrington, 

Barkhamstcd 

Torrington, 

Cornwall, 

W. Winsted, 

Colcbrook, 

Goshen, 

Cornwall, 

Litchfield, 

New Hartford Mch. 

Salisbury, Mch. 

Plymouth, Mch. 

New Hartford Mch 

Goshen, Mch 



Aug. 
Aug. 
'Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Ang. 
Aug. 
Dec. 
Mch. 
July 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Nov. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 



1,1862 Resigned Mch. 30, 1864. 

4,1862 " July 25, 1863. 

11,1863 Killed in action June 1, 1864. 
11,186.3 Mustered out July 20, 1865. 

20.1863 Honorably discharged Jan. 2.">, 1865. 

17.1864 Com. revoked Mch. 22, '64, app'd A. 
17,1864 Must, out July 20/65. |C.S. ofVols. 
19,1864 Mustered out July 20, 1865. 
15,1864 Killed in action Oct. 19, 1864. 
26,1864 Died of wounds Sept. 28, 1864. 
31,1864 Promoted .Major Jan. 7, 1865. 
21,1864 Honorably discharged Feb. 23, 1865. 
21,1864 Died July 6, 1864. 

11,1864 Honorably discharged Feb. 4, 1865. 
12,1864 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
22.1864 Discharged (as 1st Lt.) Jan. 13, '65. 
22,18641'romoted Major Jan. 7, 1865. 

30.1864 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
7, 18651 " " " 18, 1865. 
7,1865 " " " 18, 1865. 
4,1865| " " " 18, 1S65. 
2,1865 Must, out (as 1st Lt.) Ang. 18, 1865. 
2,1865 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
2,1865 Honorably discharged Aug. 23, 1865. 

30.1865 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
30,1865 " " " 18, 1865. 

1,1862 Promoted Captain Aug. 11, 1863. 
1,1862 Resigned June 5. 1868. 
1,1862 Promoted Captain Aug. 11, 1863. 
1,1862| " " Nov. 20, 1863. 

1,1862 " " Mch. 15, 1864. 

1,1862| " " Feb. 19, 1864. 

1,1862 Resigned Dec. 26, 1862. 
l,1862,Promotcd Captain Mch. 26, 1864. 
l,1862Rcsigned Mch. 2, 1868. 

1.1862 Promoted Captain Mch. 31, 1864. 

26.1862 " " Apr. 21, 1864. 

21.1863 " " June 21, 1864. 

8.1863 " " July 11, 1864.- 
11,1863 " " Aug. 12, 1864. 
11,1863 " " Oct. 22, 1864. 

20.1863 " " Oct. 22, 1864. 

6.1864 Honorably discharged Sept. 7, 1S64. 
6,1864; " ' " Jan. 10, 1865. 
6,1864 Promoted Captain Feb. I, 1865. 
6,1864 Honorably discharged Aug 30, 1864. 
1,1864 I )ied of disease Nov. 8, I 86 I 
6,1864 Promoted Captain Nov. 3D, 1864. 
6,1864 " " Mch. 2, 1865. 
5,1864 Honorably discharged Oct. 17, 1864. 

31.1864 " ' " Dec.31,1864. 
31,1864 Killed in action Sept. 19, 1SG4. 
31,1864 Discharged for disability Apr.20,'65. 
31, 1864, Died of wounds Oct. 3,' 1864. 



adjutant-general's report. 55 

Second Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



Name and Rank. Residence. 



Date of 
Commission 



Remarks. 



1st Lieutenants. 
Edward C. Huxley, Goshen 
Orlow J. Smith, [Winchester, 
Henry Skinner, 
Daniel E. Marsh, 
Hubbard E. Tuttle 
Michael Kelley, 
Orsamus R. Tyler, 
Joseph E. Fenn, 
Henry S. MeKinney, 
Wm. L. Twiss, 
John E. Wheeler, 
James W. Dixon, 
Dwight C. Kilbourn, 
Homer S. Curtis, iWarren. 
James M. Snowden, New Haven, 
Lewis Manger, Plymouth, 

Chas. A. Reynolds, ; Winchester, 
John E. Sedgwick, 
David C. Munson, 
Orville B. Tiffany 



Winchester 

New Milford, 

Torrington, 

Sharon, 

Torrington, 

Plymouth, 

Woodbury, 

No. Canaan, 

New Hartforc 

Hartford, 

Litchfield, 



Litchfield, 

Torrington, 

Barkhamsted 



Salmon A. Granger,; Winchester, 



Wm. A. Hosford : 
Heman ElUs, 
Henry R. Hoyt, 
Homer W. Griswold, 

2d Lieutenants. 
Alex. B. Shumway, 
Orrin H. Knight, 
Morris H. Sanford, 
Robert A. Potter, 



New Haven 
Hartford, 
New Milford, 
Goshen, 

Litchfield, 
Salisbury, 
Torrington, 
Plymouth; 



Chester D.Cleveland Barkhamsted, 



Oliver P. Loomis, 
John M. Gregory, 
Walter Burn ham, 
George E. Betts, 
James N. Coe, 
Wilber W. Birge, 
Edward W. Marsh 
Wm McK. Rice, 
Hiram D. Gaylord 
Edwin S. Hubbard 
Dwight C. Kilbourn, 
Wm. H. Cogswell, 
Michael Kelley, 
Orsamus R. Tyler, 
Geo. B Hempstead, 
Jas. P. McCabe, 
Calvin B. Hatch, 
Hubbard E. Tuttle, 
Orlow J. Smith, 
Edward C. Huxley, 
Horace Hubbard, 
George K. Hyde, 
Franklin J- Candee, 
Daniel E. Marsh, 



Colebrook, 

Cornwall, 

Washington, 

Woodbury, 

W. Winsted, 

Torrington, 

New Milford, 

Goshen, 

Norfolk, 

Salisbury, 

Litchfield, 

Cornwall, 

Sharon, 

Torrington, 

Litchfield, 

Goshen, 

New Preston 

Torrington, 

Winchester, 

Goshen, 

Plymouth, 

Torrington, 

Plymouth, 

New Milford, j Jan. 



Mch. 

July 

Aug. 

Oct. 
Oct. 

Nov. 
Nov. 
Not. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 
Mch. 

Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Nov. 
Dec. 
Mch. 
July 
Aug. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Jan. 



1864 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
1864 Promoted Captain Mch. 30, 1865. 



31 
11, 
12, 

8. 
8, 

18 

18! 

30 

30 

30 

30 

14 

4,1865 
4,1865 
4,1865 
4,1865 
2,1865 
2,1865 



Mch. 30, 1865. 
" Jan. 7, 1865. 
" " Jan. 7, 1865. 

Mch. 2, 1865. 
Discharged (as2dLt.) Mch. 9, 1S65- 
Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
1864;Promoted Captain Mch. 2, 1865. 
1864;Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
1864|Honorably discharged May 15, 1865 
1865 Mustered out July 20,1865. 
" " Aug. 18, 1865. 
" " " 18, 1865. 
" 18, 1865. 
" 18, 1865. 
Decl'd & Com. revoked Mch. 31, '65. 
Must, out (as 2d Lt.) Aug. 15, 1865. 
2,1865,Mustercdout Aug. 18, 1865. 
2,1865,Decl'd & Com. revoked Mch. 27, '65. 
2,1865 " " " Apr. 27, '65. 

2,1865 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 
2,1865jDecl'd & Com. revoked Mch. 27, '65. 
2,1865 Mustered out Aug. 18,1865. 
2,1865Decl'd & Com. revoked Mch. 27, '65. 

l,1862|Promoted 1st Lieut. July 8, 1863. 



ism 



1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 
1,1862 



Mch. 21, 1863. 
Aug. 11, 1863. 
'* 11,1863. 
Nov. 20, 1863. 
Feb. 6, LS64. 
Feb. 6, 1864. 
Dec. 26,1862. 



Resigned Nov. 25, 

4, 1862] Promoted 1st Lieut. Feb. 6, 1864. 
25,1862' " " " 6,1864. 

26,1862'Promoted Captain Feb. 17, 1864. 

2,1863;Promoted 1st Lieut. Feb. 6, 1864. 

8.1863 Died Nov. 19, 1863, while 1st Sergt. 
21,1863lPromoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 31, 1864. 

6,1864: " " Feb. 4,1865. 

6.1864 Died of wounds Oct. 6, 1864. 
6,1864;Promoted 1st Lieut. Nov. 18, 1864. 
6,1864 " " " 18,1864. 
6,1864,Died of wounds June 30, 1864. 
6,1864jPromoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 31, 1864. 
6,1864 Missing since June 1, 1864. 
6,1864|Promoted 1st Lieut. Oct. 8, 1864. 
6,1864 " •' July 11,1864. 
6,186-4 " " Mch. 31,1864. 
6,1864'Killed in action Sept. 19, 1864. 
6,1864,Honorably discharged Oct. 23,1864. 

26,1864lPromoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 31, 1864. 
26,1864! " " Oct. 8, 1864. 



56 adjutant-general's report, 

Second Regiment Heavy Artillery — Continued. 



Name and Rank. 


Residence. 


Date of 
Commission. 


Remarks. 


2d Lieutenant. 












Warren Alford, New Hartford 


Jan. 


26,1864 


Promoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 31 


1864. 


John E. Wheeler, New Hartford 


Feb. 


6,1864 


Nov. 30 


1864. 


Henry S. MeKinney, Woodbury, 


Feb. 


6,1864 


" 30 


1864. 


David R. Norman, Bridgeport, 


Feb. 


19,1864 Dismissed Sept. 1, 1864. 




James M. Snowden, New Haven, 


Feb. 


25,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Feb. 4, 


865. 


Lewis Munger, Plymouth, 


Mch. 


15,1864 " " " 4, 


1865. 


Oscar Piatt, Sherman, 


Mch. 


15,1864 Discharged Jan. 18, 1865. 




Henry Skinner, 


Winchester, 


Mch. 


15,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Aug. 12 


1864. 


Homer S. Curtis, 


Warren, 


Apri! 


21,1864 " " Feb. 4, 


1865. 


William L. Twiss, 


No. Canaan, 


Apri 


21,1864! " " Nov. 30 


1864. 


Austin P. Kirkham, 


Derby, 


Sept. 


5,1864 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 




Joseph E. Fenn, 


Plymouth, 


Sept 


16,1864 Promoted 1st Lieut. Nov. 30 


1864. 


Charles P. Traverse, Sharon, 


Oct. 


8,1864iMustered out July 20, 1865. 




Frederick A. Lucas, Goshen, 


Oct. 


8,1864 " " Aug. 18, 1865. 




Chas. A. Reynolds, Winchester, 
Salmon A. Granger, Winchester, 


Oct. 


8,1864 


" 18, 1865. 




Nov. 


18,1864 


" July 20, 1865. 




John E. Sedgwick, Litchfield, 


Nov. 


18,1864 


Promoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 2, 


1865. 


David C. Munson, Torrington, 


Nov. 


30,1864 


« « « 2i 


1865. 


Orville B. Tiffany Barkhatnsted, 


Nov. 


30,1864 


Mustered oat Aug. 18, 1865. 




Homer W. Griswold, Goshen, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" " July 20, 1865. 




Amzi P. Clark, Plymouth, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" Aug. 18, 1865. 




William E. Cooper, Winchester, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" " 18,1865. 




Henry S. Dean, Sharon, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


Declined Commision. 




Chas. F. Anderson, iNew Milford, 


Feb. 


4,1865 Mustered out Aug. 18,1865. 




Henrv R. Hoyt, |New Milford, 


Feb. 


4,1865 Promoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 2, 


1865. 


George D. Stone, |LitchfieId, 


Feb. 


4,1865 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 




Admatha Bates, iSalisbury, 


Feb. 


4,1865 " " July 20, 1865. 




William A. Hosford, New Haven, 


Feb. 


4,1865 Promoted 1st Lieut. Mch. 2, 


1865. 


Heman Ellis, jHartford, 


Feb. 


4,1865 Mustered out Aug. 18, 1865. 




Joseph Pettit, Winchester, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" " " 18, 1865. 




David E. Soule, New Milford, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" 18, 1865. 




Seneca Edgett, [Newtown, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" " July 20, 1865. 




Frederick M. Cook, Winchester, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" " Aug. 18, 1865. 




A. N. Lamareaux, Derby, 


Feb. 


4,1865 


" " " 18, 1865. 




Calvin L. Davis, Litchfield, 


Mch. 


30,1865 


" 18, 1865. 




Thomas Hall, Wallingford, 


Feb. 


7,1865 " " July 20, 1865. 





BREVET COMMISSIONS 
Issued to Officers of 2d Regiment Heavy Artillery. 



Name and Rank. 


Brevet Rank. 


Date of 
Brevet Commission. 


Colonel James Hubbard, 


Brigadier-General, 


April 6,1865. 


Major Jeffrey Skinner, 


Lieutenant-Colonel, 


October 19, 1864. 


" Chester D. Cleveland, 


" 


April 6, 1865. 


" Augustus H. Fenn, 


" 


April 6, 186-. 


" Edward W. Jones, 


" 




Captain Augustus H. Fenn, 


Major, 


October 19, 1864. 


" James Deane, 


" 


April 6,1865. 


" Michael Kelly, 


" 


April 2,1865. 


Gad N. Smith, 


" 


April 2, 1865. 


1st Lieut John M. Gregory, 


Captain, 


January 23, 1865. 


, " Homer S. Curtiss, 


" 


April 6, 1865. 


" Lewjs Munger, 


" 


April 2, 1865. 


2d Lieut. Chas. F. Anderson, 


1st Lieutenant, 


April 6, 1865. 



adjutant-general's report. 57 

Head-Quarters 2d Conn. Artillery \ 
March 30th, 1865. ' ) 
Brig. Gen. H. J. Morse, 

Adjutant-General State of Connecticut, 

Hartford, Conn. 
General : 

I have the honor to enclose herewith the list of casualties in the 
2d C. V. A., in the engagement of March 25th, 1865, near Peters- 
burg, Va. 

JAMES HUBBARD, 

Col. 2d C. V. A., Commanding. 

Nominal List of Casualties in the 2d Conn. Artillery, in the action of 
March 25th, 1865. 

KILLED. 

Sergt. Maj., E. Goodwin Osborne. 

Company B. 
Corporal, John Best. 

Company G. 
Private, Sylvester Prout. 

Company I. 
Privates, David Cramer. 

Thomas Wheeler. 

WOUNDED. 

1st Lieut, and Adjt., Theodore F. Vaill, thigh, severe. 

Company A. 
Sergeant, William Smith, foot, slight. 
Corporal, Horace N. Williams, face, severe. 

Company D. 
Sergeant, David A. Bradley, thigh, severe. 
Privates, Geo. E. Atwood, ankle, slight. 

Harvey Bronson, shoulder, severe. 

William A. Stoddard, leg, slight. 



58 adjutant-general's report. 

Company G. 
Sergeant, Charles R. Swift, shoulder, severe. 
Corporal, William Clinton, leg, slight. 

Dwight C. Studley, both arms, severe. 

Company I. 
Private, Henry C. Rogers, hand, severe. 

Company L. 
2c? Lieut., Admatha Bates, foot, slight. 
Corporal, John Holt, mouth, slight. 

Company M. 
Private, Selah Wheeler, neck, severe. 
James Fay, thigh, severe. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Killed, Enlisted men, - - 5 

Wounded, Commissioned Officers, ' - - 2 

Enlisted men, - - - - 13 

Total, .... 20 



Head-Quarters 2d Conn. Artillery, ") 
Near Berksville, Va., April 16th, 1865. ) 

Brig. Gen. H. J. Morse, 

Adjutant- General Connecticut. 

Hartford, Conn. 
General : 

I have the honor to forward herewith the following list of casual- 
ties in the 2d Conn. Artillery in the assault on the enemy's lines at 
Petersburg, Va., April 2d, and in action at Sailor's Creek, Va., April 
6th, 1865. 

Assault, April 2d, at Petersburg, Va. 

WOUNDED. 
Lieut. Col., Jeffrey Skinner, side, severe. 

Company B. 

Corporal, Daniel Clark, foot, slight. 
Private, George Mansfield, hand, slight. 



adjutant-general's report. 59 

Company F. 
Sergeant, James H. Hakes, hand, slight. 
Private, William C. Gardner. 

Company G. 
Private, Patrick Murphy, hand, slight. 

Company L. 

Corporal, George Babcock, hand, slight. 
Private, John Owens, hand, slight. 

Action at Sailor's Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. 
WOUNDED. 
Company D. 
Privates, Emory W. Castle, leg, severe. 

Erastus W. Converse, thigh, severe. 

Company F. 
Corporal, Seth Haskins, shoulder, severe. 
Privates, Charles Griswold, thigh, severe. 
James Hyde, arm, slight. 

Company H. 
Private, Charles A. Way, arm, slight. 

Company I